Wide Area Networking

All About Wide Area Networking and Its Need

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Introduction To Wide Area Networking

WAN can be defined as a data communications network that covers large geographic area and it functions at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model. Mainly Wide network technologies operate at physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer. The rationale behind to carry out the study is to emphasize on the purpose and benefits of using Wide Area Network technologies within cited organization given in the case (Gaiti, 2002). Report provides detail about WAN Technologies available in the market and compares them in terms of network reliability, Security and performance in an appropriate manner. In order to meet the requirement of the above scenario, different types of devices have been used in the context of cost, scalability and availability etc. As per the4 given case scenario, IT base enterprise was taken which want to expand its business and open it offices in different countries including France/Paris, and Japan/Tokyo etc.

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Different types of WAN technologies available in the market

Dial up connection: In order to exchanging information on behalf of the end user, dial up connection technology which is application of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) has been used. In this technology, digital line service is divided with a rate of 1.544 Mbps into 24 channels of 64 Kbps each. It is also called sometime switched lines and dedicated lines which is established and maintained for a limited time duration (Pring, 2004.). However, the main drawbacks of this technology are established connection for limited time period, slow connection, no technological improvement and require too much external equipment’s etc.

ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line): it an emerging technology and it provides facility to organization or an individual one to put data in the existing copper telephone line (Singh and et.al., 2002). The main characteristics of this technique can be defined as follow:


  • Using the same bandwidth for upload and download-link
  • Both activities including make calls and data transmission (internet) can perform at the same time independently.
  • As compared to traditional phone line or Dial up connection, it is cost effective because it is transmitted data with the help of original telephone line so that enterprises need to pay extra ADSL internet telephone charges. In terms of scalability, it supports the data rates from 1.5Mbs to 9Mbs and to transmit downlink signals 138 KHz to 1.1MHZ frequency band is used (Lammle, 2007).


ADSL line is shared among 50 home user and 20 business users. In addition, it does not provide guarantee of the level of service as well as it is highly affected from bandwidth fluctuation that can reduce performance of the system (Singh and et.al., 2002).

Frame relay: It operates at physical and data link layer of the OSI reference model. A very low delay through a frame relay switching node and often cheaper than dedicated lines are the main benefits of this WAN technology. Apart from these benefits, less hardware requirements for the same number of connections and due to use of speed access lines overall delay of the network itself reduced are the other strengths of the technique (Singh and et.al., 2002). However, along with several advantages some drawbacks also associated with the frame relay such as possible traffic jams, feasibility issues, does not support voice, currently limited to T1 or E1 rates and limited to the standard congestion control process etc. it is high scalable as compared to dial up connection WAN technique (Yan, Yubin and Xiuwan, 2012).

ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network provides opportunity to enterprise in order to instantaneous digital transmission of data, audio, video, and other services related to network in an appropriate manner. It is beneficial for the enterprise as compared to dial up connection and frame relay because it puts together speech and information on the same line so that maximum amount of data can be delivered (Cisco, n.d.). In addition, it is based on the circuit switched telephone network system and it provides 128 kbites/s speeds in both uploading and downloading. It is high scalable as compared to other WAN technologies because by using it user can operate concurrently multiple digital channels through the same one copper wire pair. The major drawbacks of this technology are costly and require specialized digital devices just like Telephone Company etc.

Justification: As per the given case scenario, frame relay technology is more suitable because by using this technology, IT group would be able to integrate its main office London with other branches located in France/Paris, Japan/Tokyo in an appropriate manner (Leskiw, n.d.). The major strengths of this technology are reducing internetworking cost, increasing interoperability via international standards and increased performance with reduced network complexity which encourages IT Group to use this technique for establishing connection between branches. In addition, in terms of security, reliability and performance, frame relay is best as compared to other WAN technologies (Leskiw, n.d.).

Requirement of Quality of service while using the IP telephony

In order to deliver voice, fax, or video packets in stipulated time, IP telephony is used. Voice quality directly affects from packet loss and delay variation during packet send from source to destination node. In addition to this, bandwidth, latency and jitter are also the other major factors that can affect quality of service. In terms of delivery of voice signals from one point to another, it is essential for the IT Group firm to control over quality related issue (Olsen, 2005). In order to overcome, service response time, frequency response and reducing packet loss issues on a network, management of quality of service is required.

Security threats and performance degradation in WAN technologies

In modern era, most of the organizations are trying to focus on implementing WAN technologies due to various reasons such as ease of installation, flexibility, mobility and scalability etc. However, along with increasing use of Wide Area Network technology security and performance degradation related issues are raised that creates negative impact of the firm performance (Cisco, n.d.). However, manager of IT Group firm can overcome security related problems within the workplace through using various techniques such as MD5 hash (Message Digest algorithm 5), firewalls, access control lists, tunneling and broadcast reduction techniques etc. In order to increase security and scalability of system, network administrator can use access control list and tunneling tools.

By developing trust system, firm would be able to analyze traffic and established communication between two offices of company at international level in an effective manner.

Trust of intermediary system: By using this trust system, firm would be able to restrict attackers to gain access to privileged data of user. However, availability of the network resources affect from denial of service and intruder kinds of attacks (Rudall and Mann, 2010).

Trust of remote systems: In order to reduce packet loss and network traffic congestion problems, this trust system would be beneficial for the UK base IT Company (Gaiti, 2002).

Trust of networks on WAN: By using cryptography, firewall, digital signature and other kinds of security measurement techniques, IT Group will be able to increase security of wireless network from outsiders and hackers. However, without following network policies and kept resources separate and secure, enterprise will be unable to take advantage of trust system in an appropriate manner (Covaci and et.al, 2013).

WAN network infrastructure using frame-relay technology

For developing WAN infrastructure, frame relay technology can be used due to its several characteristics such as high performance, low delay and cost effective as compared to other Wide Network Area network technologies (Gaiti, 2002). By using this technique, network administrator of IT Group firm will be able to send variable size bursts of data on the network. In order to analyze and deliver the information to make business successful manner, processes, hardware, software and networks would be required.

Critically evaluation of WAN devices

Performance of network devices such as router, switch, cables, VPN and frame relay can be measured in terms of scalability, security and availability in an effective manner.

Scalability: It can be measured in terms of expansion of network devices used in WAN infrastructure. Consistency of network devices can measure with help of flat addressing. By using switches, routers and network cables, IT Group Company would be able to deliver packets from source to destination node effectively (Ling and Zhang, 2015).

Security: Through establishing VPN infrastructure such as router, firewall, VPN concentrator at London office, network administrator will be able to establish communication between different branches of UK based firm. In addition, WAN devices performance can be measured in terms of 24/7 monitoring of network infrastructure and upgrade firewall and other security devices used in a network system (Wang and et.al., 2003). On the basis of the bandwidth measurement such as expected average load, anticipated peak load and cost constraint, performance of devices used in the system can be calculated. Network access protocol, peer authentication and tunneling across untrusted domains security related protocols will be beneficial for the enterprise in order to increase security of network system in an appropriate manner.

Availability: As per the given case of IT Group Company, VPNs set-up is a better option because it provides facility of easily share resources and easily managing data on a centralized computer so that network professionals can easily access data of all branches. However, without maintaining consistency between switches and routers, network administrator will unable to send data from one location to other (Stockholm, 2000). In addition, routing table reduction and protocol management techniques would be helpful for the firm in order to establish relationship between different branches of Tokyo and Paris in a safe and secure way.

Build and configure WAN infrastructure

By establishing WAN infrastructure, company would be able to perform various functions including share files and devices including switches, hub, router, data and printer between different branches of IT Group Company. A common public Id is used to establish communication between different departments. In London headquarter, 58 network devices including web, mail and DNS servers are used. 28 Subnet devices including computer, network cables and one mail server have been used in Paris branch

Need of implementation of sound and reliable network

In order to keep the resources and devices secure, network administrator can use various devices such as Access control system and Firewall. For controlling incoming and outgoing network traffic, professional can use these devices because through installing firewall at each and every computer, routers and switches can be secured. In the context of identifying and overcome non-zero-data attacks and identity thefts related attacks, protocol addressing and naming conventions techniques will be beneficial (WAN technologies, n.d.). Access control method can be used for different purposes such as access rights allowed, denied, or audited for network users and assign port numbers or IP Addresses on host of different branches of firm. Hence, it can be said that in order to keep the resources and devices of organization secure, MD5 authentication, Access Control, Firewall security devices can be used.

Suitability of network design

On the basis of the three major factors including connectivity, functionality and security, suitability of the system can be monitored (Gaiti, 2002). Connectivity can be checked in terms of result produce by devices such as IP telephony connectivity, PCs, and servers used in London office. Network administrator of the IT Group can be used different parameters such as bandwidth; jitter, delay and outcome produce by an individual device to measure functionality of the WAN infrastructure set-up at different branches of the firm.

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External threats and their impact on security, reliability and performance of WAN system

Impact of external threats can be understood with the help of the example. Network administration was established connection between main branch London and Paris/Tokyo. However, due to jitter and other problem, connection breaks and message shows on the screen resulted, communication between two braches was break and due to this, security related issue was raised (Gaiti, 2002). However, this kind of issues was solved by following some stages that can be described as follows:

  • Step 1: Wireless connection was checked to identify problem.
  • Step 2: At the both end, network devices including switch and router was checked and reconfigured.
  • Step 3: By using property panel, bandwidth was measured on the other side.
  • Step 4: After the step 3, IP address and router performance were measured.
  • Step 5: At the end of this step, TCP/IP setting was checked to arrive at a solution and solve the network related issues raised in the network (Ling and Zhang, 2015).


On the basis of the telecommunication network it can be said that by establishing WAN infrastructure, firm would be able to integrate different branches including Paris, Tokyo and London in an appropriate manner. In addition, by using network performance tools, firm network administrator of the company will able to monitor and display response time, availability and performance of devices.


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  • Wang, Y. and et.al., 2003. An indoors wireless positioning system based on wireless local area network infrastructure. In 6th Int. Symp. on Satellite Navigation Technology Including Mobile Positioning & Location Services.
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