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Today the tourism industry is one of the most growing industry in the world. In this the visitor attraction is the most important element which plays a vital role in the tourist motivation. Visitor attraction promotes the visiting destinations and pull in the tourists from all over the world so that the economy as well the condition of the local place of the visiting destination can be improved (Arnberger, 2012). In the following report it can be understood that different kind of visitors have their own taste and choice in term of visitor attractions some like the natural visitor attraction while other can have their preference in purposefully built for visitor attraction. In the following report it will be discussed that there are many process in the development of the visitor attractions and along with the process there are many issues which can be arisen which tourism sector can face.
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1.1 Overlap of visitors attraction
Visitors attraction is then place where the different types of visitors come to visit the place because of its value in term of historical values or the entertainment value. The National Tourism Agency tries to attract the visitors in many ways like natural attractions,events and conference and festivals for which tourists visit that particular place. These all visitors attraction can be promoted by the national tourism agency (Bryce, Curran and Taheri, 2015). In the natural visitor attraction caves, waterfall,seashores and any other naturally made visitors attraction. Natural visitors attraction are the most popular visitors attraction because they have their own specific value in the sight of visitors as they enjoy a lot there.
Another important visitors attraction ate those which are purposefully built or made to attract the visitors to that particular area. The purposefully built visitor attractions are expensive unlike natural visitors attraction. So the visitors can be attracted to come to that particular place by national tourism agency. Events and conferences are also part of visitors attraction. For example Olympics are held where a huge crowd comes from all over the world to visit that place where the event is held. Festivals are also a main part of the visitors attraction.
The natural visitors attraction are on top of the list of visitors attraction as they are the most adventurous as well as the most interesting places to visit. The conferences are held at local, national ans international level which also attracts the visitors from all over the world. Sports events are the most revenue generating visitors attraction like football, cricket and tennis. They all gets the people attracted to visit the place where that sports event is held (Changbo and Jingjing,2011). The historical visitors attracts have also a specific room in the field of visitors attraction as they have witnessed many important historical events so the visitors are also curious to visit these visitors attractions in all over the world.
There is lot of scope in the visitors attraction for the national tourism agency in term of revenue generating as well as capture the lion share in the market of tourism. Monuments, ancient temples, zoos, aquaria, museums and art galleries, botanical gardens, buildings and structures like castles, libraries, former prisons, skyscrapers, bridges, theme parks and carnivals, living history museums can be included in the top of visitors attraction.
Thus there is a lot of scope in the visitors attraction in many ways for national tourism agency. There are many precious and magnetic visitors attractions which are counted in wonders of the worlds (Cheng, Lin and Du,2013). These various kind of visitors attractions like natural visitors attractions, purposefully built visitors attraction or any events and conferences as well historical visitors attractions are The visitors from all over the world visits every single day so that more profit as well as revenue is generated which consequently add in the value of tourism sector and the value of the place where the particular visitors attraction is. All these visitors attraction have the characteristics which are common with other visitors attraction.
1.2 Importance of different visitors attraction
There are many different kind of visitor attraction which plays a vital role in the tourism industry as well as inn the economy of the country in which the visiting destination is. The visitors attractions are the like pull factors to attract the visitor to come to see the visiting destination. The importance of different kind of visitors attraction can be explained as below-
- Attracting new business to a destination -The visitors attraction helps in attract or motivate the tourist to visit the destination which contributes in building new business in that place .As the number of tourists increase the business of the that destination gets increased. A unique place or destination make people curious about that destination and the visors travel to see that.
- Contribution to the overall destination product-The destination product of united kingdom is popularised by visitors attraction so that the destination product can get more visitors in that particular place. The visitors attraction techniques helps in adding the value of the destination product.
- Employment-The most important and crucial contribution of the visitors attraction is the employment in the place where the destination product is (Connell,Page and Meyer,2015). The tourism industry as well the visitor attraction require many worker who can help in different ways at the time of visors visits the place for like providing food,room to stay and any other necessary things for tourists. These people get job because of these parts of work,so it creates the employment in that place.
- Revenue- Another benefit or important contribution of the visitor attraction is revenue generation .The tourist who visits the place spend money on food, shelter and sometimes for entry for visiting destination. Revenue plays a crucial role in any type of economy as it is included in the gross domestic product of the country in which the visiting destination is.
- Multiple effect- Apart from the above importances there are more small multiple effect of the visitor attraction in which the impact on the local business as well as the national business are included because visitor attraction helps tourism business at both level. The visitor attraction also contributes in the exploring international business by promoting the destination place.
- Local heritage and culture enhancement-Every historical and heritage visiting destination has its own specific effect of the local culture and customs on it (Del,Andreu and Gallarza,2014). The visitor attraction helps in making it known in outside of that place also so that the visitors come to see that thing as well the local culture of that place.
- Fulfil the purpose of attraction –The main purpose of the visitor attraction is promoting the tourism sector and contribute in the economy. The visitor attraction play an important role as a business techniques in the field of tourism to pull or attract the people and improve the economy of the country in which the visiting destination is. Thus the visitor attraction is an important part of the tourism sector of any country which plays a vital role to explore different kind of visiting places.
2.1 Evaluation of the need and motivation of visitors
Different visitors have their own need and motivation in tourism. All have different choices and preferences in term of tourism (Dong and Siu,2013). Following are the different category on the basis of which the need and motivation of visitors are explained-
- Demographic-In this category of visitors, all visitors are categorised on the basis of structure of population. In this category the base is income, age religion and nationality. For example some religious temple is attraction of visit for the tourist .The high income people visit more often than the average or lower income group especially on international level tourism.
- Geographic-Geographic category includes where the tourist live and which part of the world is the most popular and attractive place to visit. For example if any visitor destination is at adventurous as well as dangerous place then the visiting people are lees there. While some visiting destinations are at reachable and pleasant places which have the positive impact on the tourism.
- Psycho graphic-Psycho graphic category of the visitors include the interest , personal attitude and life style of the visitors (Fang,Kucukusta and Law,2016). For example if the visitor is travelling lover then it will impact the tourism in positive way as that visitor visits many placers which contributes in the economy of the country in which he travels. While if the visitor is a strictly religious person then it can contribute in the religious related tourist places positively but other tourism attraction cab affected negatively.
Thus these different kind of visitors as mentioned above have their own particular need and motivation towards tourism. The visitors can be motivated by their behaviour and choices which differs person to personable the need of visitors are different from each other in term of tourism
2.2 Impact of tourism on visitor attraction
Although the tourism benefit in many ways, it can impact in negative way too. Most important impacts of tourism on visitor attraction includes overcrowding, wear and tear,carrying capacities and traffic related impact. The place where tourism is on huge amount,that place would be very crowded which will lead to difficulty to the people who live at that place as well as there will be difficulty in promotion that visiting place. Because of the tourism there can be possibility of any kind damage at that place by tourists (Garrod,Fyall and Reid,2012). Some times the tourist can harm the visiting product in many ways which can lead to damage to the property. With the damage no visitor attraction can get visitors often.
The tourism can affect the visitor attraction in term of carrying capacity also. The carrying capacity is the number of the tourists which can be conveyed in the vehicle. If the carrying capacity is less at that place then the visitors attraction would not work effectively to promote that visitor destination. The tourism can influence the visitor attraction in term of traffic management too. If the traffic is very big because of the tourist who visit that particular place then it will disturb the traffic arrangement in that place. Consequently it would not attract the visitors as the visitor attraction would not be able to affect or motivate the tourist to visit that place.
The tourism has many effects on the visitor attraction in many terms like pollution,risk of accidents,impact on local community,visitor facility,education and training. If there are a huger number of visitors who come often at visiting place then there will be increase in pollution which will impact negatively (Kastarlak and Barber,2011). The frequent tourism from outside of the local area affect the community which lives at that place as they meet different types of cultured and native people.
2.3 Theories of tourist motivation
There are different theories of tourists motivation which promotes the tourism in the sight of the tourists. Two most important theories of tourists motivation are responsible tourism and smart consumer. Responsible tourism is one of the most crucial theories of tourist motivation. In thus theory the responsibility of the tourism sector is explained toward the local community, government of that host country as well as the destination place also in many ways. The responsible tourism theory includes the responsibility related to benefit the local community by creating employment at that place.
The responsible tourism theory of tourist motivation also implement the responsibility of tourism related to improve working condition of the visiting destination as well as the local area. Because of the visitor attraction tourism can promote the local community culture in the outside of the place. The main responsibility of the tourism according to the responsible tourism is to protect the environment so that there will be no harm because of the tourist or ignorance of tourist. Another responsibility of the tourism according to the responsible tourism is poverty reduction. As tourism create the employment in the area in which the visiting tourism destination is present (Leask,2010) .This consequently improve the income of the local people and their living standard also. It would reduce the poverty in the people of that local area.
Second theory of tourist motivation is smart consumer. In this theory the responsibility on the part of consumer is explained as the tourist is a consumer of the tourism sector. He plays a crucial role in the tourism as a responsible consumer for the place he visits and the visiting property he visits. Thus there are many type of contribution of tourist motivation theories which can help the local community as well as the government and environment.
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3.1 Different visitor management strategies
Many organisations have adopt several strategies which are helpful in attracting large number of visitors towards their business. Perfect strategies helps in gaining large number of tourist towards an destination (Leask,Fyall and Barron,2014). It can become only be successful with the help of formulation proper strategies which helps in providing proper satisfaction to the target number of guest. The strategies are associated with the supply and demand in which the proper inflow of service are to be included with the proper price related techniques. Following is the discussion which helps in making the strategy according to the customer preference:
- At the time of peak season cited organisation can extend their opening hours which helps them in getting large number of customers which means the inflow of the guest are get multiply day by day. This is an effective technique which helps in getting maximum number of clients.
- Hospitality centres have to increase their number of buildings through which they can provide the quality service. It helps them in reducing the inconvenience which is generally face by the customers at the time of peak season.
- Along with that they have to properly manage their rooms and provide the best quality service. It is an important method because this method helps in satisfy the customer and get it in again and again.
- Another important strategy which the business entities can taken into consideration is the innovation (Page, 2014). These innovation method helps in introducing new designs, themes for their customers. So that they can attain target guest for their business and their profitably get increases.
3.2 Management techniques in relation with sustainability
In the terms of travel and tourism or the visitors management, sustainability is a important term. So in this concern management have to conserve their culture through which they can introduce their culture in front of the visitors which helps them in getting repeat business. Repeat business refers to as the customer again visits (Sheng and Chen,2012). This helps them in expansion of their business as well as they also influence more and more on such activities which are beneficial for the business. Sustainability occur with the help of:
- If the impression on the visitors is positive, then it helps them in attaining target customers. Hence, companies have to provide proper service because it made a positive impact over on the visitors. Thus, it helps in getting repeat business.
- Another important term is the social culture (Swarbrooke and Page,2012). Hospitality service sector and the government have to take initiative in which they have to save their culture, heritage, lifestyle and environment.
- Another sustainability can be promotes with the help of saving environment in which they have to protect their nature in which all the species, their heritage have to get conserved.
- They can adopt social culture in which they can welcome their customers according to their culture. This helps them in getting maximum number of clients.
Sustainability can be increase with the help of taking effective steps which are helpful for the society and for all the persons who live in the society.
From the above report it can be concluded that the visitor attraction has its own specific value in tourism. Different theories of the tourist motivation can be used to improve the visitor attraction as well the tourism sector. From the above report it can be conclude that there can be problem in the different stages of the development process of the visitor attraction management. The local community is the main factor in the visitor attraction management. There are many kind of strategies which can be applied to make an effective visitor attraction management. From the above report in can be concluded that the strategies and theories of tourist motivation helps as tool and techniques in the visitor attraction management.
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Books and Journals
- Arnberger, A., 2012. Relationships between national-park affinity and attitudes towards protected area management of visitors to the Gesaeuse National Park, Austria. Forest Policy and Economics. 19. pp.48-55.
- Bryce, D., Curran, R. and Taheri, B., 2015. Visitors' engagement and authenticity: Japanese heritage consumption. Tourism Management.46. pp.571-581.
- Changbo, S. and Jingjing, P., 2011. Construction of low-carbon tourist attractions based on low-carbon economy. Energy Procedia. 5. pp.759-762.
- Cheng, S.F., Lin, L., and Du, J., 2013, December. An agent-based simulation approach to experience management in theme parks.In Simulation Conference (WSC), 2013 Winter pp. 1527-1538 . IEEE.
- Connell, J., Page, S.J. and Meyer, D., 2015. Visitor attractions and events: Responding to seasonality.Tourism Management,. 6, pp.283-298.
- Del Chiappa, G., Andreu, L. and G. Gallarza, M., 2014. Emotions and visitors’ satisfaction at a museum. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research. 8(4), pp.420-431.
- Dong, P. and Siu, N.Y.M., 2013. Servicescape elements, customer predispositions and service experience: The case of theme park visitors. Tourism Management. 36, pp.541-551.
- Fang, B., Ye, Q., Kucukusta, D. and Law, R., 2016. Analysis of the perceived value of online tourism reviews: Influence of readability and reviewer characteristics. Tourism Management. 52. pp.498-506.
- Garrod, B., Fyall, A. and Reid, E., 2012. Engaging residents as stakeholders of the visitor attraction.Tourism Management. 33(5). pp.1159-1173.
- Kastarlak, B.I. and Barber, B., 2011. Fundamentals of planning and developing tourism. Pearson Higher Ed.
- Leask, A., 2010. Progress in visitor attraction research: Towards more effective management.Tourism management. 31(2). pp.155-166.
- Leask, A., Fyall, A. and Barron, P., 2014. Generation Y: An agenda for future visitor attraction research. International Journal of Tourism Research.16(5). pp.462-471.
- Page, S.J., 2014. Tourism management. Routledge.
- Sheng, C.W. and Chen, M.C., 2012. A study of experience expectations of museum visitors. Tourism management. 33(1). pp.53-60.
- Swarbrooke, J. and Page, S.J., 2012. Development and management of visitor attractions. Routledge.
- Xiao-Ting, H. and Bi-Hu, W., 2012. Intra-attraction tourist spatial-temporal behaviour patterns.Tourism Geographies. 14(4). pp.625-645.