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Sample on Project Management Techniques by Experts Writers

9469 Downloads1 I Published: 24 Jan ,2017

Introduction to Project management

project management can be defined as the discipline which helps in appropriately carrying out the activities of business like planning, organising, motivating and controlling available resources to achieve desired goals and objectives in a suitable manner (Dorfman and Cather, 2012). According to the given case scenario, researcher focuses on illustrating different project management components to carry out a relocation project of consultancy firm from London to Banbury. There are several expectations of managing director regarding company's corporate aim which are the base of relocating the branch. Therefore, present study undertakes and illustrates methodology for evaluating project, carrying out feasibility study, roles and responsibilities of project team and risk assessment as well as different ways to manage them at the final step of the relocation process.

Initial project report of appraising objectives and estimating resource needed to complete the project

In the present corporate market, competition is constantly increasing the problems for firms and in order to deal with it management has to undertake various crucial steps which directly or indirectly affect the objective of the business (Paul and et. al, 2011). Every company has its own corporate goals and objectives for which itmakes valiant efforts. According to the given case study, Managing director of Consultancy firm wants to relocate its business with maintaining the same objectives. However, to grow income of business by 10% every year and maintain the overall turnover with time can be achievable by improving the existing IT systems. Furthermore, to decrease costs of workforce, especially at the time of recruitment and training without declining the quality of service offered to customers can be possible with the help of developing suitable and reliable software system through which communication process can be enhanced between each level of business enterprise as well as external stakeholders like clients and service providers.

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List of projects:

In the present case study, senior authority of consultancy firm wants to relocate their business enterprise with the aim of reducing different overheads. Therefore, considering need and situation of cited firm, various essential list of project has been framed which will play significant role in successfully carrying out relocation process. These are the list of potential projects:

  • Constructing the building
  • Setting LAN and Cabling services
  • Wide Area Network services
  • Proper telecommunication services
  • Enhancing and improving overall IT system

Therefore, as per the given case there are some of the suitable projects which  management of consultancy firm can undertake in order to carry out their relocation strategy in an effective and efficient manner.

Developing the project sub-division and estimation of resources including time and costs

On the basis of case and above study, the selected project is development and enhancement of IT software system of the company. However, the main purpose behind selecting this project is that, it is closely associated with defined corporate goals and objectives of the company as well as this will create appropriate platform for carrying out relocation process of office in a successful manner (Hobbs, 2009). Furthermore, being a consultancy firm it is important to manage client and employee's data base in an appropriate and systematic manner. Hence, MIS will be introduced in the functioning of the company so as to enhance overall IT system during the time of relocation. In context to this, the cost of entire project is estimated at £1000 as well as the estimated time for completing the project is 98 days.

Methodology for evaluation of project

From the above study and looking at the nature of project, the best suitable methodology of project is PRINCE 2. Rationale behind selecting this methodology is that, it will help in enhancing performance of new system as well as creates appropriate platform for achieving defined goals and objectives (Lewis, Pun and Lalla, 2004). Herein, following steps of PRINCE 2 methodology will assist the project manager in carrying out activities of project in suitable and reliable manner. Other than this, the present project is based on the development of IT software system which can be appropriately supported by SDLC (Software development life cycle) method because it will help in creating considerable system documentation. However, this documentation assist in tracing back to the stated business requirement and make sure that, IT project is carried out in a suitable and reliable manner.In order to evaluate the PRINCE2 Strategy, project manager has to undertake its procedure so that entire project can be executed in reliable and suitable manner:

Start-up of a project: At the initial stage it is essential for the project manager to develop brief scenario of the entire project as well as gather the team so that each and every aspect of renovation project can be carried out in reliable and suitable manner.

Project initiation: On the basis of defined activities, project manager has to allocate all the financial and human resources. However, it is one of the crucial aspect that lies under the implementation of management aspects.

Project direction: During this stage, manager has to monitor and analyse each activities so that required modification can be identified and made appropriately. Along with this, project manager can also indulge potential controlling measures so that areas of loopholes can be managed accordingly.

Controlling stage: In this phase, project manager supervises the work done by the team so that review of success and failure can be made and ideas and measures can be introduced for future betterment.

Stage boundaries management: Under this phase, board members of the project are responsible to take decisions regarding execution of project activities as well as developing alternative plan in case of any adverse situation.

Product delivery management: In this, quality of project is being analysed so that required changes before delivering to its end users can be made as well as implementation process of project can be conducted.

Winding the project: This is the last stage of PRINCE2 in which project winds up after the completion of entire course of activities as per the defined aims and objectives.

Feasibility study of project

Looking at the present competitiveness, it is essential for managers to evaluate each and every aspect before carrying out any of the strategic move. Herein, before developing MIS project, it is crucial for managers to conduct a feasibility study (Dey, Clegg and Bennett, 2010). The main aim behind conducting feasibility analysis is that, it assists in evaluating the viability of idea. Furthermore, through the help of this, project manager should be able to give answers regarding important question: Should company move forward with the proposed business idea or not? In addition to it, Project manager will be able to determine several opportunities in different areas so as to develop software as well as maintain quality of information regarding associate clients and users. Following are the steps which are important in context to check feasibility of MIS Project:

  • In the first step, project manager should determine existing issues within IT system so that, potential measures or improvement can be focused.
  • Once the problems are identified, next step is to identify alternative solutions as in case of IT system it can be outdated, thus manager can update existing one or develop new with latest technology for better future functioning (Turner, 2014).  
  • Thereafter, project manager can check the viability of idea through feasibility analysis in which different prospects about the project can be evaluated such as: financial position, market conditions, technical analysis and social and environmental situations.

Therefore, these are some of the steps through the help of which project manager can evaluate viability and reliability of project (Leach, 2014). According to the present study, feasibility test helps project manager in identifying that, there is major issue in existing IT system and in order to enhance efficiency level of functioning new IT system should be developed. Thus, using PRINCE 2 and SDLC model will assist the project manager in developing system suitable as well as in budget and in time.

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Structure of management and administration of the project

Organisational structure play crucial role in carrying activities of business enterprise in an effective and efficient manner.

Role and responsibilities of Staff

Workforce is the most significant resource that an organisation possesses. They are responsible for carrying out each and every activity of business in an effective and suitable manner. Thus, it is the duty of top level management to acquire skilful and capable individual which can positively contributes towards achievement of goals (Gido and Clements, 2014). However, at the time of formulating the team for particular project, there are certain roles and responsibilities which project manager has to define to his or her team members so that, they can modify their approach accordingly and achieve desired corporate aim and objectives.. During this project, both management and administrative people will be responsible for carrying out relocation project in suitable and reliable manner. Following are certain roles and responsibilities that needs to take care of:

  • Individuals should gain accurate perspective of costs and future scope of assigned duties or tasks (Fan, Thomas and Anantatmula, 2014).  
  • They must follow each and every step appropriately for achieving certain goals and objectives.
  • Most importantly, team member should make efforts to complete the tasks in selected constraints such as: time, cost, quality and many more.  
  • At the time of issue or problem, project manager should be consulted.
  • Each team member should interact or communicate with each other so as to mitigate any confusion (Boud, Cohen and Sampson, 2014).  
  • Lastly, they should develop suitable understanding between them so that, they can take smart and effective decisions regarding project mutually.

Job description and person specification for a project manager

Project manager is responsible for carrying out entire selected operation or task in an efficient and reliable way. There are certain roles and responsibilities that project manager have to play in context to the assigned tasks.

Quality management of the project

Quality is one of the most significant components that customers ask from the service or product provider. In terms of project, each one of them provide specific outcome at the time of completion. Thus, it is the duty of project manager to ensure that, results generated are of higher quality to satisfy needs and wants of customers or clients (Saadé, Dong and Wan, 2015). In this regard, both parties and users should set certain objectives and accordingly complete the project. According to the present case, project manager has to make sure that, he or she fulfils the quality standard of deliverables so as to achieve expectation level of client. Hence, Project manager is responsible for maintaining quality standard of deliverables.

Herein, developing and implementing IT project require higher quality of services. However, there are several methods through the help of which manager can make sure that quality of final outcome is managed appropriately. Out of all, PDCA (Plan, Do, Check and Act) model can be considered as the better option to achieve quality standard of project. Furthermore, through the means of this cycle, project manager can plan, execute, monitor and action according to the needs and wants of clients or customers (Besner and Hobbs, 2012). Apart from this, project manager has to make sure that, proper communication within his team has been maintained as well as he can set key performance indicators for maintaining quality. Other than this, manager can indulge quality check at each level of the project so as to develop and implement IT system in suitable and reliable manner (Fowler, Lindahl and Sköld, 2015).

Procedure for managing the project change proposals

There are various steps in project management process which can help the manager in managing the project change proposal. These are as follows:

Identify Change Request: It is the first step in which responsibility of project manager is to identify and record all the issues and obstacles regarding project so that accordingly potential measures and decision can be made (Garon, 2006). Furthermore, involving team members could assist in evaluating current issue in the project which need to be addressed.

Validate Change Request: Under this, validity of change request is measured on the basis of different aspects of the proposed project. Through team meetings, project manager can take suggestions from the team members and on that basis it should accepts or rejects the proposal of project.

Analyse Impact: This step is considered as the most important because in this project, manager analyse the impact of changes undertaken within the project (The Project Management Processes. 2007). Further, estimation of resources is also based on evaluation of impact.

Control Change Request: On the basis of cost, time and resource requirements, project manager will control the change request. However, it will also lead to provide certain smart recommendations for generating desired results as well as maintaining quality standards.

Action Change Request: Actions will be taken on the basis of above evaluation and accordingly new contracts will be signed with suppliers so that, latest technical and updated components can be used to develop IT system (Chandler and Arizona, 2013).

Close Change Request: In the last step, project manager will communicate all the changes within his team so that, they can plan their work accordingly. Furthermore, project manager can monitor and control the changes at each level with efficiency.

Issues and risks that may impede a project

In a project there are various risks involved and associated which need to be taken care appropriately for the successful completion of any project.

  • Herein, first risk is related to technical aspects because old technology will not support the functioning of new IT system (Sami, 2012).
  • There will be members in the team who will be unaware about the latest upgradation.
  • Organisational uncertainties such as compatibility of existing assets, infrastructure of the firm, working environment can affect the entire project.  
  • Project management risks, as manager is unable to deliver the project deliverables at time or in budget.  
  • Lack of financial resource may affect smooth development and implementation of IT system (Dey, Clegg and Bennett, 2010).

Other than this , there are certain issues that may impede the functioning of IT project like external factors consist of natural disasters, change in technology, change in expectations of client and increasing level of competition.

Issues and risks likely to be encountered in the final stage

It is not essential that issues and uncertainties rises at the initial stage of the project, if activities are not managed properly then each stage of the project can be contaminated especially the final stage. However, risks can affect entire course of functioning that project manager and his team made in past.

  • Firstly, business risk which can be occurred in administration department while relocating the business from London to Banbury. Along with this, it may also affect the productivity of operations.  
  • Limited skills and abilities of workforce in context with latest technology and updated software may result in decreasing the productivity of employees (Paul and et. al, 2011).
  • Sink and coordination between team members can be affected as they will require adequate time to understand nature and characteristics of new IT system.

Monitoring and appraising the status of a project

For monitoring and appraising the status of IT system project, Gantt chart method can be undertaken. The main purpose behind using this method is that, it helps in defining different set of activities over scale of time period (Saadé, Dong and Wan, 2015). At present, usually project manager consider this method right for monitoring the process and evaluating the time scale. Through the help of this method, project manager schedule the planned activities and as per the priority, suitable allocation of time and cost is being carried out. Further, this method helps in comparing actual costs and time of one activity according to the budgeted costs and time. Therefore, with this project manager can easily determine areas which are lacking behind as well as identify those areas which are carrying certain risks and uncertainties. Furthermore, by the means of this method, project manager can easily evaluate the risks and uncertainties associated with the project. Along with this, it will assist project manager in understanding the starting time and ending time of the activities so that list of operations can be managed and controlled in the best suitable manner.

Assessment of tasks needed to be completed in the final stage of the project

Carrying out risk assessment in the final stage helps the project manager in monitoring and maintaining last minute changes which may unbalance the entire project plan. Comparison between actual and budgeted costs and time is made because in the final stage, excitement of completing the project may lead to increase in costs and time limit. Moreover, trial of MIS project should be carried out so as to ensure that, client is delivered what he or she wanted to achieve (Sami, 2012).

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Conclusion

In summing up the report it has been observed that, project management play crucial role in carrying out a project in reliable and suitable manner. Further, Project Management Techniques helps in evaluating feasibility of entire project, identify risks and uncertainties as well as determine potential measures for successful completion of entire project. Lastly, report highlights the significance of evaluating and analysing risks and uncertainties associated at the initial, middle and final stage of the project and methods to mitigate those risks.

References

  • Fan, Y., Thomas, M. and Anantatmula, V., 2014. A Longitudinal Study of the Required Skills of Project Managers. The Journal of Modern Project Management
  • Garon, S., 2006. Space project management lessons learned: a powerful tool for success. Journal of Knowledge Management
  • Gido, J. and Clements, J., 2014. Successful project management. Cengage Learning
  • Hobbs, P., 2009. Project Management. Dorling Kindersley Limited
  • Leach, L. P., 2014. Critical chain project management
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