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Operations and Project Management

442 Downloads1 I Published: 04 Nov ,2019

Introduction

Project Management is an area of practice which emphasises upon completion and management of a certain project. This activity is of vital importance to gain assurance of successful accomplishments of various operations as well as project (What is Project Management?, 2019). It undertakes initiation, effective planning, systematic execution as well as monitoring and management of all the aspects of a specific task.

The following report consists of inception and execution of a project surrounding Dyson, which is one of the most popular and crucial company within the UK dealing in home appliances. The current project has the firm moving in Large Screen Television Market with minimum screen size of 58 inches. The assignment covers review and critique of implementation of operations management principles, preparation of continuous improvement plan, application of PLC to the television project and review and critique of effectiveness of PLC using various different techniques and theories.

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TASK 1

Review and Critique of Operations Management Principles

Operations Management is the overall planning and implementation of various organisational procedures concerning production and other activities of a company (Xu, Ma and Ding, 2014). For Dyson, such management is very crucial as it would increase its capabilities to utilise each resource like labour or material in the most optimal way possible. Another advantage of operations management is that it assists in enhancing the overall productivity of an organisation. There are various methodologies and principles which could be helpful for Dyson in its Large Screen Television production. These methodologies and principles are briefly reviewed below: 

Six Sigma:

This methodology incepted from a certain mathematical theory back in 19th Century. It is currently being used effectively by major mainstream organisations as a regular practice in their business. This is because the sole agenda of this method is to increase the effectiveness of organisations' processes and its services and products. Six Sigma deconstructs the overall manufacturing process down to its important aspects and its major goal is to improvise the commodities offered by any company (Wu, 2012). It has various methodologies, namely DMAIC and DMADV. While the former is considered with improving existing offerings of the company, the latter is considered while developing a new product (Sears and et. al., 2015). For Televisions developed by Dyson, the firm would adopt the latter approach which is mentioned below:

  • Define: The first process of this methodology defines the goals and objectives of a project and various customer deliverables. It is the most crucial aspect as it helps in initialisation of the project and give it necessary standards beforehand. Dyson could appropriately determine customer needs effectively.
  • Measure: The second stage of this methodology requires Dyson to appropriately measure the required capabilities of its televisions and specifications for collection of vital information for the project.
  • Analyse: The third step requires Dyson to analyse the overall manufacturing procedure in ways which gives utmost assurance to the company to adopt processes which satisfy buyer demands effectively.
  • Design: After analysis, the company must design the process as per customer needs this step also requires Dyson to test these details as per the needed standards.
  • Verify: In this last step, the organisation must ensure verification in the design via pilot programs and stimulations as per needs of buyers. 

Critique of Six Sigma Implementation:

  • Six Sigma approach is very crucial for organisation to be applied accurately or else, Dyson might experience more shortcomings than benefits. Despite of being customer-oriented, this principle is not quite adaptable and flexible.
  • Entire process is taken into consideration rather than the development of the product. However, despite such factor, it limits the inclusion of creativity and discourage innovation in the process and methods (Verzuh, 2015). 

Lean Principles:

This principle is focused absolutely upon minimisation of waste without any compromise on the productivity. The major concern of these principles is upon eradication of inconsistencies of any sort. Performance of each resource is taken into consideration and the overall agenda of these principles is to derive maximum value in production processes and offerings of an organisation. There are various principles of lean which could be very well contributing to development of Televisions by Dyson. These are reviewed as under:

  • Value Defining: Just like Six Sigma, the first principle of lean considers defining buyer value (Nicholas and Steyn, 2017). For this, Dyson must analyse the current trends and immediate market needs for its Large Screen TVs. There are various methods like questionnaires, interviews, etc. which could assist Dyson in deciphering what customers seek and consider valuable.
  • Mapping of Value Stream: In this stage, Dyson must consider buyer value as the most important aspect and determine all the tasks and operations that fulfil in accomplishment of these values. In this, only those activities are included which contributes to maximising the value. All those processes, resources and tasks are removed which fails to provide customer value or limits their scope.
  • Creating Flow: All the resources, material and labour are aligned in this stage to determine and establish a workflow regarding completion of project, in Dyson's case, development of Large Screen TVs. All the necessary steps are carved out and standards are set along with reconfiguration of production stages which contributes in creation of a contributing stream. Dyson must also train their employees effectively regarding new equipments and technologies to enhance their performance effectiveness.
  • Pull Establishment: Production system is effectively analysed which is essential for to minimise the work in progress resources. This step is very crucial for Dyson to in order to complete the whole development of televisions within the set time schedule and its timely delivery.
  • Pursuing Perfection: This principle of lean is solely based on ensuring perfect standards for every aspect of the television development whether it is resource or performance of employees (Rolstadås and et. al., 2014).

Critique of implementation of Lean Principles:

  • These principles could enhance capabilities of Dyson through which it could gain competitive advantage. However, it might induce internal frustrations in employees seeing that it discourages inconsistencies.
  • In case Dyson employees equipments that enhances the production per day and reduce overall cost of production, it would however depend on the demand of their products which might cause wastage of televisions not being sold.

Total Quality Management:

TQM or Total Quality Management is a technique and procedure that could assist Dyson to achieve topmost quality of their televisions. Apart from the product, TQM also helps employees to ensure that their performances are competent and as per organisational standards. Thus, Dyson could use this methodology to achieve utmost quality in its televisions and its development processes. best assignment writing services in sydney

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TASK 2

Dyson's Continuous Improvement Plan

While developing a certain product, it is of vital importance of a company to monitor the effectiveness of the overall production process and apply necessary methodologies which makes an organisation capable of attaining quality and timely success. However, it is also necessary that companies ensure continuous improvement in their product as well as processes to stand up to current market needs and customer expectation (Muller, 2017).

Dyson, on its verge to enter Large Screen Television Market, is required to ensure continuous improvement to keep up with the consistency to achieve better standards. The Continuous Improvement Plan for Dyson is described below:

BASIS

PRINCIPLES/APPROACHES

IMPLEMENTATION

COST

The principle which could be applied by Dyson to manage the cost is Causality. This would help the company in reducing the overall cost of production.

Causality would allow Dyson to focus on symptoms that could possibly increase the cost of production. Moreover, the underlying issues that could cause the same would be identified by this principle as well and thus, managers could eradicate those systems and reduce cost (Nenonen and Vasara, 2013).

QUALITY

To enhance the quality of television and processes, the company could use Total Quality Management (TQM) as an approach (Leach, 2014).

Implementing TQM could enable Dyson in focusing on the production of Large TVs and its overall quality as per set standards. Each factor and resources would be analysed and evaluated to maximise the achievement of quality according to the pre set standards.

SAFETY

To ensure safety, Dyson could adopt Six Sigma methodology to implement and develop effective safety measures in the production process as well as the Televisions.

Six Sigma Methodology is suitable for Dyson to achieve the needed safety standards. This is because its principles would set up practices which would create an analysed safe environment within the infrastructure for the employees and implementation of safety equipments in the TVs.

DELIVERY

For delivery of Televisions, the most apt strategy for Dyson would be Lean Principles.

Principles within Lean would enhance the growth of effective measures and procedures and eradicate inconsistencies which would help in timely execution of product development for the organisation.

Analysis of Continuous Improvement Plan:

Continuous Improvement is a crucial strategy in product development and managers of any organisation must focus on developing a culture where such aspects are respected and followed flawlessly (Mubin and Mubin, 2016). Dyson must also analyse the effectiveness of their CIP which would increase the level of consistencies in their overall project and operations. The effectiveness of CIP for Dyson is analysed on the basis of various operations management principles mentioned below:

  • Causality: Where the cost is concerned, the main agenda of the company as per the required customer value must be to reduce the cost of production to gain maximum profitability from their venture. Principle of causality would allow the company to ensure maximum improvement in their processes by removing all the symptoms that could cause redundancies and add to the cost and hence, cost reduction could be achieved through this principle (Jacobs, Chase and Lummus, 2014).
  • Fundamentals: Application of Six Sigma would create an environment within Dyson where safety of employees as well as customers would be given top priority. As per this principle, Six Sigma too works upon set principles and disciplines that are necessary to ensure safety. Moreover, implementation of new and advanced techniques could further simplify attainment of the same.
  • Humility: TQM could ensure continuous improvement in the processes and offerings of the company. This is because it undertakes not only the material resources, but also human resources. Each employee and in fact managers would be working towards attaining maximum productivity through their actions. This approach would also help managers in seeking and consulting their subordinates regarding inconsistencies in their performances. Thus, TQM would cause continuous improvement by achievement of Principle of Humility.
  • Organisation: The principle adopts the concept that in order to make profits consistent and predictable, the tasks too must be aligned in ways which are consistent. Lean Principles would eradicate sources that induce waste and would promote tasks in ways which could contribute to a consistent and timely development and delivery of televisions which would ensure them effective customer relationship management and profitability.

TASK 3

Application of Project Life-cycle in Dyson

Every organisation has various projects and each of them has a life cycle which consists all the stages right from its initiation to closure. Within a company, project life-cycle determines the required essentials for the company and set standards needed to be followed at every stage of the life-cycle (Kerzner and Kerzner, 2017). Since Dyson's planning to enter Large Screen TV market, it is crucial for the company to accomplish each step effectively. The project life-cycle for Dyson is as follows:

  • Initiation: The very first step of the project life-cycle is the initiation stage. Dyson is needed to brainstorm aspects and factors which enables them to develop Large-screen Televisions effectively. The managers must identify and figure out objectives that are required to be accomplished. In this step, Dyson must undertake appropriate feasibility study regarding the project and must identify the stakeholders and their needs. In this point, Democratic leadership would serve well for the company in this phase as managers are required to consult with the employees regarding the objectives and methods that could be utilised to achieve the same. Google Docs could be used as a strategic tool for Dyson to develop project charter after approval from various project stakeholders. Suggestions and modifications could be done in a single document which would be beneficial for the company. The methodology which could be used in this stage is Six Sigma which would help the company in determining consumer deliverables and aspects that are required by Dyson to achieve in order to fulfil market needs.
  • Planning: In the second stage of new product development, Dyson's managers are required to establish communication with each department within the organisation which would help them plan the further stages with desired documentations. Budgets must be finalised, dependencies must be identified and a detailed project plan must be developed. Also, Dyson must anticipate the risk, prepare a risk management plan and acquire resources to develop top quality Large Screen TVs. Lean Principles are vital methodologies and approaches that would allow the company to plan its project through the most contributing tasks and equipments. Strategic Leadership is appropriate in planning stage for Dyson as it would allow managers as well as employees in determining maximum opportunities through this project and adopt directions that could help them in achieving their targets in a competent manner. Dyson could use Jive as its tool for planning as it is user friendly and could allow internal management of Large Screen TV production in a more efficient manner.
  • Execution: The most important step of project life-cycle, execution is the stage where plans are transformed into actions. Dyson, in this stage is required to set up flow of work to attain each objective laid down in initiation phase and structure decided in the planning stage. Managers of the firm must allot activities and tasks to group members and quality of operations must be effectively set out. Total Quality Management must be applied in here to effectively maintain the quality standards of the project and the television. Transactional Leadership could be applied by Dyson which would help the company in maintaining top quality performance in the employees and giving them necessary motivation. Dyson could also apply Trello as tools to analyse the effectiveness of the project of Television production.
  • Closure: The final stage is when televisions would be provided in the marketplace to customers (Binder, 2016). This step would need Dyson to follow a round-up approach and remove any defects or inconsistencies from the overall product. Basecamp is an efficient tool for Dyson to be used effectively in the closure stage.

 Business Case:

Organisational Overview

Dyson Ltd. is a technology organisation headquartered Wiltshire, United Kingdom, which manufactures and distributes home and electrical appliances. The organisation is working on a new plan to enter Large Screen TV market.

Vision and Mission

The vision of Dyson through these television is to establish an effective place in the television market along with other electronic markets. To achieve this, the mission of the company is to apply efficient, innovative and technologically advanced methods to address ongoing market needs related to television.

Objectives

Dyson's objective is to enhance its customer base of Large Screen TVs within the UK and beyond. Another objective of this company is to increase television viewing for all its customers by applying latest technologies in their televisions.

Strategies

Enhanced business processes, robust planning and advanced technology would be applied in development of these televisions. The firm also would be using Automation and AI to make it energy efficient.

 Project Plan:

Cost

The overall cost including processes, resources, distribution and overall development of these televisions would be around £1,00,000 - £1,20,000

Communication

Internal, external, linear as well as vertical communication would be utilised as effective strategy for production and distribution of Large Screen Televisions.

Quality

Since advanced technology and effective products are being used to produce these televisions, the company promises high quality production and effective television quality.

Scope

To develop the scope, Dyson will be employing skilled and talented employees, high quality production equipments, effective software and technologically advanced processing.

Gantt Chart:

Illustration 1: Gantt Chart

 

Illustration 2: Gantt Chart

Work Breakdown Structure:

515.png

Illustration 3: Work Breakdown Structure

TASK 4

P4. Review and Critique the effectiveness in the Project Life-cycle (PLC)

After establishment of a detailed project life-cycle, Dyson must also review and critique its effectiveness to determine any limitations that could reduce its scope of success. PLC of Dyson is reviewed and critiqued below:

  • The initiation phase uses Six Sigma as well as Democratic Leadership to set up a framework and identify objectives of the project. While Six Sigma could determine principles to be set out for this project, yet, these principles might be too rigid to be modified later. Even Democratic Leadership might create ambiguity while setting up the core objectives of the company. It is necessary for Dyson at this stage to set out policies which are flexible and power for authorisation of objectives must be with the project managers (Floricel and et. al., 2014).
  • Planning step has Dyson utilising Lean Principles and Strategic Leadership as the methodology for this stage. Lean Principles might bound the firm to choose methods and processes that are very much contributing and might overlook aspects that are cost effective. To improve, Dyson must undertake a 360-degree analysis of every method and procedure to be used to determine what could provide the project with long-term benefits.
  • In execution, the company is using transactional leadership as well as TQM to carry out necessary activities of this step and manage the overall execution. However, along with these, the firm must also set up standards for performance measurement to amplify the quality of work and processes.

Different Application of methodologies in Small and Large-scale projects

METHODOLOGIES

SMALL-SCALE PROJECTS

LARGE-SCALE PROJECTS

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

For example, in case the company would be providing cleaning equipments with their  televisions, then it Dyson will only require to measure quality in their cleanliness and durability.

Dyson in order to manage the overall quality of their Large Screen TV would be implementing TQM in a more extensive manner where each aspect would be considered to provide effective clarity, high definition viewing and extensive safety measures in these products using advanced technology and equipments.

LEAN PRINCIPLES

Implementation of these principles in a small-scale project like that of performance reviewing of the clients during a project would just require the managers to set out grading criteria on which performance would be judged (Heldman, 2018).

With Large Screen TV production, the firm would be implementing these principles in the processes and all resources to ensure reduction of waste elements and increasing the overall quality of production by employing top-quality processes and production equipments.

SIX SIGMA

Dyson might implement methodologies of Six Sigma to  carve out policies for employees working on the project to improve their performances. This requires a simple measuring and analysis of existing standards and objectives which could improve the same.

Implementation of this methodology would be on vast scale where each aspect regarding the production of televisions and especially their safety standards would be taken into consideration. All the processes applied via Six Sigma would take customer needs and effective analysis to carry out the best prospects for such a large-scale project.

Conclusion

It can be concluded from the above information that project management is crucial for organisations and must be used appropriately to carry out different operations and accomplish different projects within due time and requisite standards. Lean Principles, Total Quality Management and Six Sigma enhances capabilities of a company to ensure proper standards and effective project management. Factors like Continuous improvement Plan is also important to as per uniformity and progressed growth is required to be achieved. Project-life cycle is also important for companies to determine each step of effective execution of the overall project. It is also imperative for organisations to analyse each methodology utilised throughout the project to accomplish the same as per required standards and systematic attainment of objectives. 

References

  • Binder, J., 2016. Global project management: communication, collaboration and management across borders. Routledge.
  • Floricel, S. and et. al, 2014. Extending project management research: Insights from social theories. International Journal of Project Management.
  • Heldman, K., 2018. PMP: project management professional exam study guide. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Jacobs, F. R., Chase, R.B. and Lummus, R. R., 2014. Operations and supply chain management. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
  • Kerzner, H. and Kerzner, H. R., 2017. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Leach, L. P., 2014. Critical chain project management. Artech House.
  • Mubin, S. and Mubin, G., 2016. Risk analysis for construction and operation of gas pipeline projects in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
  • Muller, R., 2017. Project governance. Routledge.
  • Nenonen, S. and Vasara, J., 2013. Safety management in multiemployer worksites in the manufacturing industry: opinions on co-operation and problems encountered. International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics.
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