Public Health is related to the concept of helping individuals for staying healthy and getting protected from several health threats. It involves dealing with such factors that have potential impact on the health related scenarios which can be a particular age or ethnic group, locality or even a nation. This report includes the description of roles played by World Health Organisation and many other public health departments ( Betancourt and et. al., 2016). Apart from this, effective approaches as well as strategies have been provided for controlling the infectious diseases. Along with that, impact of current lifestyle choices on needs for health in the future has been depicted.
1.1 Role of World Health Organisation (WHO), Department of Health and local organisations in communities
All these organisations have a common aim to provide numerous services related to health care for all individuals. Objectives may vary but goal is same. There are no direct services provided by WHO but tend to help several other small companies that are working for the same purpose. They lead to assist those organisations working at introductory stage or the one which are not functioning well in this sector. These firms become active during natural disasters or calamities. Other entities such as General Medical Council aim to work in order to protect patients by assisting in the improvement of medical education and related practices in nation. They let to set the standard of medical services which are provided by doctors as well as provide training to them in many fields. Several surveys are conducted for providing contribution in the identification of levels for health and diseases.
National Health Services is known to be the best single player in this field. It serves free to all natives at their service points (Brownson and et. al., 2017). It is a firm which is led by the patient in which they depicts several services and their selected service is provided after a consulting session.
1.2 The epidemiology of HIV/AIDS and breast cancer
Epidemiology is defined as the study of several patterns, incidences and distribution of diseases in a particular community. It tends to deal with factors which are associated with the related cause and effect of particular diseases in environment. Some of the major findings of HIV and breast cancer are discussed as below:
Statistical Data for HIV:
- Approximately, around 8,400 people are possessing this disease. As per 2015, 22 percent of natives were unaware of their status.
- There are almost 7000 cases detected every year since 2015. Therefore, at the end of 2018, it has been calculated that almost one per 10,000 person will be infected with HIV Infection.
- The status of patients suffering from AIDS in UK is around one third of total population.
Major Statistical Analysis of Epidemiology of Breast Cancer:
- It has been identified as a common cancer found in the UK since 1997.
- Almost 31 percent of new cases in cancer which are found are mostly related to breast in females.
- There are almost 50,000 new cases of breast cancer emerging every year since 2010.
- The frequency for the occurrence of breast cancer is 157 on per 10,000 new cases associated with females.
- Around 80 percent cases which are detected in females are those who belong to the age group of 50 years or above.
1.3 The effectiveness of approaches to control infectious and non-infectious disease
Some of the approaches which are adopted by National Health Services for controlling HIV and Breast Cancer in UK are depicted as below:
Surveillance- It refers to observe the surroundings which means keeping a strong observation in the environment as well as providing prior notices related to any kind of traits of upcoming diseases. It acts as a tool for analysing and interpreting certain scenarios that lead to introduce several other programs related to health for a given population.
Screening- Itincludes medical testing for all the diseases which are needed to be controlled. This serves as the prior testing which facilitates in identification of certain illness which can be treated on time.
Immunisation- It leads to organise several camps which provide vaccines for immunising individuals against life threatening diseases as well as serve new medicines for curing patients.
Welfare Programmes- They tend to organise certain educational as well as social welfare programmes that educate population related to preventive techniques and other ill effects which are related to many diseases (Gostin and Wiley, 2016). It leads to make them aware which results in effective resistance for spreading any kind of diseases.
M1. apply strategies to find appropriate solutions
Environmental control is an another aspect which leads to create safety from several kinds of diseases by keeping it clean and following several other measures. It leads to prevent various infectious diseases and promotes a healthy environment.
M2. design and apply appropriate methods
Cleanliness Campaign must be organised in order to make individual ware regarding effective garbage management and importance of a cleaner environment which is necessary to control all the pest related diseases in an environment.
M3. Present and communicate appropriate findings
It has been found that HIV aids are mostly founded in the youngsters or adults due to unsafe intercourse and also the use of other razors or blades in a salon which should be changed timely in order to prevent this diseases. Apart from this in females breast cancer is tended to be very common after the age of 50 years.
D1. Use critical reflection to evaluate work and justify valid conclusions
All the strategies for controlling evidence techniques such as screening, awareness programmes, and immunisation is very important as it lead acknowledge individuals living in a society relate to the effects of diseases and their preventive measures as well as importance of getting immune towards any pathogen.
2.1 provision of services for people
HIV is such a disease which can have severe effects on population of the nation. HIV prevention should be made a priority for serving social care in order to get safeguarded from any health threats. They can be of two types which are discussed as below:
Primary Prevention- It includes those preventive measures which are used for preventing several individual from many illness by making them aware against those diseases as well as causes. Some of those programmers are CHAPS which is a preventive programme for resisting transmission of HIV while having intercourse whereas NAHIP is another program which was introduced in African countries for safe intercourse.
Secondary Prevention- It includes screening as well as detecting pathogens which are potential carrier of this disease. In UK, National Health Services has provided a health care program which test the blood of every woman who is pregnant. If any of them found to be infected then, related treatments are provided to her.
Tertiary Prevention- This last step includes taking care of those patients who are actually suffering from several chronic diseases (Kansagra and et. al., 2018). Palliative caring is done for these individuals which includes medicinal and emotional care for improving their quality of life.
2.2 Relationship between the prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the requirements of health services
Prevalence of any disease is known to be a proportion of the available total population which is affected by any particular disease. It depicts the information regarding the amount of individuals who are facing any illness. It leads to determine an idea for planning many services which are needed to give for solving problems. Determination of several prevalences rates which supports individuals in many health and social care centres for identifying needs of health. This helps in developing programmes which can implemented for preventing diseases. Several other epidermal tools are used which provides data for taking effective measures in accordance to the conclusion done. For an example, if the individuals related to health care centres would have knowledge of the root cause of an particular disease and related data for those areas where the population is known to be prone to such diseases which will lead to provide effective targeting.
Prior knowledge of the root cause and effects of a disease is a boon for those people who are associated with health care. It leads them to plan the prioritisation of task and related resources for curing or taking any preventive step against it. The affected population can be easily targeted by avoiding such risk that can harm the surroundings.
2.3 the impact of current lifestyle choices
With the fast working scenario of the world, individuals has lead to ignore their health and more focus on the work that has lead to emerge several diseases which can be threatening to life as well (Popescu and Predescu, 2016). Some of the lifestyle choices that can affect the health of an individual is detected as below:
Lack of proper Diet- With more focus on fast and junk food individuals has lead to ignore the concept of proper nutrients which are required to intake for a healthy living. In order to save time they prefer to eat or order something from restaurant that have several risk related to health.
Less Physical Activity- With the commencement of luxuries and other new technologies it as lead to decrease the human efforts and individuals are more moving towards decreasing their physical work which has lead to affect their health a lot.
Work Culture- The work culture of the present scenario is very demanding. Evert individual is so involved in earning money that he has no time for self. There is a need to balance all the personal and professional life s its failure can lead to create many mental illnesses.
D2. Take responsibility for managing and organising activities
Every health care centre should focus on providing standard services to all the patients and make them aware regarding its cause and prevention that may lead to spread some information in society.
D3. Demonstrate convergent / lateral / creative thinking
Alcoholism and the usage of other drugs can be very dangerous and has lead to split the mind of the individuals making them more addicted which in directly or directly affects their mental health.
3.1 the health and well-being priorities for people living in a London borough
Well-being is a condition in which the person feels comfortable with the surroundings. This state can be achieved by a happy, healthy as well as satisfied person from the environment in which he is residing. These well beings can be further categorised as Physical, environmental, economical and social. It is ultimately related with health only. These factors are described as below:
Physical Health- It refers to an ability of a body to function properly. If all the functions of a body are performed perfectly than he is known to health in physical aspect. If an individual needs to get physically fit than he needs to follow some ruled such as performing exercise, taking proper nutritious diet as well as affective management of weight, etc.
Mental Health- Mental health relates to dealing with a state of mental soundness. If an individual remains in a state where he experiences stress or a trauma then he is more prone to become mentally ill. Mental diseases which can affect functioning of neural body parts in a human body.
Social Health-These issues which are generated due to poor social surroundings of a person. Socially healthy means keeping oneself and the community to be safe from all kinds of diseases (Rosen, 2015). It may includes many social programs such as educating people related to any causes or social effects of particular illness.
3.2 effectiveness of strategies, systems and policies in a health and social care setting
The effectiveness related to strategies, policies and system in a health and social care setting are discussed as below:
Quality of Service Provision- Some of the health care leads to check the quality of services that are provided to various patients. Several feedbacks are taken from these patients in order to know their expectations and experience. Quality of services are checked by determination of the effectiveness related to treatments as well as safety of recipients.
Provision of Services- All the services must be identified and they must be checked for its efficiency in the desired result. They must be impactful for controlling or eradicating such diseases. Selection of a particular service is based on its affectivity.
Rights of Patients- Every patient has a right to get protected against the fraud and other mal practices which can cause threat to his life. Some of his rights are discussed as below:
Equality act 2010- This leads to suggest that health care provider should treat every patient equally. There should be no discrimination on the basis of gender, race, caste or status (Stanhope and Lancaster, 2015). This protects them from any kind of negligence and discrimination.
Complaint Procedure- There should be proper structure for handling the grievances of the individual. Any complaint regarding any mistreat or service can be filed by patient in order to describe his problem that is very much require to improve the service standard of a particular health care centre.
3.3 changes made to improve the health and well-being of individuals
Some of the health care settings in UK are performing satisfactory in their respective fields but there is always a scope for improvement in every thing. Modifications should be made in accordance to the demand made for it. The policies and other strategies should be made according to the age group. The strategies which are made should be according to the target group which is been targeted. Some of the strategies which are made for the children should aim to educate parents regarding diseases which can affect their children. Parents must get aware regarding cause and effect of diseases as well as should be acknowledged related to their preventive measures. Feedbacks must be taken regularly so that one can get appropriate suggestions and recommendation for improving in order to make their centres and services more impactful for the purpose.
3.4 Evaluation of an activity that has been implemented to encourage behaviour change
“Smoking Cessation Programme” has the following effectiveness-
Under this programmer several kind of sessions are conducted for those who are interested to eliminate the habit of smoking. Many devices, materials for self help and other referrals are provided to create an extensive support.
There were many sessions such as individual behavioural counselling , therapy for controlling group behaviour and other Pharma co- therapies which includes Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). For self help there are counselling which is done through telephone (Brownson and et. al., 2017).
Apart from these many mass media campaigns are organised that conveys the message of stop smoking through the print as well as non print media such as radio, televisions, social media advertising and newspapers etc. There are other facilities such as free mobile app and other email and text support.
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From the following report it has been concluded that public health is very important factor in order to control and prevent the spread of any infectious or non infectious disease. It has lead to create the surroundings to be more attentive towards the information related to any kind of disease that includes its root cause and effects. There are many steps performed by various health centres such as screening, immunisation, well fare programmes and other actions. Apart from these impact of current lifestyle has been discussed which includes a stressful work life and more focus on junk food etc.
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- Betancourt, J. R. and et. al., 2016. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Public health reports.
- Brownson, R. C. and et. al., 2017. Evidence-based public health. Oxford university press.
- Gostin, L. O. and Wiley, L. F., 2016.Public health law: power, duty, restraint. Univ of California Press.
- Kansagra, S.M. and et. al., 2018. Redefining the Team in Team-Based Care Role of Public Health. North Carolina Medical Journal. 79(4). pp.235-239.
- Popescu, G. H. and Predescu, V., 2016. The role of leadership in public health. American Journal of Medical Research. 3(1). p.273.