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11339 Downloads I Published: 23 Jun ,2017
Research is a process of systematic investigation for raising knowledge through new facts. It is a detailed and careful study of issues or problems by using scientific methods. For starting up with research, skills that are important are like report writing, problem solving, analysis, logical thinking, presentation skills, computer skills and project management (Dochartaigh, 2007). This report is a study on The Manchester Company (TMC) that is interested in starting a few new projects. They are interested in hearing some ideas from aspiring professionals. Before asking the potential candidates for their ideas, TMC would like proof that they know the way to research effectively. This report is divided into three tasks where first task covers different research methodologies, second task is about primary and secondary information and third task says about all issues which arise in research.
There are different types of research methodologies which help the individual in gaining knowledge. These methodologies are very helpful in conducting the study effectually. Different methods have distinct benefits or drawbacks. These methods provide different solutions or answers to the research topic (Research Methods, 2009). For conducting a proper investigation, the individual must have analysis skill so that different answers by using distinct methods can easily be understood the most appropriate one can be used in the research. Following are few methodologies for conducting study:
Experiments: Individuals who conduct research might be asked for complete test for improving their cognitive abilities like attention, word recall, reasoning ability, etc. These are the tests that are conducted on computers or paper to. Different tests involve interventions where the researcher takes training programs or interactions. These interactions are normally followed by some tests (Carey, M., 2012). . In training programs, researcher would observe people's behaviour or reactions to carry out their research. Few programs may be based on groups that how individuals behave or react in a group. During his interaction with the participant he may also ask them to fill questionnaires. In all these kinds of experiments it is on the researcher that what kind of experiment he prefers.
Surveys: This refers to collecting information from a large group of people through interviews, telephoning, questionnaires, etc. Surveys are of different types (Thomas, 2007). Among all, in direct type, people are given with specific time to complete the survey. In other types, people generally complete the survey before a major experience or event. Surveys prove to be very helpful in conducting a research and it provides the researcher with relevant data.
Questionnaires: This is the best way for obtaining information from large number of people who may have ample of time for interviews or experiments. It enables people to think and to take time for answering. Participants are allowed to express their feelings regarding investigation without thinking about the researcher's reaction (Ramlaul, 2010). Participants should be honest in giving answers so the researcher with the relevant answers. Questionnaires should contain closed and open-ended questions along with multiple choice questions. Problem in questionnaire is that the response is less and mostly people do not answer all the questions. It can be conducted through internet sites, email attachments, etc. Questionnaire can also be administered personally through researcher which includes advantage for people who find difficulty in understanding the questions.
Evaluative: In most of the evaluations, the main goal is to provide useful feedback to sponsors, client-groups, staff, donors, etc. Feedback is always perceived useful for decision making (Garvin, 2009). Evaluation is of two types, that is, formative and summative. Formative evaluates the strengths, delivery of program, procedures, inputs, etc. Summative evaluates the outcomes and effects of the research. Moreover, it estimates the cost incurred in developing the research.
Observational: It is a process where the researcher observes ongoing behaviour. There are different types of observational methods like controlled observation, natural observation and participant observation. In controlled observation, the scholar decides when the observation should take place, at what time, in which circumstances, etc. In natural observation, the researcher observes the behaviour of participants (Norusis, 2007). In participant observation, the scholar becomes a part of the group in which they study for understanding the investigation deeply.
Developmental: This study focuses on the improvements which occur in the development of research (Gay, Mills and Airasian, 2011). For conducting a study, many types of methods are used which provides suitable solutions to problems. Different methods provide distinct data which helps in developing the results of research.
Data is the collection of information and there are two types of data namely Qualitative and Quantitative.
Qualitative Data: It is a type of data which deals with the description. Qualitative data can only be observed and cannot be measured like smell, tastes, beauty, color, etc. Qualitative data are mainly of two types, that is, face to face interaction with the individuals and in a group (Types of variables, 2015). In addition to this, the methods for collecting this data are focus groups, observations, interviews individually, etc.
Quantitative data: Data which can be collected numerically is quantitative data. They are of two types, that is, information which can be counted and that can be measured (Reising and et.al., 2008). The data which can be counted is like population, number of students in a school, etc. Information which can be measured is like weight of 10 students, height of 5 students, etc. The data collected in quantitative form is very much specific and helpful.
Importance of Quantitative data is as follows:
There are many issues which occur in the course of research. Following are the ethical issues in research:
Relevant sources: The researcher should use appropriate data for the research. The data which the researcher provides should be relevant and appropriate (McLeod, 2015). The source through which the data is collected should not be copied as it is. The researcher should understand the topic and based on the data relevant information should be collected.
There are many sources through which information can be collected. Following are the few sources through which data can be collected:
With the use of sources one will be able to support the evidences which are required for the assignment. It is a type of acknowledgement for the sources which are used in the work. It is very important for reference all the sources that have been used in the assignment. It enables to distinguish the idea of individual who works on the assignment form others (Leahy and 2008). The readers will understand the depth of the reading. Moreover, it enables the reader to compare the work with the original source. In addition to this, acknowledging the source to any information will help in avoiding plagiarism.
In conducting research, Research Ethics Committees (REC) plays an important role. Following are the role by ethical committee:
From this report, it can be articulated that there are many aspects which has to be kept in mind in developing research. There are many methodologies like experiments, surveys, evaluative, developmental, etc. in developing research. There are two types of data namely: Qualitative and Quantitative data. Among these quantitative data is more reliable as it includes the data which can be counted and measured. Moreover, there are two sources of collecting information which are primary and secondary. In addition to this there are other sources through which data can be collected like visual, audio, paper-based, electronic, etc. The researcher should give his hundred percent efforts in order to ensure that the data collected form the participants will be safe.
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