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Introduction Teenager Obesity

 Teenager Obesity is a serious public health problem and also negatively affects the development of child in the present arena. Obesity can be described as a complex disorder that involves increased concentration of fat in body. In UK, obesity is fairly common in teenagers from the age between 11 to 19 years old. Poor eating habits are the major reasons which results in overweight of children (Marfell-Jones and Olds, 2008). The obese children have a tendency to live mostly on high calorie, processed and fast food. McDonald is one such fast food chain that serves more than 65 million of visitors daily in 119 nations (Mcdonald's UK, 2015). As per the present case scenario, McDonald westbound, South London was taken. By conducting the study, researcher would be able to assess the effect of fast food restaurant on obesity in teenagers in South London. First section consists of Proposal which depicts the outline of research being undertaken. It gives the guideline for carrying out study. The second section consists of report that is prepared by formulating research specification and using agreed procedures. In the third section, evaluation of research will be provided with effective techniques to present the research outcomes.

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Task 1 Research Proposal

Formulating and recording the possible research project outline specifications

Aim: The main aim of the study is to examine the impact of fast food restaurant, especially McDonald westbound branch, South London on increasing obesity in teenagers.

Research objectives

The research objectives are as follows:

  • To identify the strategies adopt by McDonald westbound branch to increase the number of customers.
  • To discuss the working culture and impact of variety of products and services offer by McDonald to their customers
  • To investigate the current trends and effects of obesity in teenagers in South London   
  • To suggest the ways by which effects of Fast Food Restaurant on obesity can be minimized

Rationale for selection

What is the issue?

In the present research, researcher mainly emphasizes on understanding of the strategies adopt by McDonald westbound branch to enhance customer attention. Furthermore, study focuses on increasing teenager’s obesity in customers especially teenagers in term of health perspective. Teenagers are consuming fast food without much awareness about the unhealthy content in it (Countering fast food's health effects, 2015). This diet is responsible for overweight in teenagers.

Why it is an issue?

McDonald westbound branch, South London area is famous for the education area and geographical location as well as magnetize to visitors to visit there. Due to the effect of fast food and junk-food provided by restaurants like McDonald, obesity in teenager is increasing continuously. The effect of food content is directly causing harm to their body thereby leading to obesity (McDonald, Payne and Frow, 2011). As per the American psychology association (2012), in preschool age, 20% of youth are now overweight with obesity rates. This is now become a serious issue form health perspective such as poor health, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and many more (American psychology association, 2012).

Why is it an issue now?

It is an issue now because the number of fast food restaurant chains of McDonald is increasing year by year. Close location of these chains near schools and residential areas further makes it easy for the teenagers to consume fast food. In addition, lucrative services offer by firm to their customers are the other major factor which attracts children to consume fast-food. It is still issue now because teenager and population are still facing obesity related issue in South London. By selecting a particular branch, researcher tries to assess obesity in people.  From the review of previous literatures, it is clear that large number of increase in number of UK population who are suffering from obesity and Health concern is the major aspect which is required to be studied by taking this research project. This research will help to analyze the ways by which effects of obesity can be reduced.

Factors contributing to the process of research project selection

Several factors that influence the selection of current research project are:

Meeting the requirement: Research project has been selected in an attempt to meet the demand of course requirement and understand the impact of obesity in teenagers in particular reason.

Literature availability: The topic of obesity has provided sufficient literature studies thereby, making it easier to study the topic (MacDonald and McMenemy, 2012).

Current issue: The rising trend of obesity demands and main role of lucrative services offer by firm to attract their customers are the major issues which are creating health related problems. This needs to be well researched with the rise in number of fast food restaurants.

Critical review of key references

As per the information collected from firm website, it is clear that McDonald westbound branch in South London is using attractive adverting and promotion strategies to magnetize customers. Besides that, it offers different combo-offers and lucrative services to increase attention of students and teenagers those are studied in South London area. It is identified that on the basis of its strong supply chain and attractive layout of restaurant are the major factors which attracts customers to consume fast food services at westbound brand restaurant. Currie and their colleagues (2009) discussed about the changes in the supply of fast food restaurant and its negative impact on children and pregnant women. The finding of the study shows that due to presence of a fast food restaurant within 0.1 mile area of education, chances of obesity is increased up-to 5.2 percent.  It also enhances the probability of gaining weight over 20 kilos. It is identified that there was a direct relationship between obesity and presence of fast-food restaurants near residential and major locations of cities (Currie and et.al., 2009).

Gottwald, Ingensiep and Meinhardt (2010) were strongly agreed with the fact that with the increased consumption of fast food, there is increase in calories (Gottwald, Ingensiep and Meinhardt, 2010). This leads to accumulation of fat in body that further causes obesity in them. As per the studies made by Marfell-Jones and Olds (2008), it has been analyzed that per capita intake of calories in UK among the whole population has shown a remarkable increase (Marfell-Jones and Olds, 2008).  Studies made in this regard by Weis (2007) shows that obesity is increasing by 10% every year in UK. South London has high prevalence of teenage obesity as compared to other parts in UK. Obesity in Lambeth and Lewisham has worse than average level. Obese teenagers in Southwark are about 26.7% (Weis, 2007). But the doctors have recorded 62 obesity related admissions in Lambeth (located in South London) out of 100000 people as compared to 34 in whole London.   According to McDonald, Payne and Frow (2011), low cost, easy reach and increased consumption of items are the other major factors responsible for attracting teenagers. In the similar fashion, easy availability of McDonald restaurants near residential areas or schools is also the reason for rising obesity (McDonald, Payne and Frow, 2011). On the other hand, Prabhavathi, Kishore and Kumar (2011) explored that lifestyle adopted by young consumers, seeking alternate food items and delicious taste are the major attracting factors associated with the increasing sales of McDonald restaurant in south London region (Prabhavathi, Kishore and Kumar, 2011).

Research project specification

Research Methodology (RM) is a process which helps to plan the way in which investigation will be carried out. For the current research proposal, RM tools will be used as follows:

  • Research Philosophy: There are two types of research philosophies namely interpretivism and positivism (Denk, 2010).  
  • Research Approach: Inductive and Deductive are two main kinds of research approaches (Gobo, 2011).  
  • Research design: There are two types of research designs. They are descriptive and exploratory.  
  • Methods for collection of data: There are two types of data collection methods (Finney, 2001). It will be carried out in order to take this research study towards effective conclusion.  
  • Sampling: The sampling method helps to provide a way by which population can be selected for data collection. Probabilistic and non-probabilistic techniques are two types of sampling. In this study, probabilistic sampling will be taken. In probabilistic technique, equal chance is provided to select sample from wide population.  
  • Data Analysis: Qualitative and Quantitative are two types of data analysis techniques (Winter and McAuley, 2011). In the present research, data collected will be analyzed with the help of qualitative technique being thematic analysis. In which themes have been prepared to present fact related to obesity.

Matching resources efficiently to the research questions or hypothesis

Following resources are used to match the research questions as follows:

  • Financial Resources in the present study will be used for accessing information or data and for purchasing research material to pay to people that are associated in the research on McDonalds.
  • Human Resources such as researchers, analysts, reviewers etc. would be effectively chosen. These are involved in undertaking the research study. Their work will be helpful in data collection, analysis and evaluation.  
  • Time Resource such as Gantt Chart will be used to depict the status of carrying investigation on effect of Fast Food Restaurant McDonald on Obesity in teenagers in South London”.
  • Physical Resources available at libraries, recognized publishers etc. will be used for carrying out the secondary data collection.

Implementing The Research Project

Carrying out present research with respect to agreed format and process has been made below:

Over the last many years, prevalence of obesity has shown a sharp rise. It is estimated that fast food restaurants chains such as McDonald have been increasing year-by-year. Varieties of fast food provided by them are the major reasons for rising obesity. The strategies used by them are solely based on attracting children (Chou, Rashad and Grossman, 2008). The opening of restaurants near schools and residential areas is the major consequence of fast food on obesity. There are various issues due to consumption of fast food as offered by McDonalds (McDonald, Payne and Frow, 2011). These include diabetes, blood pressure etc. There are 8000 fast food outlets in London including McDonald. The above presented research proposal has been made on the basis of which research project will be undertaken.

Research Methodology

  • Research Philosophy: In the current investigation, positivism research philosophy will be used. It is taken to study the causes and effects of fast food of McDonald on teenagers in causing obesity in children of South London.
  • Research Approach: For the present research on effects of junk food on obesity, inductive approach will be more suitable. Approach is selected in an order to analyze the prevailing causes of fast food provided at McDonald.  
  • Research design: The current study will be best evaluated with the help of descriptive design. This technique is applied because it provides opportunity to researcher to provide information about services offer by fast-food restaurant.  
  • Methods for collection of data: For the current investigation, both primary and secondary methods will be used for collecting information
  • Sampling: In the present research, it will be applied to know about the prevailing of obesity in almost population. Health care professionals of South London are chosen for collecting primary data. The sample size has been calculated by using random sampling technique. Sample size for this research study is 10.
  • Data Analysis: As per the present case present case concerns, thematic data analysis technique which is qualitative nature was applied to explore data related to obesity in teenagers.
  • Ethical consideration: Firstly, the collection of data should be effective and appropriate. The data collection method makes use of only secondary data for collecting information from South London. With the use of authentic website sources, information has been collected (Aguinis, 2007). However, the prior permission for using some websites has been taken and presented with appropriate citation.

Record and collate relevant data by adopting systematic recording approaches

In the present research study, books, journals, online websites, reviews and working papers have been made in an order to arrive at the final outcomes. From the study, it is found that obesity is the major concern that has been rising in teenagers with the effect of fast food restaurant McDonald in South London (Chou, Rashad and Grossman, 2008). . This is the reason that compels to undertake the current research study. It can prove to be beneficial in delivering effective outcomes in the future.  In addition, strategies and lucrative promotion techniques used by management of McDonald westbound branch to increase the number of customers have been discussed in this section.

Areas for further consideration

Further study can be conducted by increasing sample size and emphasizes on health related problems associated with the consumption of fast-foods. In this regard, the study can give emphasis on opening hours, it could also look at the products they sell as well offering more variety to increase customers.

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Presentation

Use of agreed format for presenting outcomes

The study was made with respect to teenagers who are vulnerable to obesity at South London. With help of this study, researcher was able to understand strategies adopted by McDonald westbound branch to increase the number of customers. Following points are taken for presenting the research outcomes:

  • The findings were presented in the form of headings and sub-headings for better understanding.  Formatting such as use of tables and paragraphs with bullet format has been used. It is to show the reflecting of proper and appropriate presentation of research conducted.
  • Media such as journal publication such as New Library World, Journal of Business Research, professional body conference, documentary, press report etc. has been used to produce the effective outcomes.

References

  • Finney, S., 2001. Real-time data collection in Linux: A case study. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers.
  • Fraser, L. and et.al., 2011. Fast food, other food choices and body mass index in teenagers in the United Kingdom (ALSPAC): a structural equation modelling approach. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.
  • Gobo, G., 2011. Glocalizing methodology? The encounter between local methodologies. International Journal of Social Research Methodology.
  • Gottwald, F., Ingensiep, H. and Meinhardt, M., 2010. Food ethics. Springer.
  • Jasso, G., 2012. Safeguarding Justice Research. Sociological Methods & Research.
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