Construction technology denotes the various tools, equipment’s, alterations, software etc. that are taken in use while carrying out the construction activities. With the application of such techniques and other automated and semi - automated applications better and advanced output can be produced (Chew, 2017). It is a very complex activity and require much of pre planning as ignorance of any important aspect may lead to great loss or failure of the project. A new hotel building needs to be constructed near the motorway which is going to link an international airport in UK, Heathrow. It would have the capacity to give accommodation to two hundred visitors. The following report will give an introduction to the concepts related to building manufacturing materials and will show how the residential, commercial and industrial buildings differs from one another. Thereafter substructure and superstructures of sites will be analysed as how planning in these differs from one another. The study will also explore the civil engineering infrastructures with the various building services that will be needed in order to construct the hotel referred to in above text.
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Differences between distinct construction
There are various variety of buildings that are made using range of resource. It can be broadly classified as residential, commercial and industry buildings. Difference among them are discussed along with an illustration of same.
The constriction of such sites are not done on a very large scale and therefore do not require much heavy machinery (Wong and et.al., 2013). Simple equipment’s are used to complete the work.
The making of such sites is done on a larger scale and hence needs a comparatively heavy machinery.
These are the construction sites where the production work is done at the hugest level. it requires high power tools and equipment’s and also demand trained labour to carry out the project work.
The making of such sites mainly focus on normal cements, timber etc. and not very heavy material is used.
Commercial buildings need more of steel for its making which cost comparatively high (Hong And et.al., 2010). It is because of the security as well as the stability propose. It can be afforded as here investment is done in huge amount.
It also uses the strong and heavy material like iron and steel but the way it is used differs from the commercial style. There more emphasis is given on the looking of the commercial property but in case of industries it is considered that it is easy to make the movements within it and is spacious.
It is for the personal residential purpose.
Such sites are made with the aim of doing business by opening an office, services or any other commercial purpose.
These sites are used for the manufacturing of goods in huge amount which are further utilised by different commercial units.
Promotion of sustainability in building projects
In the construction field sustainability is of great importance as everyone has certain budget and a good constructor is one who finishes his work within the limits given. In order to do so there are various ways which can be adopted and some of them are as follows:
Initiate with an energy effective sites- While a lot of the toxic waste released from building sites and conveyance method itself, economical energy supervision of construction site offices is additionally very much required (Yankovskaya, Fuks and Dementyev, 2013). There are certificates for the performance of energy which can be further utilised with distinct ratings like A, B, C as this will assist in controlling the overall pollution. Considering Associate in on-the-site collective temperature and power (CHP) system may additionally facilitate within the transition towards additional energy economical or renewable alternatives to ancient power.
Effective use of the waste at construction site– On a broad level if the total waste is analysed then it can be said that it adds much to the total pollution. If this practice continues then it cannot continue its practice. This is required that the concern sector work on such practices which focus on managing the waste through better dispose and effective reuse of same.
Keep your equipment running as efficiently as possible- It is crucial that whatever tools and machinery is used in the construction process are well maintained. They should be properly checked and ensured that it do not create pollution due to low maintenance (Leonardi and Barley, 2010). Also the size of equipment must also be decided as per the need only for example if it is possible to do the work with small generator the n one should avoid the big ones and use energy to the extent which cannot be avoided.
The terminology used in construction technology
Here a new hotel needs to be constructed. There are differ terms which will be used in this process and same are discussed below:
Aggregate– this is a specific substance that is made up of sand or crushed stones. It is one of the most important part of this sector.
Beam– this is a support system for the building. In context of this hotel it will be placed horizontally lengthwise at the ceiling and will give strength to the whole building.
BIM – Business information modelling is a softcopy of the site which discuss the structure in detail which ranges from the broad layout to information related to least dimensions.
BOQ– In order to avoid the future issues a bill of quantities is maintained. The recording of material necessary for construction is done here and on the basis of same budget is made.
Building engineer– Constructing the big site like of hotels is not possible without the assistance of experts. He is the person who knows every minutes of the work and carry out the activities with all the required considerations.
Concrete covers– This is the protecting shield for the steel bars that are used in the construction specifically the external surface part (Hongshe, 2010).
The phase of pre designs is initiated once the source of funds is available and before actually design is finalised. In duration of this time I is analysed that what space is available and what are the problems associated with it. All the options are evaluated against the available budget with the firm. In context of the hotel foundation design it will be analysed that what is he capacity requirement of the same and how much funds are there for it. studies involved at pre design stages are as follows:
- Analysing the location of the site where the building would be constructed
- Program writing in order to known the requirements of the user. It is inclusive of sorting the different requirements of space, tools machinery and useful connections.
- Evaluation of the total cost so that budget can be prepared so that accordingly planning for same can be done.
Facts to be collected to project the best appropriate foundation type for diverse varieties of structures are as follows:
Soil bearing capacity– This is the most important consideration that has to be taken while deciding the foundation type (Kapliński and Tamošaitiene, 2010). Here when the soils close to the surface is weak or is incapable of supporting the huge construction then it is essential that deep grounds are made so that the structure above surface gets the hold from inside. Contradict to this are the one where uniform stable level of ground is found and it need not to have much intense foundations.
Allowable load– The another factor that has to be considered while choosing the foundation is to determine the load which is allowed on particular surface area. here environmental factors are also considered that weather the place is prone to natural calamity or not. If yes, then building of high rise building is only done with having deep down foundations.
Types of structures – All commercial building, residential areas and industries are constructed in separate manner and with distinct capacities as residential sites do not require much of deep foundations and can be done on semi unstable level also. More consideration is required in case of the other two type of sites.
Types of foundations and their suitability for use with different types of structures
Give below are the range of foundations that are used in various constructions:
Individual or isolated footing – This is a widely used variety of foundation which is taken in use in case of constructing a building. Another name for it is pad foundation which is done on one piece of column (Zhang and et.al., 2010). Per unit size is determined through the bearing capacity of the soil.
Combined footing– It is adopted in case where more than two columns are together with having the overlap of the isolated footings. It is preferred by such structures where loads are supported by the columns.
Spread footings– the ground or support to these are wider and hence the overall load is shared with the more land area.
Raft of mat foundation– It is an entirely different type of foundation which is spread all over the construction area below the site. It is to give maximum strength to the building which is to be constructed above it. It is suitable to the construction of the hotel as this would be a big construction and need support as it has to be constructed near a water body too (Friedman, 2010).
Site information impacting on foundation plan
Different size, structure, layout surface impact the choice of foundation design. How it is impacting is discussed below:
Load from the building – This is the foremost factor to be considered. Here it is analysed that how huge the building is including the floors in it. apart from this while calculating the total load the pressure of air, other natural calamity, load of snow is also determined so that true image can have understood. Apart from this before deciding upon the construction.
Type of soil– there is different levels of soil below the surface area. One which is just beneath the land is the top one and just below it is the sub soil. This extent is used for the making of small sites.
Construction done in adjacent area– This is also an important criteria which can be used in order to determine the type of foundation to be used. If the one selected in neighbourhood is doing good and is fruitful then same can be applied while doing it for own site.
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Functional characteristics elements and the design selection criteria for their use
There are distinct elements of the site and each one of them has their own function. Selection of these has to be done with care as it gives a great influence on the visitor.
Walls– As here construction of hotel is planned it is important that the walls are attractive and strong. It would be a huge hotel and in order to give a good experience to the customers the designing of walls should be done in such a way that it gives a long lasting impression on the visitor (Johnson and Covello, 2012). The bricks or blocks should be well laid with one another as it improves the overall strength.
Roofs – It has to be strong enough hat it can bear the impact of heavy winds, rainfall, snowfall or other natural calamity. It should be capable enough to bear the heavy loads in case if some huge material is kept on it during the maintenance or as storage. Also maximum care to the water drainage should be given as accumulation of water can affect to the building to a great extent.
Floors– It has to be comfortable strong and clean that while in use people do not find it difficult to walk, it does not break in small accidents. Decision regarding the tile, granite, marble must be effective and well levelled.
Windows and doors– Selection criteria of both of these are also very complex as there are wide variety of these and in order to the maximum utilisation of the energy this is important that right design is chosen at right place (Wang and et.al., 2017). in same the direction of the wind, size of room, architect perception and location plays a vital role. Theme of hotel plays a major role in it has to match with the same.
Staircases– Purpose of these is to facilitate the user to reach at different floors in the building and also to use in case of emergencies. There are different ways through which it can be designed like rise and going, headroom and one with widths minimum unobstructed. They must be chosen considering the usage availability of land area.
Finishes– The most important part is this as it has major influence on the customers. It includes the colour, appearance, durability, texture and like factors. All these has to be decided as per trends and suggestions of architect who is experienced.
Pre-design studies carried out and types of information collected for a given construction site
As there is huge investment involve in the construction of hotel complex it is important that pre design study is done so that the required modification can be done well in advance (Zhou, Ding and Chen, 2013). Given below is the work done in context of same:
It would be first analysed that what will be the best material to use to link the hotel with the motorway as a bridge has to be made which will help in crossing the water body flowing parallel to the site. Then it required to determine the best foundation as it is going to be a multi-story building with having five floors and hence needs a strong base. This will help the architect to design the layout which needs to be approved by the development department as it should be constructed as per the guidance of law. Thereafter the estimated cost will be evaluated to know what materials can be avoided to maintain the budget and what is unavoidable in the construction. Other information that would be collected for the given site are the design document, construction field activity and inspection logs, quality control records.
Component parts of an element allow it to fulfil its function
All the distinct component parts of the hotel construction will assist in fulfilling its functions. How they will do it is elaborated below:
Concrete– This is going to assist the building with maximum strength and will deliver the long life to it. Protection from accidents like fire, water etc. will also be given.
Floor sheets– As the given site is going to be provide facilities to hundreds of users it is necessary that the floor sheets are strong enough. It would be effective and sound so that it can tolerate the pressure.
Foundations - It is the lowest part of the building and plays a very critical function. It ensures that the overall pressure is not concentrated to any one particular corner but is spread throughout (Yang, Zhang and Ma, 2010). Every portion has its maximum capacity to hold the load and with an appropriate usage of effective foundation design this pressure is divided in a way that the failure of the site does not take place.
Walls– It is designed with variety of material and using different substance like blocks bricks etc. the core function of these is to give support to the ceiling and floor so that all these can together take the load of building. It also protects the interiors from distinct external bodies like water, excess air. Growth of fungus etc. Apart from all these walls also perform an important function of protecting controlling the noise from the external factors so that those inside the building do not get disturb.
Different types of structural frame used to carry the primary and secondary elements of the superstructure
In order to carry the primary and secondary elements various types of structures frame is used. The most important and widely used one are discussed as follows:
Rigid frame structure– this as the name suggest do not allow the deformation of the structure. Here the placements of the beams and columns and other material is done in a way that it does not move once fixed.
Portal structure frame– it is another frame that seems to be a door like object. It is widely used in case of constructing the commercial buildings to facilities huge entrances (Arayici and et.al., 2011).
Fix ended rigid frame – Here the ends or the points meeting the foundations are fixed while doing the construction.
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Techniques used for re-mediating the site prior to construction commencing
It is very essential that the site is re- mediate before commencing the process of construction. Appropriate way of doing it are as follows:
Biological treatment – It is the process in which the organic compounds are breakdown in order to form the carbo dioxide and all this activity is carried out by the living organisms. Although inorganic substances can not be degraded biologically. Engineers with help of this process can remove the hydrocarbon impurities which are there in the soil.
Chemical treatment– Site engineers has different options in order to trade the chemicals to re mediate them. Chemical immobilisation is the widely used practice. Here permeation of the substance with the soil is done to use the soluble substances.
Oxidation- It is important to remove the toxicity and contamination from the soil and same can be done using this process. in order to do so there are few methods which are widely used like chloride dioxide and hydrogen peroxide (Ding and et.al., 2012).
Types of substructures works required for the infrastructures
As the investor wants to have a huge construction it is important that different substructures are made so that the final work is effective and appropriate. some of them are as follows:
Site clearance– This is one of the most important factor that needs to be considered while planning the layout and prior to the construction process. Here it is made sure that there are no elements like plants trees etc. There must be enough space so that the big vehicles can reach to the site specially trucks and other heavy transportation to make the construction material available.
Preparing Job layout– Here it is planned that where would be the warehouse to keep the raw material, location of the small office for the engineer, rest space for the workers etc. All these facilities should be well managed so that no discomfort is faced during the project construction process.
Timbering and strutting– It is a method through which a impermanent support to the sides of trench is given in order to give it a support in case where there is loose sub soils (Zavadskas And et.al., 2018).
Runner system– This is another system which is widely used in case where the ground is very loosely attached and soft. It is vital that the same is provided with an external support.
Superstructure, Substructure and Civil Engineering Structures necessary for Hotel Complex
In order to make the hotel complex different structures are required which are as follows:
Superstructure– it is that portion of the building which is visible or is constructed above the ground level. It is made using different elements like the bricks columns etc. In context of this hotel it would be a rectangular shape building with equal load on every corner. Use of beams and steal would be done so that it is strong and capable of lasting for long duration.
Substructure– Another layout which is not visible but most important for the complex is the foundation. It would be present below the base line in mat format so that the whole constructed hotel gets equal and strong support.
Civil engineering structure– It is another arrangement which has different purpose. As given in the scenario a connecting bridge needs to be constructed which would be done by the engineer.
Supply arrangements for primary services
In order to complete the project different facilities are required for ensuring the supply which are as follows:
Lift service– As it is going to be a 5 floor building it is necessary that a temporary lift is made so that heavy construction material is made available for the labours. It has to be safe and capable of taking huge loads.
Electricity supply– This is another major requirement. In order to work in dark and make use of different equipment’s it is important that there is continuous supply of energy (Randall, 2011). Without it making of such a big complex is difficult
Water supply– This is a crucial resource which is required at every step. Enough availability of same will ensure proper building.
Emergency alarm - As the work is complex and will be carried out using heavy equipment’s it is necessary that there are such alarms which can be used in case of any non-happenings or accidents if take place at the construction site.
Distribution arrangement for primary services
In order to make all the primary service available on time at the right place there will be effective transportation arrangements. With the help of same the raw material will be made available on time and in the right quantity. Thereafter such labour will be made on work who has the knowledge of working at huge sites and are good in their field. this would minimise the chances of accidents. Bridge construction would be done before so that the connection with the motor area can be facilitated. A 3 phase electric facility will be made available at the site which would be continuous so that no fluctuation in power is found and lifts and other equipment’s can be used regularly. Water supply would be made through contractors who can make the availability where it is required (Costin, Pradhananga and Teizer, 2012).
Elements of the superstructure used to facilitate the primary services
There are various elements of the superstructure which help in delivering primary services. It is inclusive of walls, stairs windows etc. while the site work is carried out use of all these elements are made. In order to ensure the supply after a certain time staircase are used as initially lifts cannot be used as it also require proper installation. Thereafter, walls help in giving support to the boards and other temporary stricter which are made to continue the work. Windows are used to get the material inside which is huge like the electronic equipment’s.
Distribution of the primary services impact on the overall design of the building
Continue supply and availability of the primary services plans a huge role in the final design of the site. In case of the hotel construction it has to be proper and such that both the visitors and the working staff finds it comfortable (Sardroud, 2012). If during the making due to less water use of same is not done proper than in some time only building will start getting affected as to make a strong structure it is important that use of water is properly done in its base. Apart from this fitting depends much on how properly it is checked during the in process which can only be done if initially the constructors were facilitated with proper energy supply. It shows that how such facilities has their major role in the final output.
From the above report this has been summarised that construction is a typical activity which involves much prior and post works to do. It is important that all the decision taken regarding it are well tested and planned as a small mistake can lead to great loss of investment, other resource and safety of human resource. There are variety of sites which are constructed which differs for personal use to commercial purpose. Every element that is part of it is has its separate crucial function to perform and if any one of them fails to do so then it can add much cost to the organisation.
Books and Journals
- Arayici, Y. and et.al., 2011. Technology adoption in the BIM implementation for lean architectural practice. Automation in construction. 20(2). pp.189-195.
- Chew, M.Y.L., 2017. Construction technology for tall buildings. World scientific.
- Costin, A., Pradhananga, N. and Teizer, J., 2012. Leveraging passive RFID technology for construction resource field mobility and status monitoring in a high-rise renovation project. Automation in Construction. 24.pp.1-15.
- Ding, L.Y. and et.al., 2012. Using nD technology to develop an integrated construction management system for city rail transit construction. Automation in Construction. 21. pp.64-73.
- Friedman, D., 2010. Historical building construction: design, materials, and technology. WW Norton & Company.
- Hong, W.K. And et.al., 2010. A new apartment construction technology with effective CO2 emission reduction capabilities. Energy. 35(6). pp.2639-2646.
- Hongshe, Y.A.N.G., 2010. Application of Horizontal Jet Grouting Technology in Consolidation of Sand Strata during Construction of Xingwangmao Tunnel [J]. Tunnel Construction.1.
- Johnson, B.B. and Covello, V.T. Eds., 2012. The social and cultural construction of risk: Essays on risk selection and perception (Vol. 3). Springer Science & Business Media.
- Kapliński, O. and Tamošaitiene, J., 2010. Game theory applications in construction engineering and management. Technological and economic development of economy.16(2). pp.348-363.
- Leonardi, P.M. and Barley, S.R., 2010. What’s under construction here? Social action, materiality, and power in constructivist studies of technology and organizing. Academy of Management Annals. 4(1). pp.1-51.
- Randall, T., 2011. Construction engineering requirements for integrating laser scanning technology and building information modeling. Journal of construction engineering and management. 137(10). pp.797-805.
- Sardroud, J.M., 2012. Influence of RFID technology on automated management of construction materials and components. Scientia Iranica. 19(3). pp.381-392.
- Wang, J. and et.al., 2017. The outlook of blockchain technology for construction engineering management. Frontiers of engineering management, pp.67-75.
- Wong, J.K. and et.al., 2013. Toward low-carbon construction processes: the visualisation of predicted emission via virtual prototyping technology. Automation in Construction. 33.pp.72-78.
- Yang, F., Zhang, B. and Ma, Q., 2010. Study of sticky rice− lime mortar technology for the restoration of historical masonry construction. Accounts of chemical research. 43(6). pp.936-944.
- Yankovskaya, A.E., Fuks, I.L. and Dementyev, Y.N., 2013. Mixed diagnostic tests in construction technology of the training and testing systems. International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology. 3(5). pp.169-174.
- Ye, G., Jin, Z., Xia, B. and Skitmore, M., 2014. Analyzing causes for reworks in construction projects in China. Journal of Management in Engineering. 31(6). p.04014097.
- Zavadskas, E.K. And et.al., 2018. Sustainable decision-making in civil engineering, construction and building technology. Sustainability. 10(1). p.14.