Brief Introduction to Youth, Crime and Delinquency
In England and Wales, minimum age for criminal responsibility is 10 by considering intelligence and sense of understanding. By considering the present statistics, it can be noticed that rate of youth crime is continuously increasing. According to the survey done by British Survey, it has been discovered that youth is easily attracted to the criminal activities. They are motivated or influenced by their surrounding to get engaged in such kind of acts. Existing evidence regarding this subject matter, represents that young people has higher percentage for offending activities in comparison to adults. There are several reason due to which youth is forced to do criminal acts such as inappropriate upbringing, influence of wrong people, harsh family environment, anger due to lack of resources of etc. According to the youth, legal system is responsible for their situation thus they act in anger or to avail justice. Present study is focused on the aspect of youth crime along with their reasons and consequences (Warren, 2012). For better explanation of the situation, examples of different countries will be provided along with the appropriate source.
Delinquency can be defined as participation of minor in the illegal activities or behaviour. In legal language minors that are engaged in these kinds if activities are known as juveniles. Main reason of the increase in statistics of youth crime is improper facilities or injustice by the legal regime. Youth criminals either are victimised or they are provoked to get engaged in these acts. For example, due to the lower income and poor housing young people are engaged in crime of theft or robbery. It is because they are not able to satisfied their needs with the available resources. As a consequence, they have to act in uncivil manner to satisfy their necessities.
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According to the report of Vaughan, 12% of criminal activities is related with the robbery and theft. By considering the figure of UK crime statistics, it can be noticed that theft and handling covers 19% part. Other reason of increasing youth crime is deteriorated inner city areas. Such residential areas affect the upbringing of the youth. In these areas, people consumes drugs and they are closely connected to illegal activities (Vaughan, 2011). Thus, for their benefit, they provide greed to the youth of drugs and money and make them involved in their criminal business. At initial level they enjoy these activities because they can make more money with fewer efforts. However, after that they have to face severe consequences. Along with this, they get addicted to the drugs due to which they need money and they again get connected to criminal activities.
Due to the poor financial resources, youth does not education. As a result, they have low intelligence and they are not able to make difference in wrong and right doings. This aspect is also supported by poor supervision by parents and erratic and harsh discipline. With the all these facts, youth is frustrated and leaded to the criminal activities. They do not respect the rule of societies and they enjoy the feeling of pain (Çerekja, 2014). In addition to this, if child has to face parental conflict and broken families then they are not connected with the families and they made perception that outsiders care for them. As a result, they started getting disconnected with the family members. In this situation theory of end to end integrated theory can be applied.
Delinquent behaviour of individual is due to disconnection of bond with family and increasing relation with delinquent friends. With this aspect, they are connected to drug consumption and get engaged in minor criminal activities. Individuals are get connected to the criminal offences due to aggressions and hyperactivity. In addition to this, Antisocial attitudes and beliefs attracts youth to the criminal activities. In absence of IQ they believe that main reasons of unjustifiable acts with this inappropriate system of government. This aspect is supported by Low socio-economic status/poverty and Antisocial parents. Youth is less connected with their parents due to which they have not proper guidance regarding differentiation between good and bad acts. Youth criminals either are exploited or they are aggravated to get engaged in these criminal acts. Due to the lower income and poor housing young people are engaged in crime of theft or robbery. They are not able to satisfied their needs with the available resources as a consequence they have to act in uncivil manner to satisfy their necessities.
Report of Goldson represents the percentage of young offenders caught by police in 2001 and 2003 along with reasons. According to this report, positive change can only be noticed in the crime occurred due improper action of court. If youth is not able to achieve justice, then they will be leaded to the criminal activities. Reduction in this percentage shows that court has improved their system and they had taken action to provide justice to the victims. Figures of 2001 shows that crime was committed by victim because court had not provided them fair just in accordance with their injury or pain or losses. Thus, with the feeling of revenge or anger crime was committed by them. Excluding this aspect, there is increase in percent of all other aspect of crimes. Other reasons are comparatively minor but these had affected the mind or thinking of youth (Goldson and Muncie, 2006). If they had apologized to victim or they had to pay money to the court for their act, then they are again engaged in criminal activities. According to recent statistics of UK, it has been noticed that most of the offenders again commit the offence after releasing from the jail. However, there is reduction in this data over the year by the improved system of court.
To prevent these factors, protective actions can be taken by reformer in the programme developed for the purpose of rehabilitation. They should provide positive social orientation along with the perceived endorsement for offensive acts. Programmes designed for the purpose of reform should aim to enhance the IQ of the offenders (Hartjen, 2008). By this approach, offenders will be able to understand the adverse consequence of criminal activities for them and society. Along with this, they will be able to get better vision in order to lead better life. In the development programmes of rehabilitation family member should also be involved. They should be motivated to provide supportive and warm relationships to the minors so they can grow up in better monitoring and parental love.
To reduce the increasing number of several policies has been implemented by Parliament of UK in order to resolve prevailing rate of crime. There are judicial systems which controls the crime and criminals to act illegal with other human beings. It is observed that law has provides resources to monitor and control the crime through punishments like death sentence, life imprisonment, sort of imprisonment etc. for acting against set rules and principles by law in a constitution (Junger-Tas, and et. al. 2012). With the change in time, it is understood that justice for youth body needs to be changes. Today, youth is getting distract on a wrong path through which they harm society and other youth. They are required to be treated in such a manner that crime could be stopped instead of criminals. So there should be legal practices which can make better young generation with effective penalization system. For this purpose concept of juvenile court has been introduced. Concept of juvenile court is based on the model of youth justice and welfare.
Model of youth justice and welfare suggests that procedure of justice should be adaptable and for this purpose various professionals should be involved. It is because, criminal is minor and they have their complete life with them (Vaughan, 2011). Thus, for better justice situational approaches are implemented by court by law by considering reasons and situation of offending. Decision of the case is taken by person orientation approach. One of the major advantage of this approach is welfare of child. Prior to this approach, no single event had contributed towards the young offenders and their family. By this approach, treatment of delinquency is revolutionizes and neglect the other aspects.
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In USA, American Juvenile Justice System is used by legal regime in order to address legal issues related to the youth. By using this approach they provide decision for the victim and offender who are caught and convicted of crimes. They intervene in delinquent behaviour of offender through court, correctional involvement and police (Sharma, Mahto, and Mishra, 2014). This process is largely punitive. In addition to this, youth and their guardians has to face several consequences such as Youth court, Youth incarceration, probation and alternative schooling due to American Juvenile Justice System.
Despite of certain benefits there are various criticisms associated with the approach of juvenile justice reform in the US. Major criticism to this approach is unfair treatment with the offenders. They are being victimized by the judicial system due to which they are influenced to get re-connected to criminal activities for the purpose of revenge or due to the anger. It is because, reform in US is mainly focused on the root of economic and racial divergences in the imprisoned youth population. In the juvenile justice system, school to prison pipeline is used as mechanism for the rehabilitation of offenders (Nova, 2013). These schools are run by the policy of zero tolerance due to which there is increase in number of people who are facing detention. Due to this aspect, there is increase in issue of youth of colour, Low-income youth, and youth with learning and cognitive disabilities.
Research in US regarding juvenile incarceration and prosecution reveals that offending activities committed by youth is due to negative and positive transitions in the life such as education and family environment. According to the development theories (in aspect of law), teenagers who are involved in the process of judicial process or court dealing are comparatively more disruption in transitions of life. As a consequence, this aspect lead them to delinquent behaviour. In addition to this, it has been argued by Rojas, that teenagers are adversely affected by the system of juvenile court due to their ineffective public policies. At present, juvenile system is not effective to provide assurance that they will provide benefit to all the youth offenders dealing with mental and health issues. Moreover, they are resolve issue of race and colour discrimination (Rojas, 2012).
In order to resolve issue of juvenile justice reform in the US several suggestions has been proposed by the criminologists and other researchers. Initially management of juvenile justice reform should prevent discrimination. In addition to this, programmes under these regimes should be developed for the purpose of rehabilitation instead of punishment (Warren, 2012). Further, zero tolerance policies is suggested to be eliminated because its overwhelms the system of justice with low risk offenders. It has been also suggested that over representation of minor should be stopped because it enhances the discrimination. Instead of this approach, there should be equal behaviour with offenders with suitable educational programmes.
In UK approach of juvenile justice reform has been implemented by the provisions of UK: Children Act 1908. It is also known as Charter of Children. As per this justice reform, it has been assumed that juveniles are comparatively less responsible for their offensive acts in comparison to adult offenders. For better rehabilitation of juveniles, separate juvenile courts has been developed by Parliament of UK (Slapper and Kelly, 2011). This court specially deals with minor offenders and destitute or troubled offenders. Under this approach, restriction has been imposed on sentencing of youth offenders. Instead of provision of sentencing approach of youth incarcerated has been selected. It is because objective of Youth court is rehabilitation instead of punishment. For the achievement of this objective, use of probation is made by judicial persons.
In this approach there is always issue of tension between welfare and justice. It is because if court is more focused on the welfare of the offender then it will not be justifiable for the victim. For example, if youth offender is engaged in the criminal act of sexual offence and he is not imprisoned due to the minority age, then it will not be fair just for the victim. In addition to this, programmes of rehabilitation does not effective impact on the life of the offender. Thus, these programmes are used as defence by them to prevent or reduce their punishment for criminal act (Hussain and Ishaq, 2008). By considering the criminal statistics of UK, similar fact has been noticed that individual engaged in severe criminal activities again get engaged in criminal activities after completion of the period of rehabilitation. In such cases approach of juvenile justice reform is contradictory. By considering this aspect, it can be said that juvenile justice reform should not be used for all the youth criminals. It should be implemented as situational approach.
Gangs plays vital role in the increment of youth crime and rate of youth criminals. In order to achieve their antisocial motives they need to people who can work for them. Due to this aspect, they provoke youngsters to get involved in criminal activities. Gangs can be defined as group of person who are engaged in act of criminal offences. They aim to incur injury or harm to the society for the sake of religion or other similar factor. By considering the criminal British statistics it can be noticed that British gangs had supported the growth of violence.
In accordance with the study of Omboto, emergence of Street gangs is at different times and in different regions. Factors that affect the emergence of gang are growing cities, immigration, overcrowding in urban areas, increasing corruption and racial tensions (Omboto and et.al., 2013). Gangs take benefit of these factors and enhances the members of the group. They are aware of the fact that youth will be most convenient group to get engaged in offensive acts. With the changing time, structure of gangs is getting more associated and organized (Predictors of Youth Violence, 2014). They are directly connected to the large groups in order to avail funding and support.
They influenced youngsters through providing free drugs in starting and when they are addicted to it they provoke for criminal activities. Due to this aspect they connected with the gangs and entered in the world of the crime. In addition to this, it is not easy for the offenders to leave the gangs to lead better life because there is always threat of physical injury of them and their relatives. Thus, they are in compulsion to work for these groups.
Thus, to reduce to rate of youth crime, regulatory authority is required to reduce the gangs in their locations. By this strategy, youth will not be attracted by the these factors and they will not get engaged in such activities (Roberts, 2015). In addition to this, regulatory authority should provide support to the offenders along with the proper protection so they can lead better life without the terror of criminal gangs.
From the present study, it can be said that youth crime is increasing in constant manner. By considering existing evidence regarding this subject matter, it can be noticed that that young people has higher percentage for offending activities in comparison to adults. It is because, there are several reason due to which youth is forced to do criminal acts. To prevent these factors, protective actions is required to be taken by reformer in the programme developed for the purpose of rehabilitation. They should provide positive social orientation along with the perceived endorsement for offensive acts. For better management of youth crime, juvenile justice reform has been implemented legal regime (Ramirez, 2008). Objective of this approach is rehabilitation instead of punishment. Gangs plays vital role in the increment of youth crime and rate of youth criminals. In order to achieve their antisocial motives they need to people who can work for them. Thus, they influenced youngsters by different approaches to provoke them for get engaged in criminal activities. Due to this aspect youth offenders get connected with the gangs and entered in the world of the crime. Henceforth, in order to reduce to rate of youth crime regulatory authority is required to reduce the gangs in their locations. To see more click here.
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