Introduction Cultural Capital And Social Mobility
Cultural capital and social mobility are interconnected. These are the assets which can be tangible and intangible. This capital is not related with income, net worth and any other financial measures. It is divided into three parts as institutionalized (related to education and knowledge), embodied (related to personality, speech and skill), objectified (affiliated to clothes and other accessories). Social mobility is the movement of the individual between social strata within the society (Blokland, 2016). Mobility means the changes and it may be of any kind as from one place to another and from one position to other. It is required to have effective changes so that personal may adopt the alternative accordingly.
It is the capital that is not related to financial and non-financial asset but it is the asset of individual as their knowledge, intellectual skills, style of speech etc. It is related to social mobility because when such factors are used in effective way then it brings many changes to the society that is called social mobility. Pierre Bourdieu explained cultural capital in different context and interpreted that there are difference between level of performance and academic achievement of any person (Brooks and Waters, 2010).
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There are various kind of cultural capital such as:
- Embodied- It is the knowledge that is acquired by socialization to culture and tradition. This relied upon person's habitus which is more receptive to similar cultural influences.
- Objectified- It comprises of property of person as work of art, scientific instrument that can be used for economic profit.
- Institutionalized- It covers academic credentials and professional qualification that is gained by the person form institution. It has important role in labour market.
Mobility refers to movement in the society that may be from one factor to another. Changes are required to adopt so that necessary arrangement for betterment can be adopted. It can't be said that such alteration is good or bad. Social mobility in relation to society means the movement that likely to be for taking the good opportunities so that development can be made in the society.
There was one sociologist who wrote book on social mobility this topic and his book name was 'Social and Cultural Mobility'. It is said that there is no society which is completely closed and open. Society can be same on the basis of movement and discouragement. Changes in society may be upward and downward (Erel, 2010).
Mobility can be considered in different ways as-
- Change in occupation that be result in change in status.
- Promotion within same group.
This concept in Ghana
Cultural capital is one of the important segment in social development and growth. It is related to make the overall improvement in the society. There are many changes that can be identified by development of cultural capital. It is required for the nation to make the necessary innovation at workplace so that their citizen can be developed in more effective way. There are many changes that are presented in society due to cultural capital in Ghana as improvement of living standard of the people, new technological innovation at workplace, reduction in unemployment graph, increase in self employed persons and many more. Both the terms are inter-related and cultural capital has vast impact over social mobility.
There are many changes that can take place in society due to cultural activity. It is required to promote such activities so that new innovation and improvement can be made. Cultural of society, family values plat significant role in this regard and it is important for the social mobility (Fiske and Markus, 2012).
Social arrangements are important for the development of the society. Human capital is one of the important task for such development. There are many social policy that are made in Ghana so that overall development of the society can be made and to eliminate problems in this regard. They developed the process of change that ma make improvement in the society, economy, political and environmental and confidence of people. GSDO, 2014 identified and addressed the issues that are faced by Ghanaians and promote debate in public and private domain. They became more responsive for the issue that are confront by them on daily basis, ranging from sanitation to placement, corruption and others.
These are the issues that can be penetrated by radio discussion, social media exchange and electronic news sites. This nation has made effective arrangements for consideration of climate changes, energy crisis. They gave attention to for such development so that they may have social mobility (Froerer, 2012). It is one of the important part for the country to make new innovation so that they can attain standard level of social mobility. There are many changes that took place in Ghana and they have implement such alteration in effective sense so that there would be effective growth and development of nation.
Due to cultural capital, there is improvement in agricultural sector in cited country. Women are more motivate to take compulsory education so that they can take part in such growth. New improvements took place in this regard and new technologies are innovated by the personal so that they may have effective growth and development of the nation. Due to skills and knowledge of the personnel, there are many new concepts came in force in this regard so that they can make necessary improvements for the cultural and social developments.
Factors responsible for social mobility
It is one of important factor that helps to create social mobility. Improvements can be made by the employees of the organisation, when they are able to make more and more production (Mackenbach, 2012). This is required to motivate the personnel so that their workers may make new innovation. Open system can be implemented to motivate the people and it pushes workers to work more hard and improve the skills of personal.
Achievement and failures
It is the extra ability of the person that attracts attention of others. It is not necessary that all the attention resulted in social mobility. Failure affects the mobility but in negative sense. When cultural capital is not effective then individual will not be able to work effectively and it is finally resulted in failure and adversely affect the performance.
It is one of the important part of cultural capital and it has vast impact over social mobility. Social mobility is affected by education level. Skills and knowledge can be improved if there is effective mechanism of education because it enhanced by the education level of people. When they are more innovative and educated then they can devote their skills and knowledge in more effective way and mobility get enhanced.
Skills and training
Training is organised so that they personal can devote their best effort top the work. It is key part for social mobility. This provides assistance to the individual so that can complete their task on time and in more effective way. It helps to sharpen in skills of people so that they can utilise it to attain they goals and objectives (McDowell, 2011) . This is used to make innovation in cultural capital and affect the social mobility.
This is the effective part of cultural capital because it provides assistance to use the skills and knowledge in broader sense. When one is able to work more effectively then such person can utilise their knowledge in impactful way. It provides assistance to increase the social mobility because skills are used to enhance the performance and mobility get enhanced.
These are the rules and regulation that provides help to make the operation in impactful way. It is required to follow such legislation so that they can attain their goals on time. Many laws are formed that provide assistance to the society and to the organisation so that they can enhance their productivity and profitability. Legal provision are formed so that skills and knowledge can be enhance with the standards and it can be effectively used in social mobility (Scherger and Savage, 2010).
This is key factor that affect the social mobility. There are many people who move toward the urban area and they are failed to take the proper assistance. Many issues are faced by them in this regard. The people who are living in urban area are more intellectual and they are innovative to adopt the changes that are faced by them.
Bourdieu’s Concept of Habitus
Habitus means character and way of thinking. it is one of the important concept of Bourdieu. It is physical shape of cultural capital to deeply rooted habits, skills and the experience that one possesses with the working. Habitus allows one to successfully navigate with social environment. Thus is extended to taste for cultural objects as art, food and clothing. There are different people in the society that have different choice and way of thinking. It is one of important part to use such habitus in effective manner so that it can provide assistance in better way. Cultural capital and social mobility can be enhanced by using it.
This concept says that people do not have common thinking and it differs from each other. It is important part because if it is used in great manner then it resulted in increasing social mobility. This theory states that skills and knowledge affected by way of thinking of people and their characters (Spaaij, 2011). People of Ghana are motivated at workplace and they are devoting their skills and knowledge in effective ways so that they can make necessary improvement and bring new innovation so that social and economical growth and development can be achieved. There are different class of people in society and their taste and preference differs from other. Their ways of working play important role in this regard and they make more innovation by the experience so that mobility can be increased. Upper class people prefers fine art because they appreciate it from very early age and their taste is according to their culture that they follows. Their cultural capital is totally different from the others because they are from different surroundings. Working class individuals do not prefer fine art because they are from another habitus.
Bourdieu stated that people mistook the feel of the game because of culturally developed. This resulted into socially inequality because it is pretended that some people naturally disposed finer things while other people do not do so (Tramonte and Willms, 2010).
Thinking has vast impact over the cultural capital and social mobility because when such people perform their task in effective way then they got motivated to work hard and to attain the objective within time manner. Thinking power is affected by the society where they reside. It is required for the observer to use such tactics in effective way so that they may attain the larger level of social mobility.
Social development in Ghana
Education: Increase in education level makes people more skilled and knowledgable. It is the growth opportunity that cited country attained and this provides assistance to the nation to be more impactful so that they can fulfil the needs and wants of the society. There is increase in privatization of tertiary education. It has received less attention in term of policy and research.
Health: Many policies are framed in this regard so that they can provide maximum assistance to the people of nation. These are implemented to prevent erosion of achievements. This country is able to provide proper assistance to the society so that they can address issue that are faced by them in relation to their health.
Water and sanitation: Overall water situation of this nation gets enhanced but there is no enhancement in sanitation process. There were many issues that faced by the people of the nation but they make necessary improvement in this regard so that they can be able to provide better services to their citizen (Tzanakis, 2011). Improved sources of water were used by them and they make new innovation and development of technology so improved versions can be used in this regard.
Housing: Huge housing deficit was faced by the Ghana. Low income group and youth faced this issue. There were many short term efforts took in place so that they can make necessary arrangements in this regard. When there is increase in skills and knowledge of the people then they try to make new innovation in society so that they can address the issue in this regard.
Work and Employment: Low investment rate was one of the crisis of this nation and there was also low employment rate that hinder the growth of this country. People get skilled and they are bale to implement their best outcomes in best manner so that they can achieve target. There are many techniques that are adopted in this regard so that they can create good opportunity of work at their workplace.
Energy: Deficient and unreliable power supply is one of the constraints that create hindrance in this regard. There were many opportunities that can be used by the nation in this regard so that they can make necessary improvements. New and innovative technologies are used in power generation equipment plant and it provides assistance to eliminate the issue that are in such plant.
There are many facility that are provided by cultural capital to the society so that there would be great development. Social developments are made by way of new and innovative technologies so that the problems that are faced by the society in this regard can be addressed in more effective way (Yaish and Katz-Gerro, 2010). The Bourdieu's concept is used here that states that characteristics of people, thinking power, innovation, ways of implementation are different from one to another. This is key aspect that is used to improve cultural capital and social mobility. There are many innovative things that were used by the society people so that they can make improvement in living standards. Number of aspect provide assistance in this regard. The working environment plays important role because the improvement at workplace, totally depends upon it.
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Cultural capital is the skills and knowledge that is possessed by the people from their surroundings. It is required for the nation to make necessary arrangement in this regard so that new innovation can be made (Tzanakis, 2011). Social mobility can be increased by using effective tactics so that effective standard can be established and goals and objectives can be achieved.
As per the above discussion it can be concluded that there are many innovation that took place in the society and all the improvement depends upon skills and knowledge that one possess from their society. There are many social development took place ion Ghana and it is important for the nation because it provides assistance to them to run their operation in more effective manner. Social development that took place were related to housing, water and sanitation, energy, work and employment, education level etc. These are the important segment that are taken into consideration and it has vat impact over the growth and development of the society.
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- Mackenbach, J.P., 2012. The persistence of health inequalities in modern welfare states: the explanation of a paradox. Social science & medicine. 75(4). pp.761-769.
- McDowell, L., 2011. Capital culture: Gender at work in the city (Vol. 65). John Wiley & Sons.
- Scherger, S. and Savage, M., 2010. Cultural transmission, educational attainment and social mobility. The Sociological Review. 58(3). pp.406-428.
- Spaaij, R., 2011. Sport and social mobility: Crossing boundaries. Taylor & Francis.
- Tramonte, L. and Willms, J.D., 2010. Cultural capital and its effects on education outcomes. Economics of Education Review. 29(2). pp.200-213.
- Tzanakis, M., 2011. Bourdieu’s social reproduction thesis and the role of cultural capital in educational attainment: A critical review of key empirical studies. Educate~. 11(1). pp.76-90.
- Yaish, M. and Katz-Gerro, T., 2010. Disentangling ‘cultural capital’: The consequences of cultural and economic resources for taste and participation. European Sociological Review. p.jcq056.