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Things to Keep in Mind While Developing Research

12784 Downloads1 I Published: 23 Jun ,2017

Introduction To Research

Research is a process of systematic investigation for raising knowledge through new facts. It is a detailed and careful study of issues or problems by using scientific methods. For starting up with research, skills that are important are like report writing, problem solving, analysis, logical thinking, presentation skills, computer skills and project management (Dochartaigh, 2007). This report is a study on The Manchester Company (TMC) that is interested in starting a few new projects. They are interested in hearing some ideas from aspiring professionals. Before asking the potential candidates for their ideas, TMC would like proof that they know the way to research effectively. This report is divided into three tasks where first task covers different research methodologies, second task is about primary and secondary information and third task says about all issues which arise in research.

Different research methodologies

There are different types of research methodologies which help the individual in gaining knowledge. These methodologies are very helpful in conducting the study effectually. Different methods have distinct benefits or drawbacks. These methods provide different solutions or answers to the research topic (Research Methods, 2009). For conducting a proper investigation, the individual must have analysis skill so that different answers by using distinct methods can easily be understood the most appropriate one can be used in the research. Following are few methodologies for conducting study:

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Experiments: Individuals who conduct research might be asked for complete test for improving their cognitive abilities like attention, word recall, reasoning ability, etc. These are the tests that are conducted on computers or paper to. Different tests involve interventions where the researcher takes training programs or interactions. These interactions are normally followed by some tests (Carey, M., 2012). . In training programs, researcher would observe people's behaviour or reactions to carry out their research. Few programs may be based on groups that how individuals behave or react in a group. During his interaction with the participant he may also ask them to fill questionnaires. In all these kinds of experiments it is on the researcher that what kind of experiment he prefers.

Surveys: This refers to collecting information from a large group of people through interviews, telephoning, questionnaires, etc. Surveys are of different types (Thomas, 2007). Among all, in direct type, people are given with specific time to complete the survey. In other types, people generally complete the survey before a major experience or event. Surveys prove to be very helpful in conducting a research and it provides the researcher with relevant data.

Questionnaires: This is the best way for obtaining information from large number of people who may have ample of time for interviews or experiments. It enables people to think and to take time for answering. Participants are allowed to express their feelings regarding investigation without thinking about the researcher's reaction (Ramlaul, 2010). Participants should be honest in giving answers so the researcher with the relevant answers. Questionnaires should contain closed and open-ended questions along with multiple choice questions. Problem in questionnaire is that the response is less and mostly people do not answer all the questions. It can be conducted through internet sites, email attachments, etc.  Questionnaire can also be administered personally through researcher which includes advantage for people who find difficulty in understanding the questions.

Evaluative: In most of the evaluations, the main goal is to provide useful feedback to sponsors, client-groups, staff, donors, etc. Feedback is always perceived useful for decision making (Garvin, 2009). Evaluation is of two types, that is, formative and summative. Formative evaluates the strengths, delivery of program, procedures, inputs, etc. Summative evaluates the outcomes and effects of the research. Moreover, it estimates the cost incurred in developing the research.

Observational: It is a process where the researcher observes ongoing behaviour. There are different types of observational methods like controlled observation, natural observation and participant observation. In controlled observation, the scholar decides when the observation should take place, at what time, in which circumstances, etc. In natural observation, the researcher observes the behaviour of participants (Norusis, 2007).  In participant observation, the scholar becomes a part of the group in which they study for understanding the investigation deeply.

Developmental: This study focuses on the improvements which occur in the development of research (Gay, Mills and Airasian, 2011). For conducting a study, many types of methods are used which provides suitable solutions to problems. Different methods provide distinct data which helps in developing the results of research.

Types of data

Data is the collection of information and there are two types of data namely Qualitative and Quantitative.

Qualitative Data: It is a type of data which deals with the description. Qualitative data can only be observed and cannot be measured like smell, tastes, beauty, color, etc. Qualitative data are mainly of two types, that is, face to face interaction with the individuals and in a group (Types of variables, 2015). In addition to this, the methods for collecting this data are focus groups, observations, interviews individually, etc.

  • Following are the importance of Qualitative data:
  • Data collected through questionnaire helps the researcher with appropriate answers regarding the question on the questionnaire. For example, suppose in a questionnaire, a person is asked that what made him/her purchase that particular product.  That person intentionally clicked on discounted rates as his answer (Davis and et.al., 2006). In further analysis it was found that   more than 85% of population has purchased that particular product due to discounted rates. This signifies that quantitative data showed that creating more discounted rates will be helpful for attracting customers as a marketing strategy.
  • Main aim of markets is to know what drives the customers for purchasing products. Qualitative research provides the insight for the reason because of which customers purchase a product but soon they shift to its substitute product (Murtonen and et.al., 2008). This data is achieved through market analysis and external reviews.
  • Through qualitative data, researcher can find the participants personal details and many other elated information. Moreover, through qualitative data can be collected quickly.  But sometimes, collecting qualitative data is very difficult when the data available in bulk.

Quantitative data: Data which can be collected numerically is quantitative data. They are of two types, that is, information which can be counted and that can be measured (Reising and et.al., 2008). The data which can be counted is like population, number of students in a school, etc. Information which can be measured is like weight of 10 students, height of 5 students, etc. The data collected in quantitative form is very much specific and helpful.

Importance of Quantitative data is as follows:

  • It enables the researcher to analyse and measure data. The information received in quantitative form is very specific and detailed. It provides exact details which can be measured or can be counted.
  • The data can be used regarding testing hypothesis as the data can be measured with the help of statistics. The researcher can rely on the authenticity information as the data is numeric. In generalizing the findings, statistics can be used.

Ethical Issues in Research

There are many issues which occur in the course of research. Following are the ethical issues in research:

Relevant sources: The researcher should use appropriate data for the research. The data which the researcher provides should be relevant and appropriate (McLeod, 2015). The source through which the data is collected should not be copied as it is. The researcher should understand the topic and based on the data relevant information should be collected.

  • For conducting a research the people through whom the questionnaire are to filled, they should be given proper knowledge regarding the topic on which the research is being collected. The people who will fill the questionnaire should be well informed regarding the research topic and the outcome of the research (Dochartaigh, 2007). The participants should have complete understanding regarding the purpose and the methods used in the research. Moreover, the participant should understand that the researcher has the full right to withdraw him/her form the research.
  • The questionnaire should be analysed properly for authenticity of data. For completing the research the researcher should not fill the questionnaire form his own understanding. It has to be filled by the people who will appropriate with respect to the topic of the research.
  • The ability to retain and acquire knowledge. Based on the individual's ability she/ he is deemed incompetent or competent (William, 2006). Competency of a person is determined by the ability and legal qualification and viewed in terms of age. These are legally protected by legal guardians or parents.

Addressing the ethical issues

  • There are many key phrases which describes that the system for ethical protection is established for the rights towards research. Following are the points to be kept in mind for addressing the ethical issues:
  • Research should be safely kept and should not be given access to others. Only the persons how have the right should only be allowed to access the research. The participants should be ensured that the information collected will be confidential and it would not be made available for anyone else (Carey, 2012). Participants should be given information regarding the data that how it will be used, what all things have to be done with audio, video recordings, photos, case materials, etc. The researcher must be sure that the research materials are stored in a safe place with limited access. If the researcher, plans to share his data with others then he should specify that it will be done and he should be sure that the data is anonymous. There would be cases where the researcher would find difficulty in sharing sensitive data which they would have collected for adults with mental issues as they would have failed to take proper permission for sharing their data.
  • Researcher should be very careful in sharing information through internet as the use of internet technology is evolving and there are chances that other may tap the information.
  • When the researcher completes the research then he should destroy all the information collect form the participants so that the information will not be used by someone else.

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Types of sources

There are many sources through which information can be collected. Following are the few sources through which data can be collected:

  • Visual: These are many videos available on the internet and more specifically on website like YouTube through which information regarding any topic can be easily collected. Memory retention value in case of this source of data collection is very high. When every person visualize something then it is more effective than any other source as visual images enables to remember information for a long time (Types of sources, 2015). It enables the individual for better understanding of the topic. The drawback in this is that it is not suitable for interaction and discussion.
  • Audio: This is very useful source of gaining information as it helps in learning new vocabulary and to remember names, places, etc. There are many audio recordings available which enables the user to develop this understanding on particular area.  Main drawback in this is that it requires high maintenance.
  • Paper based: Most of the firm use this type of database for storing their companies as well as their customer’s information. Paper based information is very helpful to get information. It can also be accessed even during power cuts. The data will be always safe. This source helps in decreasing the expense of the firm as it do not require power for storing the data (Bhavnagri and Bielat, 2005). Paper database is very easy to understand and do not require any kind of training for new employees. The main drawback for this data base is that it is very difficult to maintain and store. To find a document quickly is very difficult and it is very hard to share the information.

Need of reference sources

With the use of sources one will be able to support the evidences which are required for the assignment. It is a type of acknowledgement for the sources which are used in the work. It is very important for reference all the sources that have been used in the assignment. It enables to distinguish the idea of individual who works on the assignment form others (Leahy and 2008). The readers will understand the depth of the reading. Moreover, it enables the reader to compare the work with the original source. In addition to this, acknowledging the source to any information will help in avoiding plagiarism.

Role of the ethics committee

In conducting research, Research Ethics Committees (REC) plays an important role. Following are the role by ethical committee:

  • To start research prior approval has to be taken form Research Ethics Committee especially when human participants are involved (Smith, 2005). If they fine that the data collected form the participants are been misused, then they will give orders to stop the research instently. This committee approves all the process which is to be held in completion of the research. REC's is guided by its own standard operating procedures (SOP's) or guidelines.
  • Main responsibility of this committee is to ensure safety and protection for the human participants. Moreover, the decision taken form REC has to be followed by researcher.
  • REC should provide the research team with well-defined steps for submitting the proposals of research (Ramlaul, 2010). Timely feedbacks should be presented to REC suitable reasons for supporting the demonstrations.

Conclusion

From this report, it can be articulated that there are many aspects which has to be kept in mind in developing research. There are many methodologies like experiments, surveys, evaluative, developmental, etc. in developing research. There are two types of data namely: Qualitative and Quantitative data. Among these quantitative data is more reliable as it includes the data which can be counted and measured. Moreover, there are two sources of collecting information which are primary and secondary. In addition to this there are other sources through which data can be collected like visual, audio, paper-based, electronic, etc. The researcher should give his hundred percent efforts in order to ensure that the data collected form the participants will be safe.

References

  • Carey, M., 2012. Qualitative Research Skills for Social Work: Theory and Practice. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
  • Chu, S. and et.al., 2008. Grade 4 students’ development of research skills through inquiry-based learning projects. School Libraries Worldwide.
  • Davis, T. H. and et.al., 2006. Problem-based learning of research skills. Journal of electrocardiology.
  • Dochartaigh, N. O., 2012. Internet Research Skills. SAGE.
  • Dochartaigh, N.O., 2007. Internet Research Skills: How To Do Your Literature Search and Find Research Information Online. SAGE.
  • Garvin, P., 2009. Real World Research Skills: An Introduction to Factual, International, Judicial, Legislative, and Regulatory Research. The Capitol Net Inc.
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