The Role of Public Health in Health and Social Care

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Introduction to Public Health

The major role of any government of the country is to maintain public health. This study is designed to provide broad knowledge regarding different approaches and strategies used by the UK government and NHS to determine, control and monitor the frequency of disease in society. There are ranges of diseases which can be deadly for the society such as HIV and breast cancer. Government requires controlling these diseases effectively. The current report provides knowledge regarding implications of illness in the public for to provide of health and social care services. Through this study, learner will understand and get knowledge regarding factors which can manipulate health and wellbeing of people living in London.

Approaches And Strategies Used To Measure, Monitor And Control The Incidence Of Disease In Communities

There are various organizations working in the world such as planet fitness organization (WHO), Department of Health (DH) and other local system which play very significant role in identifying levels of health and diseases in the population. Role of these institutions can be explained as follows.

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Role of WHO: World health organization is the top authority for health within the United Nation system which directing and coordinating the nation health. It is an accountable institute to offer guidance on worldwide health matters, shaping the health research agenda, policy making, setting norms and standards, providing technical support to all countries and assessing and monitoring health trends. It plays key job in setting rules and standards and promoting and monitoring their execution. This organization provides statistical data of world regarding health trends. Following chart represents 10 leading causes of death (Ahgren, 2010).

Role of DH: It is the government department of the UK which helps public to live better for longer. It leads and shapes the health and care sector of UK. It provides funds to the society for health services. DH is a ministerial section which is maintained by 23 agencies and public organization. It is accountable for developing nationwide policies and legislation, providing the long term idea and aim to meet current and future challenges of health and care services. It plays a very crucial role in modernism and development by supporting research and technology to promote the health services within society.

Role of Local authorities: The health and social Act 2012 is a very critical step of UK government towards the establishment of a new community health system. It gives responsibility for health defense to the secretary of state and health enhancement to upper tier and unitary local authorities. The secretary of state can hand over some health guard operations to local authorities. This new Act of the UK government plays a very significant role in management and control of health care activities of the nation (Betts, 2013). It includes data on public health funding such as how local authorities have been spending their funds and on accountability arrangements.

Epidemiology of HIV in the UK: HIV is the short form of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It attacks the immune system of human body. Generally the immune system produces white blood cells which protect the body from viruses and bacteria. HIV is the virus which decreases these white blood cells and also decreases antibodies from human body. It is the cause of AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome). Around 94,400 individuals were livelihood with HIV in the UK at the end of Year 2012, from which 22 % are not conscious of their illness. There were 6,360 new diagnoses of HIV in year 2012 which are contributing to a cumulative total of 128,805 cases reported by the end of 2012. In 2012, 27798 cases of AIDS were reported and 21,117 people living with HIV have died. The above chart shows the trends in UK HIV and AIDS and death in various years (Boorman, 2010).

Epidemiology of breast cancer in the UK: Breast cancer forms in the cells of the breasts. It is the most ordinary cancer diagnosed in women in the UK. It occurs in women as well as in men but it is far more common in women. It is rare in men. In year 2011, there were 50,285 new cases of breast cancer in the UK, 99% in women and 1% in men. It represents that there are 155 new breast cancer cases for every 100000 females in the UK. Following table represents breast cancer diagnoses by gender.

The major objective of NHS is to get better the health results for people in England. It believes in innovative approach. NHS supports and empowers clinical leaders at every level of the NHS through clinical commissioning groups (CCGs), networks and senates, in NHS England itself and in providers. It will help the public sector hospitals and other institutes for making genuinely financial decision, spend the taxpayer's money cleverly and provide high quality services. Following figure shows the health and care system of NHS (Dawson and Silva, 2009).

Investigate The Implications Of Illness And Disease In Communities For The Provision Of Health And Social Care Services

Department of health (DH) is the government agency of the UK which helps people to live a longer and healthy life. It is responsible for providing better services to the public. The major work of the DH is health policy making, controlling all hospitals of UK etc. Followings are the present major precedence of UK for prevention and manage of diseases and risk factors.

  • Avoiding public from dying prematurely by improving mortality rates for the big killer diseases such as HIV and breast cancer. They improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment.
  • UK government is concerned about improving the standard of care throughout the system so that quality of care is considered as important task. They provide better training, tougher inspections and more attention paid to what patients say.
  • They want to improve treatment and care of people with dementia, to be among the best in Europe through better research, early diagnosis and better support.
  • Government desires to bring new technology to NHS to help people, especially those who have deadly diseases.

There are the major strategies or policies developed by the UK for prevention and control of HIV and breast cancer. These include giving all children a healthy start in life, reducing drugs misuse and dependence, helping more people to survive cancer. From 1 October 2015, UK government will start public health services for babies and children up to 5 year old. These services include the family nurse partnership program and health visiting. It will increase the awareness regarding HIV and breast cancer at first or starting level. To control the drugs misuse and dependence, they have developed policy to control and manage it effectively. To reduce cancer, they have created special cancer policy for the people of the country (Great Britain, 2012).

Breast cancer is the most common and dangerous disease in the UK. Every year, about 48000 women get breast cancer in Britain. This disease has lifetime risk which means a new born child can be suffered from this disease during their life. In Europe, highest rates for breast cancer are in Belgium and lowest in Bosnia Herzegovina. UK breast cancer incidence rates are estimated to be the 6th highest in Europe which is very dangerous for the people of country. This disease is growing with very high rate which is not good for e women as well as other gender groups of the nation.

This disease can be very dangerous in near future for the community. UK government should make some strategies to reduce this kind of disease at the starting level. They can make policies for child to find out this cancer at the first stage. People, especially women need best health care services to support them. Government agencies and NHS should adopt and develop new and innovative services to reduce current level of breast cancer cases. At this stage if government does not take any action, it will be very deadly for the future of the nation as well as individuals. People who are suffering from this disease need special health services because it will reduce the rate of growth of this disease which is very high currently (Heginbotham, 2012).

Different life styles can have influence health of human. Regular exercise, eating a healthy food, not drinking too much alcohol and not smoking can help individual stay well and enjoy a long life. Various researches have represented that the longer settlers live in the UK, higher are the rates of high heart diseases, diabetes and blood pressure. The major reason behind occurrence of these kinds of diseases is smoking, drugs, drinking, high calorie, low nutrient diets and sedentary lifestyles etc. In present era, people of the UK are depending on fast food restaurants which are providing easy access to poor food choices. It is very clear that individual which has poor lifestyle choices have chronic diseases and hence healthcare cost for them will be increased.

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Smoking is the most common and easiest example of how our habits can affect our genes. The carcinogens in cigarette smoke directly affect the molecules in our bodies and it is the main cause of cancer. It will increase cost of the health services for human. Choice regarding foods also affects the health of the people. A person who eats raw fruits and vegetables has lower risk of diseases. But in the UK, life of the individuals is very busy and they depend on the restaurants and hotels for food. In this condition, they spend more money on their health and care services (Manthorpe and et.al. 2009).

Today's young generation takes drugs and drinks alcohols which affect their health negatively. There are various people who are health conscious and hence they regularly exercise. This kind of activity will reduce risk of the diseases as well as reduce the need of the health and social care services. If person and society are not aware about their health, they cannot reduce the expenditures on hospital services. In the current busy life of UK, they cannot take fresh food of their home and they depend on the fast food joints and hotel which will change their need of the health and social care services because these kind of food will increase calories in human body which will also increase various diseases.

Understand The Factors Influencing Health And Well being Of People Living In London

Following are the major health and wellbeing priorities for people in London.

  • Mitigating and recognizing any negative effect arising from welfare reform on the health and wellbeing of local community by supporting persons to cope with changes in their circumstances and income.
  • They want to reduce smoking by supporting and encouraging young people of London.
  • Government requires promoting exercise, paying special attention to the needs of overweight and obese children.
  • They want to decrease use of alcohol and drugs by encouraging those who drink alcohol. They will provide special training and educational program to such people.
  • They are planning to improving information about wellbeing and independence.
  • Understanding and addressing the health and wellbeing needs of disadvantaged groups including victims of domestic violence and other hate crime, rough sleepers, refugees and asylum seekers, careers, people with disabilities and sex workers.
  • Government will promote mental health and wellbeing education. They are making plan to improve the mental hospitals in the country (Mark, 2005).
  • They are also promoting more people to use parks, libraries and other cultural facilities and programs.
  • Promoting oral health and better access to dental services, especially for young children.
  • It is the priority of London government to improve the health and wellbeing of babies which are under fives. Mothers of these babies will be encouraged for education related to various diseases.
  • It is basic need of the Government to promote the sexual wellbeing of young people for reducing the infections. Another priority is to reduce unplanned pregnancies through better sex. Sexual relationship education in schools and colleges will be first priority of the government.
  • They need to promote health and wellbeing education. Government will increase cancer screening, health check up and new opportunities for healthy lifestyles (Moonie, 2005).

Department of health has introduced health and wellbeing strategy, system and rules for ensuring health and wellbeing of London population. The objective of the strategy is to provide effective social services to the public of London. The city of London is a unique area in which 360000 people travel into city every day. This city has highest daytime population density of any local authority in UK. The City of London Corporation has responsibility to ensure health of the people of the place. This institution has developed health and wellbeing strategy for the people. The main objective of the policy is to align the city's approach to the NHS outcomes framework, the adult social care outcomes framework and the public health outcomes framework by improving the integration services especially between the NHS and local authority.

The major priorities of the strategies of the London health and social care authority have been explained in above sub task. They want to give every child the best start in life by providing them best health and wellbeing services. The City of London Corporation and NHS East London have recently conducted a piece of research to look at the public and primary healthcare needs of city workers. They have made list of priorities in their strategy to provide health and social services to the people of London easily (Seager, 2012).

To progress the health and wellbeing of people in London, the government must make some effective strategies, systems and policies for the community. They must provide better education to the people of the London regarding effect of current lifestyle of the society on their health. NHS and WHO should improve their work style and they can design some effective plan for the London. They can improve research and development department of the country regarding health services. They can conduct special programs regarding special diseases such as cancer and AIDS to motivate and to provide knowledge to the public. Health of the human resources decides the productivity, so Government must play their role effectively in this health and medical field. Only healthy people can work effectively. Govt. bodies can provide especial facility to the public such as exercise, sports etc (Sines and et.al., 2013).

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There is Smoking Cessation Program of NHS for encouraging people to quit smoking in London. NHS’s “stop smoking” is the best service of world. It provides experts or advisers to people who want to leave smoking. This kind of service provides best way to reduce use of tobacco products. NHS provides nicotine replacement therapy to the people. After regular smoking, body of the individual needs regular doses of nicotine from cigarettes. So, NRT is the therapy in which experts will check the level of smoke in the body and suggest many ways to quit smoking. They provide stop smoking medication which will help persons for Leaving habit of smoking easily. Government has developed many ways to reduce use of smoking such as regulation regarding sale and promotion of tobacco, tobacco taxes, smoking regulation for public place and driving, anti smoking campaigns etc. This kind of programs will encourage public to quit smoking in London (Moonie, 2005).

Conclusion

According to above study it can be concluded that government and their agencies play a very significant role in ensuring public health and social welfare. They make special strategies, policies and plans to improve health of the society. WHO, DH and NHS are the institutions which can monitor and organize the incidence of disease in communities.

References

  • Guilding, C., 2007. Financial Management for Hospitality Decision Makers. Routledge.
  • Guilding, C., 2012. Accounting Essentials for Hospitality Managers. Routledge.
  • Brotherton, B., 2000, An Introduction to the UK Hospitality Industry: A Comparative Approach. Routledge.
  • Park, K. and Jang, S.C., 2014. Hospitality Finance and Managerial Accounting Research: Suggesting an Interdisciplinary Research Agenda. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 26(5).
  • Pizam, A., 2012. International Encyclopedia of Hospitality Management. Routledge. 2nd ed.
  • Wöber, K. W., 2002. Benchmarking in Tourism and Hospitality Industries: The Selection of Benchmarking Partners. CABI.
 
 
 
 
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