Public health is helping the people or community to stay healthy by protecting them from any kinds of risks and diseases (Valente, 2010). These activities involve assisting individuals which may deal with the factors that have a wide impact on health and social care of society. Responsibility of improving and maintaining health of public lies with all sectors of a society in the UK. This assignment will investigate different roles played by agencies in UK which works within the communities to reduce occurrence of illness and diseases by providing statistical data and research information. It also analyses the strategy’s effectiveness which is applied to control the infectious and non-infectious diseases which are widespread in UK. The report also examines regional, national and international perspectives with priorities consideration.
1.1 The role of different agencies in identifying levels of diseases in communities and health
The public health care can be enhanced and maintained through preventive programs and activities which are provided by public health agencies which involve private and governmental care providers. There are several organizations and authorities that determine the health standards of society and analyse main issues by conducting research and organizing activities. Further, it plays a major role in protecting the community from widespread diseases and ensures good health of individuals.
World Health Organization (WHO)- This organization actively performs at the time of calamities and natural disasters by generating a worldwide investigation system for identifying health and diseases which are spreading in the community. They effectively work towards the eradication of several communicable and non-communicable diseases worldwide by active management by regulating policies and standards for all types of health care agencies across the world for ensuring that nations implement regulations at each level of health care activities (Umberson and Karas Montez, 2010).They provide research data and information through their laboratories, national, local or provincial health care centres by contributing for the cause of investigation of health and diseases which are having a huge impact and widely spread across communities.
Department of health– It is the department of UK Government which is responsible for several policies that are related to health and adult social care services in England. They help people to live more independently and lead healthier lives (Stringhini and et.al., 2010). They oversee the working of local authorities and strategic health trusts in NHS, UK.
Public health England– National Health and Social Care (NHS) is the leading and biggest public sector health care agency in UK which provides free of cost services to citizens of country and deals in rendering effective services to meet the needs of society. They work with the collaboration with WHO in identification of levels of health and illnesses.
Local Organizations– Clinical Commissioning Groups work under the NHS which implements health and social care policies in their respective geographical areas to provide support to local authorities as well as develop health and well-being system. They work for the transformation of public health in UK.
1.2 Statistical data for epidemiology of infectious and non-infectious diseases widespread in the UK
Infectious diseases are caused by organism due to bacteria, fungi or viruses and non-infectious are non-communicable illnesses that arise from the body due to hereditary conditions or dietary deficiencies. Major infection and non-infection diseases that have a significant impact on the health of people in UK are as follows:
Dementia: It is a brain disease that causes for long term and gradually decreases the ability to think or remember in an individual. It is a symptom that includes memory loss and difficulties with thinking, problem solving or language and is caused when the brain is damaged by diseases like Alzheimer's or strokes. The present estimated rate of people with dementia in UK are around 850000. The data forecast of number of people with dementia in country will increase to 1 million by 2025. Over 40000 individuals in UK have early onset dementia and the total population prevalence of same among 65 age groups is 7.1%. The collected data shows prevalence of dementia over 65 age population which shows a significant increase from 4.29% to 4.33%.
Type 2 diabetes: Diabetes is a health problem that causes blood sugar level to rise high than normal which is also known as hyperglycaemia. Type 2 is a common form of diabetes where the body does not use insulin properly which is also called as insulin resistance. In this health condition, body cells become insensitive to insulin that cannot use blood sugar for energy which gets high (Naylor and et.al., 2011). There is a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors in Type 2 diabetics and in the UK, 90% people have this diabetes. The prevalence rates of this diabetes increased from 3.21% to 5.26%.
1.3 Effective approaches and strategies to control the incidence of infectious and non-infectious diseases
To prevent and control the impact of Dementia and Type 2 diabetes leading public health care agencies and local authorities uses different strategies and approaches. The major impact of these on the betterment of UK's population are as follows:
Approaches- Health care agencies of UK implement the involvement and creation of awareness programs to prevent dementia and type 2 diabetes which is widespread in the country. Leading health care organizations offer proper guidelines to local health care settings for providing better treatment of these diseases and improve the community's wellbeing standards (Marmot and et.al., 2012). Monitoring of public health issues to develop early plans for controlling impact of dementia and type 2 diabetes are a part of the approach.
Strategies to control the infectious and non-infectious diseases adopted by health care agencies is preventive measures which include categories like; primary prevention which are used to enhance health protecting specifications. Secondary consisting of symptoms identification of health care issues. And territory stage which is also known as blocking stage where actions might be taken to make changes in the surroundings that can reduce impact of dementia and type 2 diabetes.
Surveillance- It is the observing of environment that gives a prior notification of the diseases that are upcoming (Glanz and Bishop, 2010). This is a tool to analyse and interpret occurrences and help identify need to introduce various health programs for the society.
Screening- It is a strategy used to control diseases in the population which includes prior medical testing that helps in identification of disease occurrences in an individual that can be treated before getting the illness.
Immunisation- It is the technique of making an individual immune of certain infections by vaccination.
Education and social welfare programs- By providing necessary information and knowledge to the population regarding the prevention techniques can control diseases to some extent.
2.1. Determination of current priorities and approaches to the provision of services for people with HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS is a huge problem which the entire world is facing which can be infected or transmitted to another person through sexual transmission, transmitting through blood and mother to child transmission. This disease have severe affects on the population of UK and its prevention should be a priority for social care settings to safeguard people. Early testing is a entryway to the treat and prevent the illness which most people neglects and go for diagnosis after affected by the disorder which can cause trouble (Gillespie, 2012). Current approaches and priorities to prevent HIV/AIDS are as follows:
Primary prevention is the foremost measure that can be used to prevent the disease by educating the population about the disorder and its effects. UK has made several efforts in concern with HIV/AIDS prevention by introducing some programs which are as under:
CHAPS- It is an HIV prevention program to prevent the disease among Men Sex with Men which is focused on educating people regarding preventive measures to be used while having sex.
NAHIP- This a program introduced for the African communities in UK by encouraging the use of contraceptives and safer sex among the community.
Secondary prevention is the detection by screening of micro-organisms that are acting as a carrier of particular disease (Frieden, 2010). NHS in UK has introduced health care program of blood testing of pregnant women to find out whether they are infected with HIV virus or not. If found infected they needs to be treated to avoid the transmission of virus to the offspring. UK medications like post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is used to treat HIV within 72 hours.
Territory prevention is aimed at taking care of patients who are suffering from chronic diseases by rendering them palliative care which involves medical and emotional care to the patient and their family to improve quality of life. In UK NHS has made several efforts and investments to train and provide palliative care in case of HIV and cancer.
2.2. Relationship between prevalence of HIV/AIDS in relation to the requirements of health services to support individuals.
The people and patients who have undergone HIV/AIDS medical testes do not counts the accurate number of individuals who is suffered from the same illness. Prevalence of HIV/AIDS provides the number of people that are facing the illness out of total individuals who are studied. This helps in planning the services that needs to be provided regarding the issue. Knowing the cause of disorder helps in targetting the issue which will assist in making programmes designed for efficiency. Determination of prevalence rates assists individuals in health and social care settings identify health needs and helps them in developing programs which can be implemented for the prevention of disease. This data also aid in determining the needs of providing necessary education regarding HIV/AIDS to the society in order to protect them from the illness (Betancourt and et.al., 2016). Prior knowledge of the disorder and its causes provides assistance to health care individuals to allocate resources accordingly and gives the idea to prioritize tasks and resources. That helps them in targetting the population with risk of examining data regarding cause and effect of HIV/AIDS.
2.3. Impact of current lifestyle choices on future needs for health and social care services
Several factors of an individual like eating habits, substances intake, work culture, exercising etc. influences their health by becoming the reason for illness. The main health problems that are found severe and chronic in UK are obesity, smoking, alcoholism, lesser physical activity and intake of drugs (Blas and Kurup, 2010). Both these have become the lifestyle choices of most of the population which will have huge impact on future needs for health and social care services. The health of people is depended upon their behavioural patterns and lifestyles which proves concept for many illnesses. Obesity in people is caused by their wrong eating habits which leads to fat accumulation in the body. The percentage of UK's obese people increased by 13% in men and 10% in women from 1993 to 2010. Work culture which may include flexible working hours and night shifts have huge effect on health habits of the working population. They prioritise work before health by being work oriented which changes their daily schedules and making them concentrate less on their health.
3.1. Health and well being priorities for people living in Hackney
The health and well being Board of the city of London governs the health and well being priorities for people living in Hackney, UK by devising certain strategies. Well being is the condition in which an individual feels healthy and comfortable in their surroundings with the absence of illness. It can be only achieved when a person is happy, healthy and satisfied within the environment where they lives. As per the health and well being strategy the people of Hackney take care of their health and improves the overall well being by following certain priorities in their lifestyle they are as follows:
- Physical health- Proper functioning of the body of an individual makes them healthy and if a person needs to be physically fit then some rules must be obeyed like nutrition, exercise etc.
- Mental health- If an individual remains in the state of trauma or stress they becomes mentally ill which will affect the brain functioning.
- Social health- Bad social environment in which a person is living affects generation of issues (Braveman, Egerter and Williams, 2011). Socially healthy means keeping the individual and society safe from diseases which also includes educating people about causes and effects of the disease prevailing.
3.2. Effectiveness of strategies, systems and policies in a health and social care setting
UK invests highly in health care of the population and they introduces new strategies and policies to fight with existing diseases in the community which made the country appreciate by the Commonwealth fund. Effective policies implemented for children's well being can be seen on the laws incorporated to child care. Some strategies and systems are found effective in dealing with children's issues. Authorities are continuously looking for ways to promote strategies which are set (Valente, 2010). For the welfare of children parental support incorporation is also done to address the issue. With the growing crisis, constant monitoring and modifications to community programmes are also implemented. Impact of regulations which are set in order increase progress of outcomes on child care is effective but at the same time several other regulations needs reconstruction and reviewing and some other policies require more action.
Social care services and information- These are services rendered by the social health care systems which assists patients and bystanders with regard to health issues. It includes health care at home, providing equipments and financial assistance to patients etc. Information is the important factor which must be considered by social health care settings. Data regarding diseases and health of the population helps the trust in creating awareness to people regarding illness spreading among the society and work towards the betterment of the community.
Policies of care UK home- It is the efficient health care and safety providers believed in operating according to the laws and enactments passed by the government of UK regarding health and social care systems (Umberson and Karas Montez, 2010). Complaint policy is one of the best plan of action by the care setting which renders the patients and service users the right to complain if any dissatisfaction occurs with services provided.
3.3. Changes to improve health and well being of individuals
UK's healthcare settings are performing up to the levels but there is chances to improve so that it may render much more satisfactory services. Some of the changes to improve the health and well being of people in UK are as follows:
- Consider the demands while making alterations or modifications
- Necessary to develop strategies for the targeted group accordingly. The plans and policies developed for children health care purpose must be in a way possible to educate the parents regarding the causes and effects of illness.
- Promotions of preventive measures must be undertaken by the same age group people.
- Remedial care provided to the patients should focus on surroundings too.
- Strict legislations for proper implementation of social care policies and health care set by the government.
3.4. Smoking cessation program implemented to encourage behaviour change for maximizing health for individuals.
Smokers shows an addiction to nicotine and one of the main symptom is the failure of attempts to stop smoking when a person tries to accomplish quitting (Stringhini and et.al., 2010). There are two main approaches to help smoking cessation which are pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Pharmacotherapy aims at reducing intensity of urges to smoke or change the symptoms. Behavioural support aim at boosting motivation to resist the urge to smoke and develop individual's capacity to implement plans to quit smoking.
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From the report on the role of public health in health and social care it can be concluded that for providing information and effective guidelines to help society control or prevent diseases the health care organizations plays a major role. They monitor and manages health care services for protecting the society from infectious and non infectious diseases which has a broad impact on the people. The assignment provides statistical data about several widespread illnesses in UK and discusses several approaches, strategies and measures to control the impact. It also studies and explains the future trends of health care services while considering the current lifestyle, evaluating effectiveness of strategies and policies of health care organizations for the encouragement of people's health.
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- Blas, E. and Kurup, A.S. eds., 2010.Equity, social determinants and public health programmes. World Health Organization.
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