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Inland Wetlands Ecosystem Report

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Steps of Ecosystem Improvements by Australian Government

2482 Downloads I Published: 17 Aug ,2018

Introduction

An ecosystem can be defined as the community which will interact different organism’s in particular physical surroundings (Walt, 2017). A botanical garden is described as a garden is having a living collection of various plants, which are kept under the high supervision of scientists.

An example of an ecosystem is wetlands. Wetlands are critical all around the world. Different wetlands have various species of plants and animals, which are dependent on the survival of the ecosystem (Paul Tracey, 2016.). The convention on wetlands is Ramsar Wetland. The wetland is an intergovernmental treaty which helps in providing the national frameworks.

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Inland Wetlands Ecosystem and Its Importance

A wetland can be described as the land which is entirely covered by water. The water can be either salt water or fresh water. Some wetlands are tidal lands, where sea water gets mixed with fresh water. This is because of the formation of an environment with varying salinity. Some are non-tidal wetlands, which are very common alongside rivers. These are very isolated from the surroundings. This is broadly near the rivers, brooks, waterways, lakes, ponds, bogs, etc. These wetlands are crucial for the species like fishes, timbers, etc. (4 Important Roles of Botanic Gardens. 2017) The Ramsar is a heavily contagious of two vast river system. These are east and south alligator’s rivers.

Biological Concepts

The Kakadu National Park is an example of a wetland.  It is located 220 kilometres East of Darwin in Australia. The site has at least 53 species of waterbirds and other animal’s species that breed in the wetland.  Approximately 59 fish species can be traced to the swamp.  Eight of these fish species have narrowly restricted ranges thus highly described as endemic species. 

The wetland is the most productive ecosystem in the world when compared to the coral reefs and the rain forest. The productive ecosystem means that the rate of generation of biomass which is very high in wetlands. The main plant's species which is endangered in the park over time is Utricularia subulata, and Dubouzetia Australians is species (Haller, 2010). These plants if not protected can be extinct in the near future.

There are 61 mammal species and 105 reptile species that has been found in Ramsar. A large number of water birds are found in this national park. This water park is having more than 1% of the East Asian-Australasian flyway population of waterbirds like magpie goose, wandering whistling duck, plumed whistling-duck, etc. (Plants in wetlands | NSW Environment & Heritage. 2017). There are 59 fresh water species have been found in this water park. Thus, it represents almost 20% of the total fish species present in Australia. Sometimes in the dry season, the water gets contracted into lagoons and billabongs. Which will accumulate up to 2 million of waterbirds.

Funding of The Garden

The funding of these parks is done by the government and many other companies. There are different policies which are applied in this park, just to protect natural species and animals (4 Important Roles of Botanic Gardens. 2017). The main policy is environment protection and biodiversity conservation regulations 2000. All these policies will make this park very safe and happy place. But there are some threats also, which are due to weeds, which is present in the park and also there is a chance of fire also (Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia - home page. 2017).  The main funding comes from the tourists. So that the development of park can be done by that money. Another funding comes from the government, because the species are used by the scientist. The fund program run by Australian government for biodiversity is initially having a budget of $946.2 million for a period of 6 years from 2011/12-2016/17. In 2013, the federal government of Australia reduced the funding by $32.3 million and the new budget set was $225.4 million till 2017/18. There were total 4 funding rounds for biodiversity funds which was started in 2013. Total of $324 was approved after the agreement over the course of 6 years. The funding range was from $7000 to $5.7 million (Administration of the Biodiversity Fund Program. 2014).

Kakadu National Park: Ramsar Wetland

The management of Kakadu wetland revolves around a collaborative process for the protection of the cultural and natural values if the park developing and promoting it’s as a visitor destination and increasing public sensitivity to its value.  The park faces various risks including weeds that make access difficult, increasing the cost of management and making chances of eventual eradication unlikely.  There are strategic plans for addressing the effects of wild animals on the wetlands integrity.

Other risks to the wetland include climate change, fire outbreaks illegal commercial fishing, visitor impacts (low significance) and unauthorised access (low importance).  Some of the proactive measures already taken to safeguard the park from the effects of potential risks include the development and implementation of a strategy for the conservation of threatened species, identification of other significant species, conducting survey and monitoring programs for critical species and continued mapping of the park.

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Conclusion

The fact that Kakadu National Park can host a large number of plant diversity and protect the endangered makes it be the most preferred region for the project. Biodiversity is the foundation of all the ecosystem services. It is the variability which is present among all the sources of living organisms like marine, terrestrial and other aquatic systems. This includes all the ecosystem, whether they are managed or not managed.

From this report it has been concluded that for any country, ecosystem is very necessary. The growth of the species and plants which are almost negligible can be easily available in those ecosystem. The Australian government has taken many steps of improvements in these systems so that, more number of tourists can get attracted towards this, and this will raise the fund and make the park bigger.

References

  • 4 Important Roles of Botanic Gardens. 2017. 4 Important Roles of Botanic Gardens. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.organiclesson.com/roles-of-botanic-gardens-arboretums/. [Accessed 13 May 2017].
  • Australian National Botanic Gardens management conservation. 2017. Australian National Botanic Gardens management conservation. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.anbg.gov.au/gardens/about/management/conservation.html. [Accessed 13 May 2017].
  • Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia - home page. 2017. Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia - home page. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/water/wetlands/australian-wetlands-database/directory-important-wetlands. [Accessed 13 May 2017].
  • Haller, Tobias (ed.) (2010). Disputing the Floodplains: Institutional Change and the Politics of Resource Management in African Wetlands. Brill: Leiden.. 2017. Haller, Tobias (ed.) (2010). Disputing the Floodplains: Institutional Change and the Politics of Resource Management in African Wetlands. Brill: Leiden.. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.thecommonsjournal.org/articles/10.18352/ijc.451/. [Accessed 24 May 2017].
  • NT Flora. 2017. NT Flora. [ONLINE] Available at: http://eflora.nt.gov.au/factsheet?id=1880. [Accessed 24 May 2017].
  • Paul Tracey, 2016. Australian Local Government Botanic Gardens contribution to Global Plant Conservation. [Online]. Available at: https://www.uts.edu.au/sites/default/files/Paul%20Tracey%20dissertation.pdf. [Accessed on 24th May, 2017].
  • Plants in wetlands | NSW Environment & Heritage. 2017. Plants in wetlands | NSW Environment & Heritage. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/wetlands/wetlandPlants.htm. [Accessed 13 May 2017].
  • Role of Botanic Gardens. 2017. Role of Botanic Gardens. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.bgci.org/resources/1574/. [Accessed 13 May 2017].
  • Sedges « AQUAPLANT. 2017. Sedges « AQUAPLANT. [ONLINE] Available at: http://aquaplant.tamu.edu/plant-identification/alphabetical-index/sedges/. [Accessed 24 May 2017].
  • Spike Rush « AQUAPLANT. 2017. Spike Rush « AQUAPLANT. [ONLINE] Available at: http://aquaplant.tamu.edu/plant-identification/alphabetical-index/spike-rush/. [Accessed 24 May 2017].
  • The Role of Botanic Gardens in Plant Conservation. 2017. The Role of Botanic Gardens in Plant Conservation. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.bgci.org/resources/bgs_in_conservation/. [Accessed 13 May 2017].
  • Utricularia subulata - Photos - ISB: Atlas of Florida Plants - ISB: Atlas of Florida Plants . 2017. Utricularia subulata - Photos - ISB: Atlas of Florida Plants - ISB: Atlas of Florida Plants . [ONLINE] Available at: http://florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/photo.aspx?ID=2129. [Accessed 24 May 2017].
  • Walt W., 2017. The Ecosystem and how it relates to Sustainability. [Online]. Available through: <http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/kling/ecosystem/ecosystem.html>. [Accessed on 12th June 2017].
  • Administration of the Biodiversity Fund Program. 2014. [Online]. Available through: <https://www.anao.gov.au/work/performance-audit/administration-biodiversity-fund-program>.  [Accessed on 12th June 2017].
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