What Is the Harvard Referencing Style? A Quick Introduction
Books are the most preferred and highly common source of information and facts for any researcher. But you must keep in mind that using someone’s published work can account for plagiarism, which can result in marks deduction and even get your paper rejected. To avoid such unwanted repercussions, citations are used.
Harvard citation module is one of the most preferred and commonly used referencing techniques by various universities and educational bodies in Australia as well as across the globe. It is an author-date referencing style, which means, your citations must mention the name of the author as well as the date of publishing of the content used in your paper. Harvard referencing is also called the parenthetical referencing method because of the use of parentheses in partial citations. The main use of these citation formats and manuals is to create uniformity between the type of documents that are being curated.
Different citation styles have different formats and hence, they can be used to classify documents based on their citation style or university of use. However, all the citation styles such as APA, MLA, Vancouver, OSCOLA, etc. have common information about the source but they vary in their formats. The Harvard citation style varies in minor features such as punctuation, capitalization, abbreviations, and the use of italics. There are mainly two types of Harvard referencing, in-text citations and reference lists.
- In-Text Citation: While taking an extract of someone else’s work in your work as a subject to talk about or to make a point, you can simply cite their source in parentheses after using the content. The citation which is done while writing the text or to be exact, while working on a theory is called an in-text citation.
Example: "After that, I lived like a young rajah in all the capitals of Europe…" (Fitzgerald, 2004).
- Reference List: The reference list serves as a collection of all the sources from which you have cited any type of work. Here, every detail such as the name of the author, title of the source, date of publishing, time of publishing, etc. is mentioned. It is a single fresh page, filled with all the details of credits for all the works which are being cited in the paper.
Example: Fitzgerald, F. (2004). The Great Gatsby. New York: Scribner.
The common information that is required to be stored for all sources in the Harvard citation format is:
- Author Name(s)
- Year of Publishing
- Title of the Content
- Publishing City
- Publishing Authority (Publisher or the Publishing House)
- Number of Pages Mentioned (if any)
And the common format that is used for Harvard referencing is given as:
Author’s Last name, First name Initial. (Year of publishing). Title of the Content. City: Publisher, Page(s) used.
How to Cite a Book in Harvard Format?
- Basic Books:While citing a book, you must keep in mind the format that is to be used while making an entry in the reference list.
Format: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. (Include edition if more than 1) City of publishing: Publisher, Page(s).
Example: Desikan, S., and Ramesh, G. (2006). Software testing. Bangalore, India: Dorling Kindersley, p.156.
Note: This is the basic format for all the books that you want to cite, If there are multiple authors (more than 1), you can simply write their name similarly to the format.
Example of Multiple Author Books:
Daniels, K., Patterson, G., and Dunston, Y. (2014). The ultimate student teaching guide. 2nd ed. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, pp.145-151.
- Edited Books: An edited book is a book that is made by the contribution of different editors, authors translators, etc. There is a slight difference between the format used for citing a normal book and the format for citing an edited book.
Format: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In: First initial. Last name, ed., Book Title, 1st ed.* City: Publisher, Page(s)
Example: Bressler, L. (2010). My girl, Kylie. In: L. Mathew, ed., The Things That We Love, 1st ed. Boston: Jacobson Ltd., pp. 78-92.
- Multiple Contributions of the Same Author:The thing to note here is that the reference list is always compiled and sorted by the author’s name. If the same author has multiple contributions, then use the year in which they were published. If the year is also the same, then use the title initials to sort the list.
Format: Author’s Last name, First name Initial. (Year of publishing). Title of the Content. City: Publisher, Page(s) used.
Brown, D. (1998). Digital fortress. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Brown, D. (2003). Deception point. New York: Atria Books.
Brown, D. (2003). The Da Vinci Code. New York: Doubleday.
- E-Books and PDF Referencing: E-books are online electronic books which are not physically tangible but can be accessed with the help of computing devices or e-readers.
Format: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title. Edition. [format] City: Publisher, page(s). Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
Example: Zusak, M. (2015). The Book Thief. 1st ed. [ebook] New York: Knopf. Available at: http://ebooks.nypl.org/ [Accessed 20 Apr. 2015].
Note: A similar format is also used for the books or collection of papers available online in PDFs. The edition of the book is supposed to be mentioned even if it is the 1st edition.
How to Cite Articles According to Harvard Referencing Style?
- Citing Print Journal Articles: Those articles, which are written by scholars and researchers after thorough research and later submitted for publishing in the journal to get published are called journal articles. After such a rigorous process of quality verification of the article, they serve as the proven source of factually correct data to cite in your work. In the Harvard citation format, you can easily cite the articles that you use as a source of your study.
Format: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Journal, Volume (Issue), Page(s)
Example: Ross, N. (2015). On Truth Content and False Consciousness in Adorno’s Aesthetic Theory. Philosophy Today, 59(2), pp. 269-290.
- Citing Electronic Journal Articles (From Databases and Websites): When you use an article that is published on an online journal, or a scholarly database, or any other website of a journal, ensure that you mention all the basic details which you did in a conventional, printed article. Along with those details, add a tag of source in square brackets e.g. [online], the address or URL of the article, and the date it was used or accessed.
Format: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article Title. Journal, [online] Volume (Issue), pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
Example: Raina, S. (2015). Establishing a Correlation Between Genetics and Non-response. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, [online] Volume 61(2), p. 148. Available at: http://www.proquest.com/products-services/ProQuest-Research-Library.html [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].
- Citation for Print Newspaper Articles: Print media is also one of the best sources to gain insights about the advancements in any field. The information is reliable, and that is what you want to make your paper more interesting and trusted. To cite any newspaper, use the following format:
Format: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, Page(s).
Example: Weisman, J. (2015). Deal Reached on Fast-Track Authority for Obama on Trade Accord. The New York Times, p.A1.
- Citing a Newspaper Article Found Online: When you want to cite a newspaper article that is found online and is circulated as an electronic paper, you have to mention the source as “Newspaper” as it serves as a newspaper of the online media.
Format: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Newspaper, [online] pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
Example: Harris, E. (2015). For Special-Needs Students, Custom Furniture Out of Schoolhouse Scraps. New York Times, [online] p.A20. Available at: http://go.galegroup.com [Accessed 17 Apr. 2015].
- Print Magazine Articles: Use the following format to cite an article form a magazine:
Format: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Article title. Magazine, (Volume), Page(s)
Example: Davidson, J. (2008). Speak her language. Men’s Health, (23), pp.104-106.
How to Cite Images and Other Audio-Visual Sources According to Harvard Referencing Style?
- Citing Online Images: To cite images use the following format:
Format: Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author. (Year published). Title/description. [image] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
Example: Williams, A. (2013). DJ Gear. [image] Available at: https://flic.kr/p/fbPZyV [Accessed 8 Apr. 2015].
- Citing Online Videos: The format for citing online videos is similar to that of citing an image. The only difference is that you mention [Video] instead of [image] in the structure.
Format: Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author. (Year published). Title/description. [Video] Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year]
Example: Instant Assignment Help (2019). Assignment Help By Instant Assignment Help Australia. [video]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZN3_WCzP75E [Accessed 8 Apr. 2020].
- Citing Music/Recording:
Format: Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Medium] City published: Music Label.
Example: Jackson, M. (1982). Thriller. [CD] West Hollywood: Epic.
- Citing Music/Recording Found Online:
Format: Performer or Writer’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Recording title. [Online] City published: Music Label. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
Example: Kaskade, (2015). Never Sleep Alone. [Online] Burbank: Warner Bros/Arkade. Available at: https://soundcloud.com/kaskade/kaskade-never-sleep-alone [Accessed 7 Apr. 2015].
Format: Series title, (Year published). [Type of Programme] Channel number: Broadcaster.
Example: Modern Family, (2010). [TV programme] 6: Abc.
- Citing a Radio Broadcast:
Format: Series title, (Year published). [Type of Programme] Channel number: Broadcaster.
Example: The Preston and Steve Morning Show (2012). [Radio Programme] 93.3: WMMR.
- Citing DVD Video or Film:
Format: Film title. (Year published). [Format] Place of origin: Filmmaker.
Example: Girls Just Want To Have Fun. (1985). [film] Chicago: Alan Metter.
Format: Last name, First initial. OR Corporate Author (Year published) Episode title. [podcast]. Podcast title. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
Example: Provenzano, N. (2012). #NerdyCast Episode 5. [podcast]. #NerdyCast. Available at: https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/nerdycast/id514797904?mt=2 [Accessed 14 Dec. 2014].
- Citing an Artwork: Any painting or handcrafted image like a sketch can be considered as an artwork. To cite an artwork, use:
Format: Last name, First initial. (Year created). Title. [Medium]. The city that the artwork is/was displayed in: Gallery or Museum.
Example: Gilbert, S. (1795-1796). George Washington. [Oil on canvas] New York: The Frick Collection.
Online Sources That Can Be Cited in Harvard Referencing Style
Format: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Post title. [Blog] Blog name. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
Example: Cohen, M. (2013). Re-election Is Likely for McConnell, but Not Guaranteed. [Blog] FiveThirtyEight. Available at: http://fivethirtyeight.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/07/01/re-election-is-likely-for-mcc onnell-but-not-guaranteed/ [Accessed 4 Apr. 2015].
Format: Name of creator surname, initials [Screen name if applicable]., (Year). [Title of message - up to 40 words] [Medium]. Date of the post. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL [Private access if privacy settings are in place].
Example: University of Sheffield Library., (2017). [On this day, in 1909, the first library opened at the University of Sheffield] [Facebook]. 26 April. [Accessed 15 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.facebook.com/UniSheffieldLib/posts/1346273698788324
Note: The format for all the social media status updates stays the same, you just have to mention the source of your cited post in square brackets.
Other Sources That Can Be Cited in Harvard Referencing Style
There are a lot of conventional and unconventional sources that you might get an idea or an important fact that you think can be used in your paper. Harvard allows you to cite almost every sort of source there is. A few which might come in handy for your project are listed below -
- Citing Conference Proceedings: The papers which are presented in front of a conference are termed as conference proceedings. There are proceedings that are sometimes published online as a paper whereas some proceedings stay published offline.
To cite one of the online published proceedings use the following Harvard format -
Format: Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference. [online] City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
Example: Palmer, L., Gover, E., and Doublet, K. (2013). Advocating for Your Tech Program. In: National Conference for Technology Teachers. [online] New York: NCTT, pp. 33-34. Available at: http://www.nctt.com/2013conference/advocatingforyourtechprogram/ [Accessed
11 Jan. 2014].
Whereas, if you are citing a proceeding which is not published online then use -
Format: Last name, First initial. (Conference Year). Title of Paper or Proceedings. In: Name or Title of Conference. City: Publisher of the Proceedings, pages.
Example: Fox, R. (2014). Technological Advances in Banking. In: American Finance Association Northeast Regional Conference. Hartford: AFA, p. 24.
- Citing a Court Case: This might come strange to you but there are times when particular arguments or facts from a case might be required to use while working on a subject./ You can cite a court case in Harvard referencing style.
Format: Case name [Year published]Report abbreviation Volume number (Name or abbreviation of court); First page of the court case.
Example: Young v. United Parcel Service, Inc. 12-1226 (Supreme Court of the United States); 1
- Citing a Print Dictionary Entry:
Format: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title, Edition. City: Publisher, page.
Example: Sporadic (1993). In: Webstin Dictionary, 8th ed. New York: Webstin LLC, page 223.
- Citing an Online Dictionary Entry:
Format: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Entry title. In: Dictionary Title, Edition. City: Publisher, page. Available at: URL [Accessed Day Mo. Year].
Example: (n.d.) In: Merriam-Webster [online] Springfield: Merriam-Webster, Inc. Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reference [Accessed 12 Dec. 2014].
- Citing an E-mail:
Format: Sender’s Last name, First initial. (Year published). Subject Line of Email. [email].
Example: Niles, A. (2013). Update on my health. [email].
- Citing a Dissertation:
Format: Last name, First initial. (Year published). Dissertation title. Academic Level of the Author. Name of University, College, or Institution.
Example: Shaver, W. (2013). Effects of Remediation on High-Stakes Standardized Testing. Ph.D. Yeshiva University.
- Citing Government Publications: These are the documents that are issued by a government-operated body or the government itself.
Format: Government Agency OR Last name, First Initial., (Year published). Title of Document or Article. City published: Publisher, Page(s).
Example: Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, (2012). Bicycle PA Routes. Harrisburg: PENNDOT, p.1.
Harvard Referencing Style: Free Harvard Citation Generator
Harvard referencing style covers a long-range and allows you to cite almost all sorts of sources. All the reference list citations that you might require to complete your reference list can be taken from this guide. Bookmark this guide now so you never have to go on a Harvard citation hunt. You can also use our citation generator for Harvard referencing.
The next time you come across any assignment or a paper that you need to cite and format in Harvard referencing style, feel free to contact us for assistance. We are always there to help!