Sustainable Tourism Development
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23324 Downloads I Published: 22 Jul ,2016
Tourism is the fastest growing industry which contributes to a great extent in global economic development. The sustainable tourism industry refers to growth of tourism industry without damaging environment. With this aspect, tourism industry ensures that their working practices and their customers lay positive impact on the surroundings, society and economy. This leads to overall positive impact on tourism industry (Sustainable tourism, 2015). In the present report, significance of sustainable tourism development has been explained. In order to facilitate the study, France has been selected as the tourist destination. Further, the report highlights significance of tourism development planning in France. Thereafter, the concept and stages of sustainable tourism development has been explained. In addition to this, it describes the current issues in tourism development in France.
Tourism development planning is a government function to promote the tourism industry, frame objectives and develop strategy to achieve them. The tourism development planning further facilitates the sustainable development of tourism. It ensures the overall growth and development of tourism (Scott and et.al., 2008). Thereafter, the tourism development planning provides benefits to the stakeholders in several manners. Stakeholders represent those individuals or groups that have interest in tourism industry and can impact or be impacted with its operations. Therefore, stakeholders involve government, tourism organizations, tourist and society. Therefore, the benefit to stakeholders is explained as follows.
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Government: Government earns revenue in the form of tax so they are benefited with tourism development. The industry providing tourism services pay service tax while, tourists pay VAT on goods purchased during their visit. Therefore, government plans infrastructure like building transportation and accommodation that will further promote the tourism in France (Byrd, 2007).
Tourism organization:There are many organizations whose business depends upon the growth and development of tourism. It involves hotels, restaurants and transportation business that are operating in France. The tourism development planning has direct impact on the success of these organizations. It further increases their productivity and profitability.Local residents: It represents the individuals that are residing in tourist destination who get their livelihood from tourism. Therefore, tourism development planning will increase the tourism which will lead to the increase in their income and standard of living. Further, it increases the employment opportunities for residents (Lansing and De Vries, 2007).
Local residents: It represents the individuals that are residing in tourist destination who get their livelihood from tourism. Therefore, tourism development planning will increase the tourism which will lead to the increase in their income and standard of living. Further, it increases the employment opportunities for residents (Lansing and De Vries, 2007).
Tourist: They are the key people that are having major interest in tourism development planning. Their major concern is getting maximum satisfaction from their visit in France and getting value for the money spends. Therefore, tourism development planning helps in providing high quality of tourism services to guests.
There are many public and private organizations that operate in tourism industry of France and provide valuable services to visitors. Public organization involves government transportation facilities; accommodations etc. whereas private organizations involve hotels, restaurants and transport facilities owned by private individuals (Timur and Getz, 2008). Further, public and private sector can combine and form partnership to provide effective services to guests. Thereafter, different advantages and disadvantages from such partnership in tourism planning are explained as follows:
Optimum utilization of resources: With the partnership of public and private sector in tourism industry, there can be optimum utilization of resources of France. Therefore, the natural, cultural, heritage and human resources of country can be utilized in the best possible way.
Cost reduction: The government of France can minimize the cost incurred in construction of infrastructure, projects and in maintaining services. Therefore, the cost is shared among public-private sector which eventually reduces the cost (Ayuso, 2007).
Risk share: In partnership, the overall risk can be reduced and shared among public and private sectors. Therefore, the risk of failure of capital project, excess cost and issues in meeting with environmental regulations can be reduced.
Loss of government control: The public-private sector partnership involves sharing of risk and cost between both the sectors. It further involves sharing of decision making power which dilutes the control of government.
Reduced quality: If the public and private sector partnership fails, it may result in the reduction in the quality of tourism services (Tao and Wall, 2009). This may further causes a negative impact on the tourism business and decreases the visit of international tourist in country.
Political risk and labor issues: The lack of political stability in country may adversely affect the overall operations of public and private partnerships. However, the strict labor laws of country can also impact the tourism.
The main objective of tourism development planning process is to define the objectives for tourism sector and ascertaining ways to achieve those objectives. The purpose of tourism planning is to identify the approaches that are required for tourism development and for availing the upcoming opportunities in tourism industry (Bramwell, 2011). The major responsibility of tourism planning is of government, local community, tourism business operators, etc. Further, the major steps involved in tourism planning are as follows:
Background analysis: It involves studying the environment and factors that will help in promoting tourism. Further, it involves policies and programs framed by France government. It also involves analyzing the current tourist destination and their popularity among tourists. Thereafter, the demand of tourism is studied along with the strengths, weaknesses, problems and issues involved in tourism.
Research analysis: It involves analyzing the resources, market and competition within tourism industry. This research further helps in satisfying the tourism demand in a better manner.
Setting goal and objectives: In this step of tourism planning, long term and short term goals for tourism development is framed. Thereafter, strategies are designed to achieve those objectives.
Plan development: In this step, tourism plan is developed which describes programs, activities and budget of tourism (Lansing and De Vries, 2007). Thereafter, planning is done regarding development projects and their marketing initiatives. Thereafter, the roles and responsibilities of various individuals and groups associated with tourism development planning are defined.
Implementation and evaluation of plan: In this step, the prepared tourism plan is put into action by the responsible authority. Thereafter, plan is monitored and evaluated regularly. The performance of planning on the basis of attainment of goals is measured.
Further, the successful implementation of aforementioned planning will help at different levels, that is, international, national and regional. For instance, it will increase the international tourists and would enhance the national income of France. Thereafter, it will benefit the people that are residing in tourist destination and would increase their income and education level.
The tourism has range of positive and negative impacts on different factors. These impacts are explained as follows:
Economic impact: Tourism has direct impact on the economic viability of France. It has been identified that tourism contributes to the economic development at global level. Thereafter, it also creates job for various candidates directly in tourism industry and also in related industry (Sims, 2009). The employed people spend their earning on consumption of goods and services which again creates multiplier effect. To study the economic impact of tourism change in GDP, employment rate and household spending are used.
Social impact: Tourism also impacts the society in several ways like it involves development of infrastructure which benefits the society. Thereafter, it also leads to development of leisure facilities that are advantageous for community. Further, tourism promotes preservation of customs, traditions and heritage of France. Thereafter, it also increases the demand of local crafts, products and food. To measure the social impact, surveys are used. Thereafter, change in disposable income and household questionnaires are used.
Environmental impact: The natural beauty and environment are the major reason for tourism attraction (Lansing and De Vries, 2007). Tourists mostly visit to see the wildlife, gardens, etc. Due to this; there is pressure on authorities and tourism organization to conserve the habitat. Therefore, tourism helps in conserving wildlife, natural resources, forest, etc. Further, government of France adopts different policies that are pertaining to sustainable development as well as to protect and safeguard the environment. To measure the environmental impact, wildlife is monitored and deforestation rates are analyzed.
Sustainable development will help in increasing the tourism in country along with managing the resources and in ensuring the well being of France (Edgell Sr, 2013). The concept of sustainable development of tourism will help in meeting the present needs with effective planning to meet the future needs. The justification of sustainable tourism is explained as follows:
Green passport: France has introduced the concept of green passport for sustainable tourism. Main objective of introduction of this aspect is to educate the tourism guests to safeguard the natural habitat and biodiversity (Miller and et.al., 2010). Thereafter, its aim is to maintain the affluence of marine life and natural sites and landscapes. Further, green passport is available on international airports.
Marrakech Task force: It is the initiative that is done at global level by government of different nations to support and promote the implementation of sustainable consumption and production program. France is the part of this task force with its main focus on sustainable tourism development (Byrd, 2007). Main objective of this task force is to develop the tools and techniques to support the environment friendly tourism and to ensure maximum satisfaction to tourists.
E- tourism: France is using e-tools and internet portals to spread the awareness and information to stakeholders about the significance of sustainable tourism. Thereafter, training is also provided to stakeholders so that they can effectively contribute in the implementation of plesappropriate e-business models.
There are many internal and external factors that prevent the sustainable tourism in France. These factors are further explained as below:
Lack of awareness: There are many local communities that are still not aware of benefits of sustainable tourism. The local communities exploit resources for increasing their tourism business. Therefore, it is important for France to increase the awareness among local communities to enhance their profitability keeping in consideration the sustainability (Girard and Nijkamp, 2009).
Low profit and high cost: The implementation of sustainable programs involves heavy cost. Therefore, government has to incur more expenditure. Thereafter, government of France recovers this amount from tourism service providers and tourists in the form of tax. The increased tax burden results into low profit and high cost for stakeholders (Dodds and Butler, 2009).
Lack of coordination: There is lack of cooperation and coordination between government bodies and other stakeholders of tourism industry. The policies and programs of sustainable tourism are ineffectively coordinated which results into failure to meet the objective of sustainable tourism.
Economic priority: The major priority of tourism organizations is to increase their income therefore; they would show less interest in sustainability. Thus, their main focus is to increase the number of tourists which hinders the sustainable tourism development in France.
There are different stages of sustainable tourism development which are explained as below:
Objective: In this stage, the government and other authorities whose objective is to promote sustainable tourism define objectives. Main purpose of setting objective is to ensure the purpose of doing sustainable development. For instance, the objective of France is to safeguard the natural beauty and to protect the marine life and wildlife. Thereafter, it also wants to reduce the increasing deforestation and pollution.
Policy: In this stage, policies are made to achieve the aforemeplesntioned objectives smoothly (Hunter and Shaw, 2007). It serves as the guide and assists in decision making process. Thereafter, policy made for sustainable tourism in France should be flexible so that important changes can be done if required.
Plan: It is an important stage in which planning is done to achieve objectives that are aligning with the policy. However, it is important for the government to involve suggestions from stakeholders of tourism industry.
Strategy: Main objective of strategy is to accomplish the policy and plan effectively. In this stage, strategy is prepared which helps in conserving the natural sites, preserving resources, etc.
Enclave tourism is a new concept under which tourist activities are provided in specific location to provide overall experience of travel at specific location without moving to other places. For instance, cruise ship is the example of enclave tourism as it provides many services like, local food, music and experience in their cruise (Ballantyne, Packer and Hughes, 2009). Therefore, tourists spend most of their time and money on cruise which restrict the opportunities for local communities, hotels and restaurants of France. Therefore, the major moral and ethical issue in developing enclave tourism is that it negatively impacts the business of local organizations. Thereafter, it reduces the communication between tourists and local people therefore; tourist would not get to know about the local people, customs and traditions. Enclave tourism is generally done by wealthy individuals for instance, owner of resorts, cruise ship, etc. This further creates a gap between wealthy owners and poor local businessmen.
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Some of the recommendations for future tourism development for India and France are as follows:
From the above report, it can be concluded that tourism is the fastest growing sector and contributes to a large extent in economic development of nation. The sustainable tourism will help France in protecting its rich culture, biodiversity and environment. Thereafter, by including the stakeholders, government can make proper planning in the direction of sustainable development. Green passport is an effective concept that will help country to achieve its objective of sustainable development and planning.
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