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Contemporary Controversies In International Security

493 Downloads1 I Published: 19 Nov ,2019

Introduction

The states or the unions can state international security as the combination of the various steps that are undertaken in order to maintain proper security in the countries. The requirement of the security was felt by the states since the time of cold war in the world. In order to maintain proper balance between the countries, international security came to action and the people of the countries need to follow that accordingly. Security helps in protection of the states or countries from the seizure of the other states thus, resolving the conflicts. Civil war that took place initially leads to increasing poverty, violence, diseases and hunger in the states. As a result, international security was much required in such condition as the basic needs of the human beings were being violated. Permanent peace can be brought properly but measures can be taken to bring peace in the countries. That is why; international security is a major concern for every country or the unions so that the citizens of the countries feel safe to live ever after.

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Discussion

Each state or countries in the world are facing the threat from various groups of terrorists and that is why; the steps are taken by the states to resolve those threats (Johnston, 2012, p.48). Thus, international security is of great importance for the countries of the world. International security has to be evaluated more so that the security levels can be understood more and various dilemmas are resolved accordingly. The major concern for the security is the part that security plays in the politics or the government or the societies. The discussion about any war or the danger of the war can be considered as the threat for the security. That is why; international politics have to be strengthened so that the international security can be more emphasised on by the countries. Anderson and Silove(2017, p.203) argued that the countries have to come closer in order to improve their security systems because no single country or state can be successful in this task alone. The interaction of the countries will help the unions to take the proper decision about the security of the countries. The unbalanced political system can curb the security issues of the countries thus, leading to fear for the invasion of terrorists in the countries.

Various theories or framework are there like Neorealist theory, Classical theory, Liberalism theory and Economic liberalism theory that helps in better understanding the relations between the countries of the world. According to Bah(2017, p.550), Classical realism theory states that the international politics have different features, therefore, the perspectives of the domestic system differ from that of the international system. This theory needs to be kept in mind before incorporating securities for the countries of the world. Another theory named, Neorealist theory helped in resolving the conflicts between the domestic system and the international system thus, it provides a realist approach towards the international security of the world. Neorealist theory helps in maintaining the balance of the threats, balancing the power of the countries and balancing the power alteration of the countries (Slayton, 2017, p.80). This theory helps the states a lot in building the good security system for the country so that citizens can live a life of safety. Liberalism theory mentions that the republic constitution of the country helps in bringing tranquillity in the country. This theory will help the countries to maintain peaceful relations among themselves thus, incorporating proper security in the country. Economic liberalism theory removes the remoteness of the countries making the countries more dependent on each other. Economic liberalism can help to attain proper techniques in implementing security in the countries so that the controversies or issues regarding security can be resolved.

Huebert(2017, p.667) commented that the government of the countries need to participate willingly in the international agreements for subduing the nuclear activities of the anti-social organisations. It is seen that war directly impacts the international politics and that is why; various unions tries to save the world from any kind of war by making proper security systems for the countries. War affects the security of the state thus making the state more vulnerable to the attacks of the terrorists. That is why; the government bodies and the state unions need to work effectively so that the security issues can be resolved accordingly. The organised wars help in improving the international security as required and that helps in making the state increase their tolerance power towards the problems related to security (Sobelman, 2017, p.156). The states need to analyse the relations among war, security and the international politics so that the present security can be made more effective. The world in the present days has become more vulnerable to the world war and that is why; the countries need to come closer together so that they can use their technologies to build up effective security systems for their individual countries.

Narang(2017, p.120) opined that newer strategies need to be developed for maintaining the peace of the countries and the interference of the other countries need to be avoided so that the countries does not suffer from any security issues. The war or fight between two countries can never be considered as a good process of resolving the contemporary issues in the security. Therefore, proper arrangement and the support of the country heads are much required to improve the security systems of the countries. Moreover, the entire structure of the country’s political system has to be renovated to assure the citizens with a safe living style. Evans(2017, p.323) discussed that wars ended the international security every time and thus, the requirement of resolving the conflicts related to the war is much needed. The countries and the unions have to be very clever in dealing with the other countries of the world so that no issues can lead to the introduction of the war between them. War destroys numerous lives along with dismantling the entire political structure of the countries. The international security has to be very strong so that there remains no invasion of the unwanted person in the economy of the country.

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These are the key factors, which needs to be exercised on so that the security systems are improved along with decreasing the chances of war in the world. Moreover, the cold war has to be stopped so that destruction in the economy of the country can be minimised. Wanget al.(2016, p.190) argued that collective steps of the countries of the world brings positive outcomes for the countries and thus, security systems are efficiently prepared so that no flaw can ruin the peace of the countries. Development is the process produced from social contestation between elites and citizens about the performance of the public authority that is very necessary to develop so that the societies can progress properly. The contestations mainly include violence, conflict, and terrorism.

Elite groups possess contestation as the power of the decision-making and resources are available to them. During the war, when the contestation rises to a higher level and takes a violent position then the trust among the groups reduces, the rules and procedures become biased, and they remain of no use (Kello, 2013, p.8). The purpose of the security and justice organisations has the responsibility of protecting the interest of elite groups. This includes the process in which the organisations identify the main requirements and interests of elite groups. It is very important as to know the reason why the elite groups are to be safeguarded. This may include the economic and socio-political interests of the elite groups that are needed to be protected. The exploitation of the natural resources is to be protected by the security organisation. The transport facilities and licenses are protected by the security organisations (Price, 2012, p.40). Due to the increase of contestation, it is very important to develop some important strategies that help to confront the elite interests.

The security organisations work with the groups to improve the security condition by providing some benefits. Recently the UK government has done the development of plutonium in the sell afield mix plant. As per Mueller and Stewart(2012, p.82), this development of the fuel, the fuel has been used in the nuclear material that has lead to environmental pollution. Due to the increase in environmental pollution the risks of the international security is also increased. This has damaged the environment due to increase in the fuel in the nuclear material. The public health of the people has also been damaged and lead to the dangerous business that may only lead to damage and loss.

The contestation of international security mainly includes the violence and the process to protect all the individuals from violence. The security mainly aims to protect the military facilities and provides safety. The purpose is to protect the survival of the individuals and provide safety during the war. There has been the rise of many international issues that have lead to difficulties in survival in the war areas and after the war. The sources and the power of the military forces are changing at a greater speed that has caused changes in the security levels and the level of risk has risen. The economic strength of different countries are changing as per the demands of the today’s war and the government is unable to manage the economic demand of the military persons. The population becomes more but the economic forces are less these causes less protection of military forces and increase the survival risk. As with the changes in global harms, risk of security level has increased a lot.

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The economic security provided to the individuals is provided through the productive work. In accordance with the today’s condition, only a few people are secured economically whereas rest of them are not secured as has causes the rise of unemployment. The purpose of the security is to provide all the resources that are needed for war and giving all the liberties that are required during the war. It also deals with the protection of the values of one’s country (Evans et al.2013, p.200). However, the contestation rises due to threats in the economic, ecological and political environment. During the past decades, the main role of security was to handle the globalised community but with the rise of global threats and advancements in the technologies, this has lead to risk in security. The risk of security has risen due to some reasons. The security cannot be achieved unless the government of the country processes its responsibilities properly to provide security for the individuals.

In the recent decades, the violence due to terrorism as increased and caused risk in security. In United states, in the following years, the war consequences have increased that has to lead to the development of certain policies to settle these situations but has given rise to global insecurity. The nuclear threats are the main threats of security risk. Terrorism is the biggest threat that causes the loss in the political, economic and social fields. If the governments take the action to control and increase the security levels in the country by using a good amount of resources then the attacks can be controlled at a level. The limited resources are the threat of the country that leads to not providing the country proper security. The process of dealing with terrorism is increasing the security levels. As stated by Biddleet al.(2012, p.8), to deal with terrorism the sufficient resources are the essential part that is to be present in the country and it is fulfilled from other investments that affect the security levels. There is need of the development of the new equipment and improving the infrastructure of the economy of the country that may helpful in preventing the terrorist attacks.

The government that have increased the levels of road accidents is not maintaining the security of the peoples based on their health and security of the individuals is at risk. The security of the individuals is being hampered due to increase in war conditions and leading to violence among the individuals. The international relations are facing challenges as all the international countries are struggling for power. The international relations between the countries can be achieved by balancing the power and resources of all the countries in achieving peace. International security is an important matter of concern as stated above and it requires many costs to incorporate proper security systems in the country. If the weakness of the countries is opened up in front of the world, it is easy for the states to invade the country. Nye and Welch(2016, p.485) argued that the security of the country have to be very strong so that no individual is posed with the threat of any external bodies.

For example, East European states during the cold war in Soviet empire had to undergo the problem of communist dominion because of the sovereignty of the Soviet Empire. In this case, the security of the country was under great threat as a result, huge contradiction arose in the country. In order to save the countries from various invasions, the security along with the unity among the states of the country is the main requirement. When the relationship between the countries is threatened, the international security structure is entirely changed thus, giving rise to numerous problems. For example, UN security systems were under threat and war started in the UN states because of the attacks of the person, who breaks the law internationally. Therefore, the security systems of the countries were threatened by the global phenomenon.

Collins(2016, p.896) stated that religious problems, cyber crimes and the destruction of the ethics of the country leads to the rise of the war and thus, destroying the security systems of the country. Brazilian security is a big threat for the US security systems because the country uses improved technology for securing their country along with that it incorporates such technologies in the country that helps to gain confidential information of the other countries. That is why; US government tries to improve their security systems in such a way so that no other country can get information about the economy of the country. Bugajski and Griffiths(2016, p.188) argued that the security systems need to have great potential so that the information about resources and the conflicts of the country can never be disclosed in the world. The defence of the European countries are so strong that the country dominates over their own space, marine and aerospace technologies so that no other country can invade the economy their country.

The rich resources of the countries should have to be properly preserved so that the assets of the countries can never be vulnerable to the other anti-social bodies. Every country should try to secure their systems in such a way that no other country can hack the systems to gain information about the economic status of the country (Krebs and Licklider, 2016, p.95). The countries’ individuals need to be such that they can construct regions or sub regions so that the country can ensure regional stability thus, enhancing the security systems. This will help to provide a threat to the regions of the other countries and therefore, the contemporary issues of the international security will be resolved properly (Agnew, 2016, p.225). The society need to be very active in understanding about the threats that are coming from the terrorists activities so that proper steps can be taken to build strong security systems for the county.

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In Europe, the states can identify their own problems and solve it within their states therefore, third party do not interfere in any decision-making activities of the country. This help to make their economy more protective and thus, the European states can provide better competition in front of the entire world regarding the international security systems of the country. Cavelty and Balzacq(2016, p.778) argued that splitting of the nations became another major issue in providing less security systems in the countries. For example, Germany split led to the splitting of the borders and the population of the country. This gave the chance to the other nations or the anti-social groups to take the advantage of the scenario and attack the security systems of the country. That is why; the country has to remain united so that no other country can invade the economy of a particular country.

Hehir(2013, p.138) demonstrated that when the split occurs in the countries, the division occurs between the people too thus giving rise to the agitation between the people of the countries. This divided society increases the criminal activities, which can be considered as the threat for the international security systems. For example, in former Yugoslavia, the individuals were asked the questions from which community they belong. If the individuals were found from different community, they were shot. That is why; the splitting of the countries should be stopped so that people of the world can live a better life without any tension. The Chinese countries follows this technique and the Chinese government do not allow the splitting of the countries thus, maintaining a good security systems in their country. The organisations like European Union, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and the Organisation of African Unity held different perspectives in maintaining proper international security systems in their country. Jervis and Art(2015, p.465) explained that competition in the maintenance of the security systems helps every country to get involved in implementing better technologies in their security systems.

As a result, the problems regarding the security systems are resolved and the country too remains safe from the hands of the terrorists’ activities. Thus, international security is a great need in the present days so that protection of the country’s population, economy of the country and the assets of the countries can be properly organised for better performance in every activities. Moreover, the constant evaluation needs to be done in every security systems of the country so that the proper security is assured to the people for their well-being.It can stated that contemporary issues are diversified and the international affairs are coming closer to uproot the issues from the system properly. Johnston(2013, p.10) argued that the countries have to understand the militarism concept along with racism concept that adversely affects the unity of the country thus leaving a gap in the security systems of the country.

The countries have to make interrelations among themselves so that the framework or the theories can be implemented easily in the security systems of the country. The participation of the individual country and their acceptance of the international treaties of the secured systems have to be undertaken so that all conflicts or issues are resolved accordingly. For example, US have maintained such security systems in the past years that no country can think of invading the states of US. This is a great advantage of US and that is why; the country imposes its superior position wherever required and can invade the states when they want. The developing countries can try to implement these strategies in their international security systems so that no other countries can destroy their economy and pose a threat on the population of the country (Kuperman, 2013, p.130). The reason behind cold war has to be analysed by every country of the world so that all together they can accurate decisions to resolve the lack in their international security systems.

Sometimes, implementing new technology can become costlier for the developing countries and these countries can ask for help from the various unions of developed countries so that they can improve their security systems. Gartzke(2013, p.42) claimed that security in every country have to be provided to the individuals, to the entire nation and to the religions of the country. The countries have to consider these facts seriously in order to provide proper security to the entire nation. The threat is given to the individuals and nation every time and strong security is the best method of providing an answer to the threats. It is required that the security system performs well so that international security can be worked upon on the country properly. The sustainability of the country is the major part that mainly faces the threat and security systems have to be properly designed so that sustainability of the country remains. The countries can try to adopt for the advanced technology so that the communication between every nation can be recorded.

For example, terrorist attack in Paris needs to be evaluated by every country so that they can take preventative steps to stop this nuisance thereby, enhancing the security systems. The attacks in Paris mainly occurred due to the sharing of the information in the borders and therefore, improvements need to be done in the information systems of the borders so that government can look after the communication system and any kind of hacking can be easily understood by government. This will assist in developing proper security systems in the country and the controversies related to international security in the international market will be removed. Glaser(2013, p.113) mentioned that the intelligence agencies of the countries can try to share information in encoded form along with encrypting the data that are send. This will help in providing better-secured services to the country and the citizens of the countries will be saved from any kind of losses.

Moreover, the security systems have to be made strong in the entry and exit terminals of the country via road, water and air. The security will help the defence officials to encounter with persons, who are not eligible for entering into the country. For example, in United Kingdom, the security systems are reformed by providing legal authorisation to the spy agencies so that they can enquire any person, whom they doubt to remain involved in unfair activities. It is a great step to secure the country from foreign invaders and thus, saving the country from any kind of problems related to international security. Jordan(2014, p.8) stated that the identity of every citizen of the country need to be shown before purchasing any products that can help to communicate the individuals with others. In this context, the Belgian government has already taken the step of presenting the identity cards of the individuals to the government agencies before purchasing any SIM cards. Government has to be more efficient in checking the person’s attitudes whether any negatives vibes are felt from the person or not. This will make the checking system more efficient and the security systems can be made more secured.

In the present days, the situation of the world is becoming more complex and every country is trying to make their international security systems updated so that no extra entry of individuals is allowed in the country (Keohane and Martin, 2014, p.321). The world is now at the verge of war that is why; the international security has to be improved by the countries so that the cold war can be stopped entirely. The nations of the world have to come closer so that proper decisions can be taken to improve the security systems of the world. Moreover, it is essential that the traditional conflicts are resolved so that no issue can stop the improvement of the international security systems. The approaches and theories mentioned above have to be kept in mind by every country so that the people of the world can be provided with a safe environment to live in without any tension.

Conclusion

The rise of globalisation has caused to improve international security by developing the policy that is able to counteract all the factors that may lead to threat in security. The process of dealing with terrorism is increasing the security levels. To deal with terrorism the sufficient resources are the essential part that is to be present in the country and it is fulfilled from other investments that affect the security levels. There is need of the development of the new equipment and improving the infrastructure of the economy of the country that may helpful in preventing the terrorist attacks. The international police are taking an attempt to share all the information among the international borders and there is the increase in cooperation of the international borders that are being done with the social media and are able to transfer necessary documents required in enhancing the international security.

Bibliography

  • Agnew, J., (2016). Abramowitz, Morton and Stephen Bosworth (2003).‘Adjusting to the New Asia’. Foreign Affairs, 82 (4): 119–131. Acharya, Amitav (2003).‘Will Asia’s Past be its Future?’International Security, 28 (3): 149–164. Acharya, Amitav (2011).‘Dialogue and Discovery: In Search of International Relations.Constructing a Chinese School of International Relations: Ongoing Debates and Sociological Realities,82(4), pp.224-250.
  • Anderson, N.D. and Silove, N., (2017). Correspondence: Perspectives on the Pivot.International Security,41(3), pp.201-205.
  • Bah, A.B. ed., (2017).International Security and Peacebuilding: Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Biddle, S., Friedman, J.A. and Shapiro, J.N., (2012). Testing the surge: Why did violence decline in Iraq in 2007?.International Security,37(1), pp.7-40.
  • Bugajski, J. and Griffiths, S.I., (2016). Brown, Michael E.(ed.), Ethnic Conflict and International Security (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993). Brzezinski, Zbigniew,‘Post Communist Nationalism’, Foreign Affairs, vol. LXVIII, Contemporary Nationalism in East Central Europe, 36(45), pp.185-200.
  • Byman, D., (2016). Understanding the Islamic State—A Review Essay.International Security,40(4), pp.127-165.
  • Cavelty, M.D. and Balzacq, T. eds., (2016).Routledge Handbook of Security Studies. Abingdon: Routledge.
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