Working in partnership referred to as a procedure whereby, two or more companies used to work in collaboration for conducting a specific operation. It helps such organisations to share their views, resources and ideas to address specific issues. Under this present assignment, a case study has drawn where many agencies including NHS and Tameside Adult Safeguarding Partnership work with each other to write an overview report. Here, National health service or NHS is a public organisation who promotes health facilities. For understanding concept of working in partnership, various philosophies, different models, current legislations for same in health and social case sector are discussed. Furthermore, possible outcomes of partnership working for such organisations and barriers to work in same are evaluated. In addition to this, some strategies are also devised for improving such outcomes also.
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1.1. Philosophy of working in Partnership in Health and Social Care
Health and Social Care is a concept which requires utmost attention given to people in terms of providing effective facilities and attention to their wellbeing. Various industries in the health and social care sector came forward to combine their efforts and give effective healthcare to the people who need their services. Various institurions and organisations come together in partnership which allows them to tackle various severe situations and implement new programmes that could enhance the health and social care facilities given to the local public. For instance, Tameside Adults Safeguarding Partnership has various organisations and agencies which provide support to local people and effectively manage to provide their quality services to adults in the local area.
There are various philosophies which are associated with operating in partnership in Health and Social Care. The most crucial is empowerment, organisations indulged in providing healthcare must coordinate and cooperate in ways which enhances the capabilities of the other. For instance, as per the case of Adult A, various organizations and agencies which were associated with this individual could have worked together to make his situation better and protect Adult A and his family from harrasments.
The next philosophy is dependency. It is crucial that organisations together in partnership could interdepend for exonomic, financial and social support. It is quite imperative as sharing of resources could open the scope of giving better facilities and focus on people who are vulnerable and have similar condition like that of Adult A and his family.
Another most prominent philosophy is Autonomy. This is because there is a belief by most organisation that for partnership, self-governance is utmost important. It provides ease and comfort to firms in performing routine activities effectively. For instance, TASP could collaborate with any agency like Housing Association or for giving social and healthcare services but have authority for decision making and finalising resource allocations. Such philosophy would be better for each policy made by TASP.
1.2. Evaluation of Partnership Relationship
Within health and social care sector, there are various partnership levels. It is important that partnership is well established as it is various different facilities and services are required by individuals with same condition as that of Adult A. This is because such individuals and their families are required to be given effective healthcare to ensure improvement in their health conditions like learning disabilities and appropriate protection from gruesome acts of harrassments. TASP, while collaborating between various agencies could provide measures which ensures proper care given to families like Adult A's. Moreover, as per the study, Adult Safeguarding Team could have formulated strategies and could have worked in partnership with other local organisations after Adult A's case was reported to them in 2007.
Another case where partnership of social and healthcare organsiations could have provided effected protection to Adult A's family. The person in question suffered from Ischaemic Heart Disease and various other diseases which required an effective relationship between various health and social care organisations. Having such effective partnership could have saved a life and TASP must work with organisations having financial capabilities and technological equipments like CCTV's to ensure that protection must be given to people who are vulnerable.
Relationship in partnership must be fostering to allow organisations to give a range of services to different individuals. It would allow them to collaborate in ways where these organisations could share ample resources and implement the same for welfare of local people in need. Thus, relationship in partnership must be contributing as well as complementing where health and social care organisations could work together and support each other to achieve their objectives.
2.1. Partnership Models across Health and Social Care
There are various models in health and social care which could be applied to effectively achieve better outcomes to handle situations like in the case scenario of Adult A. There are various models as per Audit Commission UK which are mentioned below:
- Separate Business Model:This model is centralised upon two different organisation that are functioning distinctively and yet, have a commit partnership staff. In this type of partnership, there is a minimal threat of domination as it lays effective policies for the roles and responsibilities.
- Virtual Business Model:There is no legal status in this partnership and both the partners have distinctive identities. It has its own name, logo and place as possession. One partner is responsible for effectively recruiting and employing manpower and manage their performances. Due to its distinctive identity, this kind of partnership is saved from undergoing various legal complications.
- Colocation Model:Under this model, partnership is considered as an informal framework which satisfies a commen objective. In this type of partnership, however the resources are same, each organisation operate separate employees. There is one limitation of this model, that dependance is required in this model in case of endangered personnel loyalties.
- Steering Group Model:This is a formal sort of partnership with a formal agreement. Under this model, associates of steering groups are entailed via influence which enusres that objectives set by this partnership are achieved by accessible employees of the partners. This partnership effectively hormonize the service delivery by these organisations. However, this model is quite inappropriate in case a separate identity is needed by the partners.
2.2. Current Legislation and Organisational Practices and policies for Partnerships
Legislation refer to the laws and guidelines that are set up by the government to safeguard interests and ethical practices individually as well as nationally. It is important for organisations as well as individuals to be aware about such legislations, practices and policies for partnerships which could help in giving better health and social care to people similar to Adult A. These legislation and organisational practices and policies are discussed below:
- Equality Act, 2010:According to this act, each individual must be treated equally regardless of their caste, creed, color, religion, etc. It is quite imperative to effectively support and implement this act in health and social care where there is no discrimination based on any such factor and effective healthcare is provided to each individual effectively. TASP must apply this in partnerships and must encourage equal behaviour within these organisations.
- Human Rights Act, 1998:This act sets up rights as well as freedoms for each and every individual in the UK. Moreover, this act entitles the harsh measures which could be taken by public organisations and the government in violation of this act. Thus, within partnerships, TASP must utilise this act and provide information about the same to the needy and individuals having similar cases than that of Adult A. This is because knowing about one's rights could give effective power to these individuals to reach out to government organisations for help and achieve effective social and healthcare.
- Disability Discrimination Act, 2005:This act promots all the rights which are possessed by disabled individuals. Adult A, his brother and various other individuals like them have the right to be protected from any sort of discrimination regarding their disabilities. Thus, within partnerships, social and healthcare associations must protect these rights and carry out policies which ensures the same. It is very crucial in real time so that individuals like in the case study could be protected and given utmost better health and social care.
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3.1 Possible outcomes of partnership working for users of services, professionals and organisations
As main aim behind working in partnership in health and social care- is to make better decisions for resolving a specific issue.
3.2 Potential barriers to partnership
As it has evaluated that if organisations such as Community Safety Unit, Hate Incident Panel, Acute Foundation Trust, Greater Manchester Police and more, had worked in partnership then chance of resolving mentioned case (Adult-A) could be resolved on time. But includes various factors also that could arise barriers under partnership of such organisations. It may also raise while sharing information and communication in safeguarding as:-
Proficient boundaries:It includes principal limit whereby human services are confronted while working in collaboration. As such organisations are mainly belong to statutory and independent, therefore, conflicts related to different policies may also arise. This is also considered as another barrier which effect investigation of entire associated agencies, who work on same case study of Adult A.
Lack of understanding of roles and responsibilities:It is one of the possible barrier which might effect entire performance of workers, required to work in collaboration. As each professional of associated organisation has specific roles and responsibilities therefore, in such cases they also have different attitude and way of performing the same. This would arise lack of communication among workers which may influence the services users to give desired quality of work.
Absence of conversation:It refers to arise a noteworthy hindrance under working of collaboration for safeguarding and protecting the welfare of vulnerable people, who display their needs and difficulties similar to those presented by Adult A. Therefore, absence of proper communication among statutory and organisations working on individual basis, who are now worked in collaboration, may impact negatively on resulted outcomes. Poor conversation and sharing of information, misleads the desired outcomes and prompts to poor result between administration and family members of Adult-A.
Legal formalities: It refers to main barrier in making arrangements among associated organisations to work in collaboration, for preparing management reports and reviewing mentioned case study including its evidence. It arise difficulties in reporting the Serious Case Review through different-different governance routes.
From this mentioned report it has been summarised that working in partnership especially in health and social care sector, is quite important. It states that for resolving issues related with health, physical and mental disabilities, agencies dealing under such sector must work in collaboration. It helps in adopting various key philosophies like empowerment of service users, independence and interdependence, autonomy and more, for enhancing efficiencies of business. Along with this, through this report where a case study based on Adult A, it has concluded that is agencies like Greater Manchester Police, Housing Association, Hate Incident Panel, NHS and more, had worked in partnership, then they could present a better overview on report for resolving this case. If such organisations had shared their views and information with each other, then it might possible that family members of Adult A could get better justice.
Books and Journals
- Cameron, A and et.al., 2014. Factors that promote and hinder joint and integrated working between health and social care services: a review of research literature.Health & social care in the community. 22(3). pp.225-233.
- Dickinson, H. and O'Flynn, J., 2016.Evaluating outcomes in health and social care. Policy Press.
- Fotaki, M., 2011. Towards developing new partnerships in public services: users as consumers, citizens and/or co‐producers in health and social care in England and Sweden. Public Administration. 89(3). pp.933-955.
- Gardiner, C., Gott, M. and Ingleton, C., 2012. Factors supporting good partnership working between generalist and specialist palliative care services: a systematic review. Br J Gen Pract.62(598). pp.e353-e362.
- Glasby, J. and Dickinson, H., 2014.Partnership working in health and social care: what is integrated care and how can we deliver it?. Policy Press.
- Glasby, J., 2017.Understanding health and social care. Policy Press.
- Hunter, D. and Perkins, N., 2012. Partnership working in public health: the implications for governance of a systems approach. Journal of health services research & policy. 7(suppl 2). pp.45-52.
- Marmot, M and et.al., 2012. WHO European review of social determinants of health and the health divide. The Lancet,380(9846). pp.1011-1029.
- Millar, R. and Hall, K., 2013. Social return on investment (SROI) and performance measurement: The opportunities and barriers for social enterprises in health and social care. Public Management Review. 15(6). pp.923-941.
- Munn-Giddings, C. and Winter, R., 2013.A handbook for action research in health and social care. Routledge.
- Perkins, N., and et.al., 2010. 'What counts is what works'? New Labour and partnerships in public health. Policy & Politics.38(1). pp.101-117.
- Petch, A., Cook, A. and Miller, E., 2013. Partnership working and outcomes: do health and social care partnerships deliver for users and carers?.Health & social care in the community. 21(6). pp.623-633.
- Rigby, M and et.al., 2011. Social care informatics as an essential part of holistic health care: a call for action.International Journal of Medical Informatics.80(8). pp.544-554.