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Technology has become a very important aspect of the modern life as it is considered to be the most vital component of their daily lives. Every facet of lives of individuals is now in some or the other way is related with technology. One such very crucial part is the new generation TVs – SMART TVs. They have become highly advanced as people nowadays do not wish to just 'watch television' rather they wish to experience things that they watch on TV (Marias, 2012). Considering the same, companies which are manufacturing TVs are changing their technology not only in producing it but also the one that they fit into it. New technologies such as LED (Light Emitting Diode) & IPS (In-plane switching) screens, etc. are becoming very common. In addition to this, modern TV's are also equipped with built in Wi-Fi systems so that the viewers can get a unique experience and make the task much more enjoyable. In this sense, it can be said that modern TVs are more of computer systems in their own rights as people are able to browse the net and do all such activities which earlier were limited to the computers only.
But as these technologies have been made a very important part of modern day televisions, these have started to present a very unique set of their own problems and issues. Likes of hacking, viruses, malware attacks, etc. have become very common. Due to this reason, many a times, even after spending huge amount of money on such TV sets, people are not able to enjoy it; rather the only experience they get is that of tension. The present report sheds light on different vulnerability issues and potential flaws as well as various forensic recovery problems in the new generation SMART TVs.
For effectively conducting any research investigation and also for fulfilling its aim and objectives, to a researcher, it is imperative to gain thorough knowledge and understanding about any given topic. Such knowledge can be obtained by studying the past literatures or studies on the subject matter and reviewing it from different angles. Such an analysis equips both reader as well as researcher on different aspects that are related to the study and makes effective attempts so as to fulfil the aim and objectives of study. With the help of a literature review section, researcher can gain thorough conceptual clarity in addition to develop a sound theoretical base. IN this way, the study can be carried out in an efficient and effective manner. In literature review section of the present investigation, researcher would assess the growth and emergence of Smart TVs and Smart Houses in recent years. In addition to this, vulnerabilities and potential flaws in these would also be discussed in the study. Furthermore, different Forensic Recovery Issues in Smart TVs are also presented in this section.
Technologies used in television sets now have changed by great margins. Cathode Ray televisions or even LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) TVs were used as earlier as in present scenario, new kind of emerging technology is being used nowadays, which has made the viewing screen smarter and intelligent as well as responsive as per the needs of modern people as said by Pyrek (2010). Companies such as Apple, Samsung, LG, etc. are the world leaders in manufacturing Smart TVs as with the same; they intend to provide unique and effective experience to the viewer so that their needs can be fulfilled (Aronson and Cole, 2009). A Smart TV can be defined as a 'connected TV' or a 'hybrid TV'. They usually come with a set-top box and with internet features as well. But herein Nelson, Phillips and Steuart (2009), recalls that such televisions must not be mistaken for 'internet TV's' as they consist of such features which help in connecting it to the internet. Such entertainment systems nowadays come with preloaded operating systems such as Android, Linux or Mac OS, etc. (Larson, Vass and Wise, 2011). With these systems, television manufacturing companies attempt at providing high quality yet unique experiences to viewers and thus attempt to fulfil all their needs and desires. In this regard, it may not be wrong to say that Smart TVs have become an integral part of the modern day life as people cannot pass a day without such kind of technologies that are surrounding them.
First patent was filed in the year 1994 for an "intelligent" television system that is linked with data processing systems by the means of a digital or analogue network (Nower and Blaszczynski, 2008). Furthermore, one of the most critical features of a Smart TV is that it automatically downloads necessary software on the basis of usage and needs of user(s). With the help of such an approach, viewers do not have to worry too much about the software that might be used in the TV and thus, it also make people able to have a comfortable and unique viewing. Even though the concept was introduced first back in 1994, it did not gain any popularity until late 2000s when people accepted it as the future of television sets. But even after this, the production initiated only in early 2010s as companies brought about and implemented great improvements in these television sets (Graham and Thrift, 2007). There are numerous kinds of functions which can be performed through Smart TVs. One of them is browsing the web through internet connectivity feature of TVs. Nowadays; it has become a very common feature that television sets comprise of. Another very popular yet prominent feature of televisions is providing access to user generated contents that is stored either on a hard disk or on a cloud. Users can connect their TV to such systems through a USB port or by connecting it to the internet and by accessing the cloud. In addition to it, users can also connect their TVs with gaming consoles from companies such as Sony or Microsoft XBOX, etc. In this way, they can play games with their friends, family etc (Flick and Morehouse, 2010). Herein Kipper (2007), states that it is not necessary for a co-player to be physically present at a location rather they can be at some place and still able to play the game. This has happened mainly because of the advent of Smart TVs. High Definition (HD) viewing is also a very common feature in such TVs. Through it, people get an opportunity to view 'crystal clear' pictures on the screen (Boztas, 2015).
In recent years, Smart TVs have become very popular, as they have emerged to become some of the commonly found gadgets in homes. Due to this very reason, sales of such televisions has sky-rocketed, as every household around the planet has at least one Smart TV (). These developments have happened at such a rapid pace, now people are thinking about the future of scuh televisions, as their needs and demands in this regard have changed dramatically. In this sense, it may not be wrong to say that it has become imperative for manufacturers of Smart TVs that they develop new qualitites and features in such TVs so that demands of customers can be fulfilled to the greatest extent possible, thus keeping them happy and satisfied with the company. Future of Smart TVs today has been captured in boxes such as 'Roku 3' which offers various kinds of third party apps to users to enhance their experience; along with optimal performance and simplified remote. Customers can use their Smart TVs for a wide variety of functions in addition to just watching the TV. For instance, they can access their social netwroking accounts such as that of Facebook. It can be expected in future that users can view news stream of Facebook on their Smart TVs. In addition to this, the users can also run various third party apps through these television sets. Customers can view movies and serials through their Netflix account, and pay for the subscription through their credit/debit card via their Smart TVs itself, as it can be connected to the internet easily.
Further, in near future manufacturers of Smart TVs can provide features such as motion sensors, mic, camera, voice sensors, etc. which would make the experience of watching TV or performing any other such acts on the TV a much simple. For instance, users can give voice commands of televisions such as “TV turn on”; “change the channel”; “TV turn off”, etc. and a varitey of other such voice instructions as well. In addition to this, Smart TVs in future would not just remain a household name, rather they would be used for office and educational purposes as well. Today, Smart TVs are used very commonly in homes, but in near future it can be said that they would be used by different business houses and offices as well; along with at various educational institutes.
Smart TVs can be defined as a television which has the capability to get connected to internet and it consists of such features or technologies with which viewers can be provided with a very unique as well as high quality experience. Further, Smart TVs also provide advanced computing capabilities and connectivity than that of a normal TV (Kirschenbaum, 2008). They have become a very crucial part of the modern day life as more people around the world are purchasing such television sets. One of the main reasons which explain Smart TVs to become such a crucial part of everyday life of individuals is that it helps them to improve their viewing experience by great margins. Since these provide internet connectivity, users can order and/or download any TV show or a movie and can view it immediately.
But there are many kinds of issues and problems that have risen through the use of TVs. One of the major among all is that it is insecure (Nelson, Phillips and Steuart, 2009). In recent past, numerous issues have been found which explains that installing Smart TVs at home is not very secure as companies which manufacture such devices have developed many features which 'watch and listen' and thus, keep an eye on every move of the user, even if they have not enabled such a feature in the device. Manufacturers are then selling the same information for a 'fortune' as with such kinds of systems, they attempt to monitor the viewing habits and preferences of users and then inform other companies as well as internet firms, who then try to develop their goods (Kipper, 2007). On various occasions it has been found that Smart TVs can be hacked easily by hackers, after which they can gain control over cameras and microphones installed in the device and still remain hidden (Hill, 2013). Because of this very reason, they present high risks and are extremely vulnerable in nature. To provide further details into the issue, it can be said that remotes that are used with Smart TVs can also be hacked easily. For instance, recently it was observed that Samsung televisions and Blu-ray players provided by the company can be hacked easily and spun into continuous restart loops by hackers. Herein, it was observed that the devices can be made to restart every five seconds by developing and setting fields such as MAC addresses to long strings. Such attacks can be made a lot simpler when these devices are kept in insecure wireless or Wi-Fi networks (Pauli, 2012). Similarly, it was observed while reviewing Smart TV offered by Philips with the “Miracast” feature that there are various areas that the TV lacks in. One of them is the secured, but still 'unsecured' Wi-Fi feature of the TV. Anyone who was within the range of device's Wi-Fi feature could connect to it and then abuse all the nice features provided by Miracast. They could access features such as system and configuration files on the TV; files on any USB attached with the TV, etc. (Chirgwin, 2014). But on the other hand Boztas (2015), states that Smart TVs are not this much risky, rather are very safe, as manufacturers such as Sony, Samsung, etc. after detecting these flaws and have made necessary changes in the software by way of upgrading them. In this regard Flick and Morehouse (2010) recalls that these companies have not taken any appropriate measures to prevent such risks from occurring, because they have no intention of taking steps to control the issue, as they are earn huge loads of money by selling information they get by keeping a strict surveillance over people (Ngak, 2013). This is one of the prime issues faced by people or the users of such devices. The concept of 'privacy' gets completely destroyed by this. Therefore, it may not be wrong to say that people are not able to lead a comfortable and safe life, which essentially they should be able to, but since their every move or whisper can easily be monitored as well as stored by either the company itself or by some hacker. In this sense Aronson and Cole (2009), believes that Smart TVs of today are more of just 'boxes based on Linux operating systems with front facing cameras, internet connectivity and a load of other features' (Winter, 2013). But a TV cannot be termed to a 'smart' one until and unless it is absolutely safe and secure.
Recently a test was carried out Smart TV of Samsung by hacking into it and 'turning on' front facing camera of the device. Through the test it became clear that there a large number of flaws and vulnerabilities that exist in TVs produced by the company, turning them into high risk gadgets. Hacking is the major risk that emerge from using such television sets (Henson and Taylor, 2014). Winter (2013) recalls that the major behind it is these TVs usually operate on operating systems like the ones which are used to run smartphones, so that third party applications can be used on them. This makes them highly vulnerable to hacking attacks, as was seen in the above mentioned experiment (Grothaus, 2013). In another experiment, further augmented the fact that these devices are easily hackable, as a hacker was able to gain control of eight different houses by accessing their Smart TVs and other such systems. According to Thompson and Lee, (2013), rather than considering these devices to be 'smart', people should start thinking their houses to be just computers because of use of these systems; also consider it to be the same, and take same steps that are taken to protect computers from getting hacked for their houses (Pyrek, 2010).
There are plenty of other threats as well which make Smart TVs and Smart Homes much less secure and thus inefficient. One of them is that they are always at risk of getting attacked by malware and various other kinds of viruses. This happens as such movies and shows can be watched on these TVs through different tools such as external hard disks, pen drives, etc. Due to this very reason, there are very less chances that these devices can be used in an efficient and effective manner. In many past studies threat of viruses is the prime risk that smart TV present (Lowings and Wicks, 2012). It has been observed that people use such devices on a regular basis, more so to do their every day tasks such as using social networking websites or browsing the internet, etc. there are chances that these TVs might get infected by viruses and malware when a external device such as a thumb or flash drive is attached to it. Due to this very reason there are substantial chances that an individual may not be able to enjoy watching shows or movies on his TV as he would not able to have a pleasant experience during the same.
There are a variety of ways in which Smart TVs such as the ones manufactured by Apple can be hacked into easily. For instance there are chances that a hacker may develop some bad and malicious apps and introduce them at the app store, which if downloaded by users, would enable hacker to gain access to the whole TV, and damage it by putting some or the other kinds of viruses in it. Developers with negative intentions can make applications for TVs such as News apps, games, etc. which when downloaded in the TV would allow them to access all kinds of files associated with the Smart TV. Furthermore a bad guy or a hacker in this case can also remotely access mics and camera of the device, along with gaining control over voice sensors as well. This would allow the hacker to put a surveillance on the user and thus be able to 'enter their private world'.
In similarity to Smart TVs, there are plenty of risks that arise out of Smart homes as well. It can be supported through fact that recently many device security specialists had determined large amount of vulnerabilities in Belkin's WeMo Home Automation System (Galamas, 2011). Herein the experts stated that these shortfalls of the system can be hacked into easily which would allow the attackers to remotely control all devices attached to WeMO. This way attackers can do all sorts of activities, such as blacking out the lights in a home, or any other such activity (Waugh, 2014). Further the specialists found another major vulnerability in these systems, in which WeMo devices send sensitive data in plain text, meaning that if they are hacked, then the attacker can gain access to a wide variety of confidential information about owner(s) of the house, leaving them completely exposed to malicious attacks. If an unauthorized person gets access to one WeMo devices, then they can use information extracted from it to gain control over other similar devices present in the network (Greif and Bowers, 2007).
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Forensics basically is a term which is used to describe application of knowledge related to law and science so as to investigate something. Similarly, digital forensics is the application of computer science and investigative procedures for a legal purpose wherein digital evidences are analysed and searched by relevant authorities. Nower and Blaszczynski (2008) recalls that digital forensics is not just related to laptops and computers, rather it also involves mobile devices, different networks and cloud systems as well. Furthermore, analysis of images, videos, audio, etc. is also involved in the process of digital forensics (Lian, Kanellopoulos and Ruffo, 2009). In the modern age, digital forensics has emerged to be one of the most vital components of digital technology, because it has been observed that majority of acts carried out by people are based on these only. In this regard, Galamas (2011) states that there are a majority of options and situations in which techniques of digital forensics can be used. It is used in criminal investigations, civil litigations, administrative matters, etc. (Thompson and Lee, 2013). According to Marias (2012), main reason behind increased use of digital forensics can be explained and understood through fact that computers and other forms of digital technology have become an important and crucial part of working of people in the modern age. They are the central aspect of every day living, as people use them on a constant basis, regardless of function that they may be asked to perform.
Smart TVs have become an integral part of everyday lives of individuals, as they use such devices to perform a variety of routine tasks and functions such as accessing social networking sites or watching video on demand (VoD), instant messaging, etc. (Falayleh, 2013). Furthermore, use of Smart TVs even though allow the users to perform a wide array of tasks and activities, but they leave a digital trace or footprint, because of which they can be hacked into quiet easily and effectively. Such situations arise mainly as Smart TVs essentially are a type of computer, which on various occasions have been determined to be very easy to be hacked into. In a study by Boztas, Riethoven and Roeloffs (2015) it was observed that a typical Smart TV, such as one manufactured by Samsung contains a large amount of information not just about the product itself, but also about the user(s) and in some cases about the network that the TV is connected to (Sutherland, Read and Xynos, 2014). In addition to it, report by Boztas, Riethoven and Roeloffs (2015), further states that various experiments on Samsung's Smart TVs revealed that if the TV is compromised, then the hacker can easily gain information about various apps that may be installed in the device. This is because of reason that data about such applications, by default, is saved in subdirectory widgets. Hackers can easily gain access to these kinds of information and gain substantial knowledge about the individual (Flick and Morehouse, 2010). Subdirectory user consists of detail about applications that user(s) install on the TV manually; while the subdirectory normal contains data of apps which have been installed through Samsung App Store (Boztas, 2015). If an individual with malicious intentions gets access to such kind of information, then he can easily obtain confidential information about the user such as their financial data, etc. Furthermore, they can also perform malicious activities in the TV, as essentially it is a computer or a smart phone which can be compromised, i.e. hacked fairly easily (Armerding, 2012).
Additionally, the report also opined that a hacker can easily obtain information about a user's web activity, by gaining access to their Smart TV. The device saves details about internet activities of individuals. It can be supported through fact that in research by Boztas, Riethoven and Roeloffs (2015), it was found that a Smart TV by Samsung records and saves all internet based activities of users, such as the website(s) they may have surfed in SQLite databases (Boztas, 2015). These can be accessed very easily, once a person with adverse intentions hacks into the TV. This way a hacker can even try to control the life of an individual by denying access to some websites that they use frequently (Xynos and et. al, 2010). For instance, in such cases, a hacker can control the life of a person by denying them access to their social networking account such as Facebook and perform different malicious activities. Additionally, if a user accesses their bank accounts through their Smart TV such as the one manufactured and sold by Samsung, a hacker can gain control over such accounts and may even perform some illegal transactions in name of the user (Hoog and Strzempka, 2011). Thus through this research study, it can be said that Smart TVs can be a very good source of obtaining information about the user(s) for digital forensics or malicious purposes as well.
In recent years, concept of Internet of Things (IoT) has gained substantial popularity and has emerged to become a leading phenomenon in the world of internet and digital forensics as well. Through it, authorities related with the concept of digital forensics can carry out their tasks and duties in a much efficient and effective manner (Blyth, 2014). It can be supported through fact that it provides them with different richer sources of evidence from the physical world than that of the traditional computer systems. There are a number of issues and challenges that the authorities in this regard have to face. One of them is identification (Hegarty, Lamb and Attwood, 2014). It is an issue because of reason that it becomes very hard for authorities to identify the area or source where the data in question is stored and thus to retrieve it. Since there are a large number of places where such kind of information may be stored, it may not be wrong to say that determining the location of these data can be a very critical process. For experts on digital forensics, it would be imperative that they are able to find out the exact location of such data packets, before it gets erased or negatively affected (Morakis and Blyth, 2011).
Another very critical issue in digital forensics is related to preserving the data. It is an important issue because of reason that after a little period of time, such information sets get deleted from the system. This can be supported through fact that in a study by Hegarty, Lamb and Attwood (2014), it was observed that evidence volatility is one of the major problems in IoT. Such a phenomena usually happens because a thing, i.e. a person or a system may store the data locally, due to which lifespan of information sets is very limited as they can very easily be overwritten or erased (Owen and Thomas, 2011). In such situations, experts on digital forensics need to make a copy of these kinds of information, as soon as they are able to lay their hands on them.
One of the major issues that has emerged in the world of digital forensics is to understand the meaning and motive behind such malicious activities. On many occasions it has been observed that companies operating across different sectors around the world tend to obtain information about people through any source that they can access, so that their operations can be modified and enhanced accordingly (Jones and et. al, 2009). Such data sets usually are very valuable from a marketing perspectives, because of reason that companies with the help of such information sets can make decisions about products and/or services that they sell in target market. But this aggregation of data about customers becomes an issue from a legal standpoint of view. Governments across the planet have developed various laws and regulations regarding data theft and digital privacy of individuals. According to such laws, any unauthorized party if found to be in possession of such data, acquired through illegal manners can be punished and/or penalized (Lowings and Wicks, 2012). This is an issue in digital forensics, mainly because of reason that authorities as well as experts on the given field have to identify if such information sets have been aggregated or not; in addition to determining “aggregation offence” as well in the scenario.
One of the prime issues of digital forensics is that yet there is no effective solution to solving the problem of hacking and carrying out malicious activities through such 'Smart' devices. This is because of reason that while developing these modern tools, such aspects were not taken into consideration by the relevant authorities (Dowland, Furnell and Ghita, 2014). Therefore, it may not be wrong to say that companies had not even thought or conceived the idea that these devices can be hacked so easily or they could be used for such malicious activities. Since manufacturers of these smart devices never had anticipated such issues could ever arise, because of which companies never focused on development of a solution for the same. In current, there are million of smart TVs all around the planet, due to which securing these has emerged to be one of the major problems or issues on concept of IoT. Because of this reason, manufacturers of such Smart devices now need to develop such tools and techniques through which these TVs can be secured from eminent hacking attacks along with safeguarding them (Pyrek, 2010).
Today Smart TV market is being ruled by devices provided by big companies such as Samsung, LG, Apple, etc. as they have all the resources available to them through which such devices can be manufactured easily and effectively (Henson and Taylor, 2014). One of the leading devices of this market is that of the Apple TV. Essentially it is a digital media player that connects iPhones of an individual with that of their television set, providing them the ability to view things shown on their mobile on a large screen. Today it is the prime technology existing in the Smart TV market. But just like other such devices in the market, the Apple TV can also be hacked into and that too quiet easily. Since it can be easily connected to one's iPhone, it may not be wrong to say that an individual with malicious intentions, by hacking the device can access the smart phone and data such as music, videos, photos, contacts, etc. and other such valuable pieces of information (Xynos and et. al, 2010). Therefore, it may not be wrong to say that the hacker can acquire a lot of information about the user(s), such as their confidential information, quiet easily and effectively.
Mainly there are two ways in which Apple TV can be modified – The Old Way and The New Way. In the Old Way, a hacker would be required to remove the drive on which data about the user is recorded and stored, i.e. the hard disk (Joyce, Powers and Adelstien, 2008). Then, scripts and/or binaries would have to be copied manually by the given individual, though it may take quiet some time, but in the end can proved to be a very efficient and effective way of hacking and modifying the device. Though it is a very reliable method of hacking the device, but it is a very time consuming process, as there are a number of steps and procedures that would have to be undertaken in order to gain access to and control over the device.
On the other hand, The New Way is a much simple one to be used, as there are fewer steps that have to be undertaken in this regard. A hacker would be required to just point and click on various buttons which would enable him to modify the device (Wilson, 2015). In this sense, it may not be wrong to say that person with negative intentions can gain access to a wide variety of data through either of the two methods, which would enable him to change settings of the Apple TV and thus be able to hack into it with great ease and comfort. Therefore, it may also be not wrong to say that hackers can extract a wide variety of data or information by hacking the given device. This also means that experts on digital forensics can also gain access to such sorts of data with great ease and comfort, as they in essence they would be able to control the lives of individuals, as they would be having significant access to information about such people (Hill, 2013). Thus, it may not be wrong to say that hackers as well as experts of digital forensics can extract a lot of data about the individuals and also be able to assess how their device is related with a crime. This is because of reason that such experts can easily find out the various activities that may have carried out through the device.
Herein, it can be said that it is possible for digital forensic experts as well as hackers to extract enough information so as to be able to map location of an individual on a map (Morakis and Blyth, 2011). This is mainly because of reason that the device transmits information about its location to various servers of Apple located in different parts of the world. Digital forensic experts can take permission from authorities of the company as well as various other regulatory bodies on the subject to access data about individual(s) from servers of the company. This also means that relevant authorities by obtaining necessary permissions or hackers by hacking into servers of the company can map the location of given device as well as the individual who owns it on a regular basis (Galamas, 2011). This would allow them the capability to closely monitor movements of the concerned individual(s). Furthermore, the Apple TV sends various kinds of information about its various functions such as crash reports; panic logs; reset logs; usage logs, etc. to company servers. Since these devices are connected with iPhones, it can be said that it becomes a fairly simple task for a hacker or a digital forensic expert to map location of the concerned individual (Winter, 2013).
But on the other hand Flick and Morehouse (2010) believes that it is very difficult for any one to hack into any product manufactured by the company, such as Apple TV, mainly because of reason that it takes a lot of precautionary steps which could allow it to make it a very safe and secure product. In this sense, it may not be wrong to say that if experts on digital forensics take the route of hacking into the device, then it wouldn't be possible for them to extract relevant information in appropriate quantities. This would be mainly because of reason that the given product is virtually 'un-hackable' (Kessler, 2012). In this context, there is an aspect to such devices, which can make it fairly easy to be hacked. For instance, users can download and install various third party apps on the device, which could provide developer of the application with the ability to monitor activities of Apple TV and thus also control it to a great extent (Jones and et. al, 2009). There are various utility software available in the market which can allow the users to stretch its functionality significantly. One of the, is that of 'Patchstick'. By developing a malicious patchstick software, an individual such as a hacker can easily obtain thorough information about user of the Apple TV. This happens mainly because of reason that installing such malicious software on the device, concerned individual can easily gain access to Apple TV device by the FTP (File Transfer Protocol) system (Kessler, 2012).
In such cases, it has been observed that once these third party applications are downloaded and installed, there are chances that the device may start to behave in an unwanted manner, because of reason that viruses or bugs may be present in it (Marias, 2012). This would lead to gradual decline in device's performance, eventually rendering it useless. In the mean time, the hacker can easily monitor activities of the individual and may start to influence their lives in a negative or adverse manner.
In addition to obtaining different sorts of information about user(s) of the Apple TV, hackers can also monitor traffic in a network. This would happen primarily because of reason that the hacker would have sufficient access to the servers of Apple, they can easily keep an eye over the whole network and thus monitor traffic and other TV devices in the network (Aronson and Cole, 2009). Thus, it may not be wrong to say that hackers can virtually the whole network as well, once they are able to penetrate security measures and systems of one such device in a network. On the other hand, it is very difficult for hackers to extract relevant information through USB port(s) of the device (Kessler, 2012). This is mainly because of reason that the company has taken precautionary steps by developing a strong firewall system so that data stored on different USB devices connected through such ports can be protected and safeguarded. Therefore, it can be said that it is very hard for a hacker to obtain information through USB services port of the device (Thompson and Lee, 2013).
Digital forensics is one of the major areas of modern digital technology to which relevant authorities pay a lot of attention to, as they believe that it is one of the most effective source from which criminal activities can be controlled and necessary actions can be taken so as to prevent such issues arising in the future. During the study, it was observed that today Smart TVs have become an integral part of lives of individuals around the planet. They have made lives of people a lot simpler, as they can perform a wide range of activities on such devices, but they are very vulnerable in nature, as they can be hacked fairly easily and the lives of concerned individuals can be monitored and affected adversely to a great extent
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Type: Assignment I
Published: 08 May ,2020 I
INTRODUCTION On the basis of the job descriptions and advertisements of the structural engineering, it has been analysed that there are a variety of skills that are need for achieving all the targets and goals in structural engineering. A variety of factors include time management, leadership...ReadMore
Type: Assignment I
Published: 08 May ,2020 I
INTRODUCTION Business environment plays a vital role in context of running business so that positive results can be gained in an appropriate manner. In modern era which is full of diversity, it has became really very important for every single firm to better understand about both external and...ReadMoreView or Download
Type: Assignment I
Published: 29 Jan ,2020 I
Introduction Construction technology denotes the various tools, equipment’s, alterations, software etc. that are taken in use while carrying out the construction activities. With the application of such techniques and other automated and semi - automated applications better and advanced...ReadMoreView or Download
Type: Assignment I
Published: 25 Jan ,2020 I
Introduction Overview of the research Photovoltaic are one of the most effective means of creating the electronic energy. It does the usage of cells which are made of solar through which the sunlight is converted into flow of electrons and hence creates the photovoltaic effect. This is very...ReadMoreView or Download
Type: Assignment I
Published: 21 Aug ,2018 I
What Is ICT? Information and communication technology may include personal computers, internet, mobile phone etc. but it is using by all people so that there are too much inequalities in access of ICT. There is excessively much gap between those people who are not using automation compare to those...ReadMore
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