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13158 Downloads1 I Published: 27 Sep ,2016
A country, state or region which markets itself as a place that can be visited by tourists is regarded as a tourist destination (Williams, 2006). Certain characteristics, accessibility and amenities are shared by all the tourist destinations. Tourist destinations are naturally formed. These may even be constructed by the residents of a place. The present report is on United Kingdom and worldwide tourist destinations. It makes an attempt to understand the social, cultural and physical features of tourist destinations like England and Spain. The ways, in which various characteristics of destinations affect their appeal to the tourists, have been analyzed. Lastly, an understanding has been developed related to the issues that are likely to affect the popularity off tourist destinations.
The highest number of visitors come to these attractions. This is because, Lake District is the largest national park in the country. Lakes are the main attractions which bring nature lovers to this place. British museum attracts people as it is dedicated to human history and culture. It consists of 8 million works which arouse curiosity in the visitors. Majority of visitors come to the Hadrian's Wall because it is not only a great central place to stay but it also it also allows the visitors to explore activities at Kielder Forest.
Tourism trends can be defined as the general tendency or direction of behaviour of tourists (Phillips, 2003). It comprises of the new changes that take place in the demand of consumers. It also includes the developments in destinations. The following graphs provide information on the tourism trends prevailing in England. These show the number of tourists visiting England from 2009 to 2012.
In the year 2013, 8.3 million tourists visited Spain in August. There were a total of 60.6 million international tourists who visited Spain in 2013. as compared to this, London itself welcomed 2.7 million visitors in the year 2014. Rest of England had 14.2 million visitors (2014 snapshot, 2014). It can be analysed that the number of visitors to Spain are much more than those to England.
The top three tourist attractions in Spain are The Alhambra and Generalife Gardens, Granada, Barcelona's Sagrada Familia and Gaudi Sites and Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao. These three top tourist attractions are the most visited places in Spain. This is because these destinations also provide the tourists with facilities and convenience in terms of transport, accommodations of various types and other amenities.
The spending by foreign visitors in Spain increased by about 59 billion euros in 2013 (Spain sees record tourism numbers in 2013, 2014). It can be analyzed that increased spending was due to two reasons. One of the reasons was higher number of tourists and the other was larger spending by each person. As compared to this, the visitors in England spent an estimated amount of £7.3 billion. Tourism in England contributed £106 billion to the economy.
One of the most important aspects of travel destinations is that of the various features and characteristics that it possess. These can be categorized into cultural, social and physical. Cultural factors are related to culture, religion and norms prevalent at a destination (Hong, . W., 2008). On the other hand, social features are associated with environmental factors where social, i.e. general environment of the region is taken into consideration (Olsen and et.al, 2008). While physical features can be termed as those aspects which discuss about development and progress of the region in view of geographical, technological, architectural, etc. can be seen (Boniface and Cooper, 2009). In the following paragraph, cultural features of two countries – USA and India are discussed.
Indian food consists of a typical and unique taste which can be found in no other country. This makes the country a very different place to travel to. Since India is such as vast nation which consists of a wide number of regions divided into states, each of which have different taste and way of making food. On the other hand to it, usually in USA a tourist can get to eat food which essentially are American only (Moreno, 2005). In America there are numerous pubs and clubs which are visited by large number of tourists as well as the locals; but in India, this concept is still at a very early stage. There are not too many pubs in the country, but still they are becoming very popular. In India, Cricket is given preference to any other sports; while in USA, games other than cricket like basketball, baseball, etc. are very popular.
United States of America is ranked as the second largest preferred tourism destinations in the world, while India is far below that of level set by USA. There are a variety of factors and forces that create a point of differentiation between travel and tourism of both the countries. This section of the report would compare features of the given tourism destinations.
One of the elementary differences between the two countries is that USA is world's one of the largest nations, which means that there are more places for tourists and travellers to visit. But since India is not such a large country, tourists have very fewer options to visit in comparison to that of USA (Petia and Peter, 2004). Due to this reason, USA is visited by more number of tourists than India. Another prime difference between the countries is that climate of India is very hot in comparison to European and American nations. In this sense, it can be said that this is a prime factor for more tourists visiting USA than that of India. This is a reason why more people visit USA than that of India, as they get a much cooler climate which is pretty much like what they get in their home country. Another prominent point of differentiation between the two nations in terms of travel and tourism can be seen in terms of development and urbanization (Kyriakidou, 2005). Since USA is a developed nation, tourists get more amenities and facilities for the purpose of having a comfortable stay and improve their overall experience of the destination; which they usually would not get while travelling in India, primarily because of reason that the country is not as developed as USA.
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Fees, tariff rates, etc. are much higher in USA than in India. This is also a very prominent reason because of which slowly the travel trade is rising in the country. There are wide variety of options that tourists can get when they travel in India. These can range from high class, high priced products and services to cheapest options. Due to availability of such wide number of options, travelling to India can be a very good experience (Sloan, 2014). Furthermore, there is a vast difference between India and USA in terms of cultural and social norms. India is a country which is culturaly very rich. Since it is a multicultural country, travellers and tourists can get to see a very different side of the world and thus improve their overall travelling experience by manifolds.
Tourism is a dynamic and far-reaching sector of economy that impact the GDO of country. However, there are number of factors that attract visitors towards the destination. The appeal to tourist is the tool that influence the visitors towards the destination (Gjerald and Oggard, 2010). In today's competitive world the business entities are approving to verities of appeal to tourist so that they can be attracted towards the business entity. This section deals with comparing appeal of current leading destination on is in the form, of leading/ developed country and second is of developing country.In this regard, Canada has been chosen as the destination among developed countries. In this line, next developing country is chosen for this report is South Africa.
Being a second largest country in the world, Canada has beautiful landscapes and unique sites that can be explored by travellers. Addition to the that country has incredible natural wonders that apples visitors towards the destination. Further, the country has Banff National Park and the Rocky Mountains that are used by traversable in the industry to gain attention of customers (Pigram and Wahab, 2000). The destination has Vancouver that is a famous ski resort as winter sports area that apples most of the visitors. This destination has gained wide international attention in 2010 because, it was the location for Winter Olympic Games, the country is having National Historic Site that have also witnessed as a significance role in presenting county in the eyes of visitors.
On the other hand, South Africa has own destinations that are equally attractive for visitors. The mentioned country has been seen as the most diverse and enchanting country among the world that has strange combination of landscapes, people, history and culture. These all characteristics of this country provide a unique and inspiring experience to the travellers (Ruggles,2008). The country has mixed culture of third and first world. Along with this, it has the best and least crowded beaches of worlds. In South Africa, one can visit beautiful natural scenery, a well developed infrastructure and a great environment.
There are some of negative characteristics in both destinations that are also to be considered. According to the national survey, it has been found that Canada has facing issues of negative transportation services. In addition, the country also has less developed infrastructure that become major concern issue for visitors (Jackson, 2008). On the other hand, South Africa has some language issues that are to be faced by visitors. The cultural and language differences may affect the visitors. The country is in need of warm, friendly people who work diligently welcome visitors in the country. Both the countries need to give attention towards such negative characteristics.
The meaning of characteristic of a destination refers to the attracting things that a destination to attract visitors (Kusluvan, 2003). The characteristics of destination promote appeal to tourist in the country. In other words, the characteristics that a destination have lead to effectivenesses in attracting visitors towards the country. The task herewith presents effectiveness of both the country's characteristic of tourist destinations in affecting apple of tourism.
As earlier mentioned that Canada has beautiful landscapes and unique sites that can be explored by travellers so it has emerged as the characteristic of a destination that apples number of customers most of the visitors come across the country just to visit these beautiful landscapes. The mentioned country has “The Bay of Fundy” located in Eastern Canada that is well known for amazing tides. In addition, Grosz Morne National Park, Vancouver's Stanley Park, Banff National Park and the Rocky Mountains along with Niagara Falls are the natural places to be seen by visitors and most appeals by tourism operators. According to the survey conducted by Law (2015) The country is having natural wonder at the most popular locations that gain the attention of visitors towards the country. The country has backed at high visitation levels due to such all characteristics. It has been expected that aforesaid characteristics of Canada will help in generating cumulative additive visitor spending around $5 billion by the year 2020 (Law, 2015).
South Africa has unique characteristics that have helped tourism owners in attracting visitors towards the country. According to the investigations made in prior section it has been revealed that country is having full diverse and enchanting combination of landscapes, people, history and culture. Within the country one can found, vastly varied parcel supports a rich diversity of animals, birds, and plant-life. Because of beautiful natural scenery and adventures places the destination apples most of the young visitors. Most of the visitors come across the country just to visit the animal beauty (Rogerson, 2012). The characteristics of tourism destination provide incomparable range of experiences and many things to in country. In South Africa, visitors can enjoy safari as well as beaches. Along with this, breathtaking drives and unspoiled wilderness can also be enjoyed. Additional a well furnished infrastructures appeals visitors for coming across the country. There are range of adventurous activities to do in South Africa such as hiking and 4x4 trails, sight seeing excursions, sports and leisure and so on (South Africa Travel, 2015). In addition, the visitors are attracted towards more sedate activities such as shopping and museums, visiting art galleries, collection of cultural experiences etc.
There are various issues which affect the popularity of destination like France and Brazil. The popularity of a tourist destination is demonstrated by the number of people who visit it each year. The natural and built beauty, historical significance, adventure, amusement an leisure opportunities makes a destination more popular. In contrast to this, a tourist destination becomes less popular if it does not provide adequate transportation and other amenities to the guests.
In general responsible tourism can be defined as the tourism which encourages eco-friendly environment and minimizes negative social, economic and environmental impacts. The main benefits of promoting responsible tourism is that it generate higher economic benefits for local people as well as enhances the well being of host communities (Cohen, McDaniels and Qualters, 2005). Moreover, by the means of this, France and Brazil can improve working condition and access to the tourism industry. This can prove to be a smart move in terms of attracting tourist to natural places of the countries.
As studied above, all the tourism potentials have environmental, social and economic impact on the industry. In terms of France, country is well proper balance of natural places and luxury of holidays. People travelling to France expects high class of services and environment. In this regards, travel and tourism sector the country has maintained certain level of responsible tourism and created awareness amongst each of the companies operating in the sector and to the general public as well so that overall environment can be maintained (Muller, 2010). As several companies has taken the initiative of conserving the natural places like Gorges Du Verdon, Alpine wildlife, Lavender fields, Gaqvarnie falls etc. So that overall natural beauty can be maintained and people can be attracted. While on the other hand, Brazil's immense wealth divide is well documented with rich and poor living side by side as the inequality is enhanced. However, the copacabana mansions back onto crime ridden favelas, whereas slum dwellers open make shifts curtains to reveal white sand beaches and cruise ship filled bays. Brazilian culture is a mash-up of indigenous, African, European and even Japanese can be revealed through its religions, languages, food, music and art (Clow and Kurtz, 2003). On the other side of it, drug dealers and mafia's are the biggest threat that responsible tourism in Brazil is facing from long ago. However, this needs to be taken care of otherwise world famous football loving country might lose its tourist quickly and rapidly.
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There are numerous destinations around the world which are regarded as highly popular places to travel to. During the present study, it was observed that cultural, social and physical factors affect tourism destinations in a very significant manner. There is a vast difference between India and USA on basis of these factors. Further, it was also noted that responsible tourism has become a crucial part of the tourism industry and countries such as Brazil are paying a lot of attention towards using it to the greatest extent possible. This study also revealed that there are various aspects and features that may affect the appeal of a tourism destination in a very significant manner.
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