Introduction To Human Resource Management
Human resources are the crucial factor for an organization in order to achieve the set aims and goals of company. Human resource management (HRM) is an organizational function that prepares strategies to recruit people and train them (Mendenhall and Osland, 2012). It plays a key role in retaining the best-qualified employees by providing performance appraisals, establishing positive and vibrant work environment, developing public relations and managing disputes if any arises.
The present study elucidates and examines the role of HRM and leadership in the effective establishment of London's one of the renowned food and restaurant chains, 'Fifteen.' The study reveals about an effective and unconventional approach that is applied by the owner to recruit, train and motivate its team of 'Fifteen'.
The preparation of documents to select and recruit new staff
Recruitment and selection process is essential for a business to choose right person for the right job within the precise time. There are mainly two methods adopted one is internal sourcing that is practised by appointing existing employees to a new or recently vacant post through transfer, promotion or re-employment of the ex-employee (Komives and Wagner, 2012). While, external sourcing is conducted through advertisements, job portals, employment agencies and educational institutions.
Documentation is the primary step involved in the selection process of restaurant. It encounters and finds answers to the preliminary questions such as what is job profile, who can apply for job, and what is the basis or approach applied for their selection. Moreover, it keeps the records of offer, acceptance, notice and confirmation. Following elements are included by 'Fifteen' in the preparation of documents in order to select and recruit new staff:
Job Description/Profile: The broad and written statement that describes duties, responsibilities, scope, purpose and working culture of the prescribed post for an employee refers as job description (Liker and Convis, 2011). It sets foundation for the trainee of e restaurant by clarifying his duties, meeting expected results and evaluating performance.
Job Specifications: The list of necessary skills required in an employee to effectively complete the duties of a certain job is known as job specification. It enables restaurant to judge each candidate fairly and objectively. This makes easy to conduct comparisons among candidates while the selection process is carried out.
Now, taking in consideration 'Fifteen' Jaime Oliver, owner of the company recruited unskilled and unqualified candidates. The idea was to encourage unqualified young people to be recruited as trainees in his new restaurant and become qualified chefs gradually to contribute substantially to this foundation.
The impact of legal, regulatory and ethical considerations to the recruitment and selection process
The restaurant 'Fifteen' effectively abides the legal regulations in establishing a strong brand image in the modern world. The restaurant follows some standards and principles to design their day-to-day business activities in accordance with established corporate values. Policies adopted by company in order to ensure regulatory framework are as follows:
Discrimination Act 1995: According to this Act, managers should not discriminate candidates on the basis of their gender, age, religion and nation at any stage of recruitment and selection procedure (Komives, Dugan and Owen, 2011).
Equality Act 2010: The Equality Act simply focuses on the fact that 'all are considered equal in the eyes of law.' Herein, HR team of 'Fifteen' ensures that while screening and interviewing candidates, risk of inequality is minimized to great extent (Key legislation regarding recruitment and selection, 2013).
Health and Safety Measures: As company deals in food and restaurant business, there are risks of fire and gas explosion accidents. There is possibility of major and minor injuries because of the constant use of sharp and pointed kitchen equipments and cutleries. Therefore, restaurant takes various preventive measures while handling such activities.
The Role of a Restaurant Manager in the selection process
Restaurant Manger plays a vital role in business of 'Fifteen.' Manager has significant importance in the recruitment and selection process of candidates for the applied post (MacPhee and et.al., 2012). The process of recruiting chefs for the restaurant and how the Restaurant Manager plays his part is described below as:
Screening: The manager delegates authority and provides guidelines to the supervisor about the screening process for appointing chefs in the restaurants.
Preliminary Test: Under this test, candidates are filmed and are asked to talk about the topic 'Food' in order to know the candidate’s enthusiasm and passion about food. Restaurant Manager plays secondary role here and assists supervisors to scrutinize candidates accordingly (Carey, Philippon and Cummings, 2011).
Knowledge Test: In the next step, candidates undergo a 'taste' test where dishes are served in front of candidates and they are required to describe the texture and flavour of the dishes. In this, manager's purpose is to know how candidates express their sensory experience for the food served.
Simulation Test: The final test where at first candidates observe the preparation of a simple dish and later on they have to cook dish themselves. Applicants are cross-questioned about cooking methods by the restaurant manager to scrutinize their learning quality (Petrie, 2011).
Salary negotiations and hiring: The shortlisted candidates are now informed about their selection and are made aware of the salary negotiations and code of conduct that are to be followed.
The skills and attributes needed for leadership
Quality of good leader is a key to success for the progressive development of an organisation. In 'Fifteen', this role is played by the Restaurant Manager who recognizes and develops scopes and opportunities to flourish. The manager possesses good leadership qualities and traits that help in identifying weaknesses and developing a strong management style.
Manager should have passion and enthusiasm for tasks assigned to him for increment of the restaurant (Shuck and Herd, 2012). Therefore, he praises employees to become more productive and enhance their skills for the company. He/she prepares the reports of employees in order to measure their performance at regular intervals.
Communication skills are given utmost priorities by the managers of 'Fifteen'. They effectively communicate to both the higher authorities and lower levels of the restaurant so that they clearly explain tasks and demands of the customers (Day, 2011). In this way, they manage work to deliver vision of the restaurant in order to serve their customer in more effective manner.
Working culture in 'Fifteen' is team-oriented. So, managers or leaders are committed towards their teams by providing ample training opportunities to the staff and considering feedbacks in response (James, 2011). They treat employees equally and adopt structure that possesses ethical values for the employees too.
Comparison of different leadership styles for different situations
In the contemporary world, emergence of the situational leadership theory created great significance in leading methods of organisations. According to the theory, a leader’s behaviour and traits depends upon different situational factors occurring in the organisation (Buckley, 2009). The leader ensures that his leadership attributes should be modified with the pace of time and situations and the subordinates assisting him/her.
Under the democratic leadership of Oliver, fifteen unskilled young chefs were recruited and trained to work for the entity. He monitored the trainees' development and always motivated and encouraged them to attain professional standards for the success of the venture. He invited and supported their suggestions and ideas from the employees aiming to develop their skills and standard (Edwards, 2007.). The proprietor mostly adopted the democratic style of leadership but depending upon the need of time autocratic style was also enforced. One instance presents his autocratic style of leadership, where for the first time the students had to prepare a meal of fifty guests. The structure became more rigid, deadlines were issued and a lot of pressure accumulated among the trainees. The situation of chaos, confusion and aggression occurred but later it was revealed there was no such urgency (Philip, 2010). The purpose of this activity was to introduce the beginners with the reality check and importance of teamwork.
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Various ways to motivate staff to achieve objectives
Employee motivation is beneficial for effective implementation of management activities. The combination of various motivational strategies effect the performance of the employees, some of them are as follows:
Empowerment of employees: When the subordinates are given proper authority, autonomy and encouragement to express as the trainees in 'Fifteen' are given global social entrepreneurship brand are established in the market. Oliver made sure that mutual respect among the trainee and trainers was present (Sarasvathy, 2008). Everyone greeted each other at the beginning and at the end of the day.
Effective reward system: Another motivational strategy applied by the group is monetary benefits and reward system where employees are often rewarded in form of bonuses, promotions, special assignments, awards and verbal praise. The owner always praised and acknowledged the trainees if they made an extra effort through reward system (Kirkwood, 2009).
Job redesign: The concept of job redesign is introduced for those who become lethargic while performing same tasks every day in the restaurant. The techniques such as job enlargement, job rotation and job enrichment create flexibility among the employees and ultimately boosts their capacity towards work. In this manner, the skilled and qualified staff of 'Fifteen' is retained in the firm and they provide services in various sections gathering better skills and experience.
The benefits of teamwork for an organisation
In the organisational setting there are various factors which influence the mechanism and functioning of the management and its subordinates. Management is an task-oriented process, various activities are performed and strategies implied. For its smooth and swift running teamwork is essential component.
The present context explains the significance of teamwork in 'Fifteen' one of the renowned restaurant entity of London. Oliver contributed as the team leader of the fifteen young chefs. He himself was skilled, experienced and demonstrated food preparation techniques as a coach of the team. In order to make the employees understand the value of teamwork once he created a scene of urgency. Under lot of pressure, given guidelines and deadlines they were asked to complete the task of preparing food for fifty guests (Kim and et al., 2007). Some of the employees got confused, some lost temper and some overlapped. Later, it was revealed that artificial situation was created to make them understand the concept of teamwork make them judge and improve themselves. Apart, from this Oliver gave individual attention to the members and assigned them difficult tasks to analyse their skill and determination. He accompanied them in these tasks to provide them guidance to communicate and coordinate with the manager and their colleagues (The benefits of group work. 2014).
The difficulties faced in teamwork and resolve the conflicts appeared in teamwork
Workplaces are hub of resources, machinery and human beings. The below mentioned points indicate various hurdles faced during teamwork and the desirable solutions condemned for the smooth functioning of the organisation:
- Poor communication and coordination among the leader and the group members is the primary barrier which hinders the growth of a team. Therefore, clear and cordial communication process should be accepted and applied by each member (Conrad and Poole, 2011).
- Members may lack participation, commitment and dedication towards their assigned tasks resulting in conflicts between the team goals and individual goals. To cope up with this situation the members should be asked for their feedbacks periodically, motivated and enlightened to balance their individual goals with the team’s objectives.
- Some team members create loopholes by rigidly enforcing their decisions over their subordinates this fluctuate the ongoing process. Here, the description of authority and autonomy of an individual should be clarified to the each member of the team (Deci and Ryan, 2008).
- Lastly, ineffective leadership on the part of leaders causes great disturbance and disadvantage among the team members. The lack of coordination, lack of creativity, distrust and inability to resolve the conflicts become the scenario. The leader needs to rectify the errors happening while his decision making process.
To review the effectiveness of team
Teamwork refers to more empowered way of working, encouraging multi-disciplinary work and promoting the sense of achievement of organisational goals. When talking about the kitchen management of 'Fifteen' the teamwork mainly focuses on the customer satisfaction and quality production of dishes served. The following are the strategies implied to improve the outcomes performed by the team of chefs and management:
Size: The number of members in each team effects the production of the restaurant. Large number of members in a team won’t provide fruitful results to the team. As optimum use of resources is not attained because of large number of members with different personalities and perceptions (Jackson, 2010).
Leadership: For the efficient and effective working good leadership attributes and qualities are required. Jamie Oliver proved as a good leader and mentor for his team members. He clarified and focussed on the aspects related to customer satisfaction and quality production and motivated his staff for the same.
Communication: 'Fifteen' follows a clear and proper channel of communication. It makes use of communication channels such as formal and informal communication, upward and downward communication or horizontal communication. All these channels transfer the instructions, thoughts and suggestions in the restaurant clearly (Bevan, 2015).
Clear delegation of rules and responsibilities: The responsibilities and duties of each individual are defined clearly in the restaurant. The chef knows his role and his assistants are aware of their part. From the upper department to the lower department each one of them knows their responsibilities and code of conduct.
The factors involved in planning the monitoring and assessment of work performance
The performance appraisal of the employees helps to monitor and assess the overall development of the individual. The 360 degree feedback is monitored of the employees. The 360 degree comprises feedback from customers, management and colleagues. Firstly, the customer assessment which involves the standards like the attributes of the menu card presented, way of serving food, texture and flavour of the dishes and after food services.
Secondly, the management performance analysis and assessment of its employees. The management plays a vital role in organising, managing and controlling various activities in the day to day procedures of the restaurant. The make periodical assessment of the staff on the basis the attitude of oneself for work, the targets achieved and suggestions made for the improvisation of the restaurant.
Thirdly, the performance of each and every individual is measured by the colleagues and associates accompany an individual in a company. As they are one who have utmost interaction with the individual.
The assessment of the development needs of individual
In order to build strong human relationships Oliver focussed on each and every chef of his restaurant. He developed the working culture in such a manner that cooperation and teamwork became integral part of the working and functioning of the business entity. The growth and development of each and every individual was done throw the following methods:
Training is the essential factor for the development of an individual. The employees in 'Fifteen' were given on-job training in the restaurant while for the off-job training he trained them through periodical visits to grocery markets, to the farms and baker shops. Thus, the staff can know about the practical and realistic factors of the business in expert’s guidance.
The continuous learning process improves the skills and qualities of the employee. By the passage of time the individuals are able to provide innovative ideas and enhance their creativity in the respected field. Another factor positive competitiveness in the working environment also gives positive impact on the performance of the individual.
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Identifying the Success of assessment process
The assessment process of the company is widely effective and essential for the growth and development of the company. It will help the company in creating effective impact on the performance of the employees and its brand image within the market. In order to identify the success of the process the company will have to effectively focus on the employee feedback regarding the process efficiency and its limitations. This will help the business in efficiently identifying the needs and requirements of the process. Individual assessment of employee performance after the program will help the company in analysing the impact on training and development programs. Moreover, high level of motivation within the company will help the company in evaluating the level of employee engagement without the process. Apart from this the restaurant will also focus on customer reviews. The positive and satisfactory reviews from the customers will help the company in analysing that the assessment of employees needs and requirements has been successfully attained which created a positive and well developed impact on the company.
The above report develops a clear insight about the Significance Of Leadership And Management issues within the company. The report helps in identifying the needs and requirements if the employees and seek efficient measures to attain those needs. The case analysis of 'Fifteen' restaurant helped in developing measures for linking the theoretical knowledge with practical application within the company. The report helped in developing a well based and effective analysis of leadership factors and its impact on employee performance. It also successfully discussed various measures that the companies may adopt in order to enhance employee performance and growth within the company. Hence, the above report reflects that the restaurant has bright future for growth and development in the highly competitive market.
You may also like to read:
- Conrad, C. and Poole, M. S., 2011.Strategic organizational communication: in a global economy. John Wiley & Sons.
- Day, D., 2011. Leadership development. The SAGE handbook of leadership.
- Deci, E. L. and Ryan, R. M., 2008. Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health.Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne.
- Kirkwood, J., 2009. Motivational factors in a push‐pull theory of entrepreneurship. Gender in Management: An International Journal.
- Komives, S. R. and Wagner, W., 2012. Leadership for a better world: Understanding the social change model of leadership development. John Wiley & Sons.