Introduction to Organizational Behavior
Organizational behavior is being considered as the field of study that understands the attitude and behavior of an individual within the group. The aspect relating to the organizational behavior plays a very important role in an enterprise. This is because by complying with such types of practices, managers can assess the varied kind of attitudes and motives of their employees. On the basis of such type of assessment, flaws in the performance of the employees can be identified by the managers of an enterprise and according to this, they can direct their efforts in terms of removing such type of limitations in an effective way (Amadi-Echendu and et. al., 2010). However, this can be performed by them by organizing various training and development programs with respect to the same.
This report is divided into two parts where two different types of case studies are given. The first part of the study showcases the case of City College and Enterprises. Here, in this case, the relationship between organizational behavior and culture as followed by both the enterprises is identified. In addition to this, this part of the report also depicts about different types of approaches to management and leadership as used by them.
The second part of the report is based on the case study of Egg and Taylor Woodrow. In this section various ways of using motivational theories in a business enterprise is identified (Susaeta and et. al., 2013). Further, with this, the study will also provide a detailed description about different type of mechanisms as used by Egg and Taylor Woodrow with an aim to develop an effective teamwork within an organization.
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Difference between different types of organizational structures and cultures
Organizational culture is defined as the workplace environment that is formed through an interaction of employees within an organization (Adeniyi, 2007). On the other hand, it can also be said that organizational culture is the combination of values, traditions, beliefs, habits and attitudes of individuals that they bring in the environment where they are currently working. There are four basic types of organizational cultures identified as given by Handy’s (Management: Perspective and practice, 2014). It comprises of the following such as power, task and role along with personal culture. These are all enumerated as below:
Power culture: It is the type of culture where the power to make decisions rests in the hands of one person that tends to reside at the topmost position. In this type of culture, quick decisions with respect to any aspect can be taken by the person as the power to make decisions lies in the hands of one person. However, power culture may suffer from staff dissatisfaction as here people consider that they have limited scope for advancement (Amadi-Echendu and et. al., 2010).
Role culture: In this type of culture, the activities of the people are highly influenced by clear and detailed job description. In role culture, the employees know their specified areas of responsibilities that enable them to work towards the same in an effective way. The disadvantage of role culture can be seen in its lack of flexibility approach as it works in a stable environment. The employee that works in such type of culture mainly focuses on maintaining the economies of scale within the enterprise. This will enable the corporation to best utilize their available resources in an effective way which results in increased profits and sales (Banhegyi, 2007).
Task culture: It is the type of culture where teams are formed with an aim to accomplish the specific purpose of an enterprise. Here, the team approach is followed which tends to enable the enterprise in a way to attain its specific goals within the given possible time limit. However, in this type of culture, the contribution of individuals cannot be assessed which demotivates the employees (Blomme and Lintelo, 2012).
Person culture: This follows person centered approach which motivates the employees to work better. But the disadvantage of this culture can be seen in its application as it is very difficult to be implemented in the situation where profit motive is the main aim of an enterprise (Bonnici, 2011).
Besides this, organizational structure showcases the hierarchical arrangement of the persons where the roles and responsibilities of an individual are clearly defined. It is of following types which are enumerated as below:
Tall structure: It showcases large number of layers which is depicted in the form of a pyramid. This structure has the following features such as high levels of control and lack of communication (chitale, mohanty and dubey, 2012).
Flat structure: It is the type of structure where most of the middle level functions and levels have been eliminated. Here good flow of information can be maintained as it involves limited numbers of employees (Daft, 2010).
Matrix structure: In this type of structure, a team from different departments is formed with an aim to accomplish specific objectives of an enterprise. This contains features such as quick decision making and best utilization of workers skills (Waltz, 2009).
On the basis of the analysis of the case, it can be assessed that City College possess flat structure which contains very few number of layers. In the given case, Mr. Wakefield resides at the top most position. He is followed by principles from various departments such as Administration, Teaching Operation and Human Resource Department etc. This type of structure will prove to be a beneficial aspect for an enterprise as by complying with such type of arrangement, queries of the student can be solved their dissertation in an effective way. However, with this type of structure strict compliance of people cannot be maintained (Drucker, 2012).
On contrary to this, Enterprise follows tall structure that possesses large number of layers. In Enterprise, this is arranged in following way; here Andy Taylor resides at the top most position which is considered as the CEO (Chief Executive Officer) of company. He is then followed by the Enterprise General Managers that provide their assistance to the other groups of City Managers. In this type of structure, quick decision making approach can be followed as here the power to make decisions resides in the hands of one person (Ehlers, 2009). This type of condition sometimes demotivates the employees as they feel that they are not considered as an important part of the organization. However, this is not seen in the case of Enterprise due to their compliance with ‘’open door’’ policy where the employees are provided the opportunity to present their views in front of the management of the organization (Håkonsson and et. al., 2009).
City College complies with the Task culture where teams are formed with an aim to carry out the specific objective of an enterprise (Hosie and Smith, 2009). In context of the given case, they have the objective of providing utmost quality education to their students. However, this is to be achieved by them by employing multi talented employees within the organization.
In comparison to this, Enterprise has power culture. Here, the decision is taken by one person named as Andy Taylor (Iqbal, 2011). Their culture lies on this perspective that “Take care of your customers and employees first, accordingly the profits will follow”.
Relationship between organizational structure and culture and its impact on performance
There is a strong relationship is being found between the organizational culture and structure of an enterprise. The aspect relating to the formation of culture largely depends on the structure followed within the organization (Moore, 2007). In collective way, both are considered as important aspects as they possess their significant effects on the motivation and satisfaction of the workers. On the basis of the analysis of the case it is assessed that City College has an objective to build a sustainable college which can be achieved by them if they follow an effective combination of organizational structure and culture. In addition to this, the combination of organizational structure and culture causes its significant effect on the flexibility approach followed within the college (Mills, Bratton and Forshaw, 2006).
Further with this, City College has an aim to provide utmost satisfaction to their staff members so that they will be able to deliver their effective services to the students. This objective of the enterprise can be accomplished by them through the combination of flat structure and task culture (Pors, 2008). With the help of task culture, the work of the City College employees can be directed to one approach that is providing utmost satisfaction to their students. On contrary to this, by using flat structure, queries of teachers and students can be solved out in an effective way. This will lead to City College in terms of increased profits and sales. This is because increased satisfaction of employees can be gained if their obtained problem is to be solved out in an effective way (Saame, Reino, and Vadi, 2011). This will enable them to work better within an enterprise which ultimately leads to increase in the profitability of the firm. Overall, it can be said that the combination of task culture and flat structure is proving to be a beneficial aspect for City College as it is helping in improving the performance of an enterprise which is seen in the form of better results of students (Robbins, 2009).
Factors that influence individual behavior
Behavior complies as the acts and conducts of the persons which they direct towards others (Sambrook, Analoui and Doloriert, 2013). On the other hand, it can be also be said that it showcases the responses of the persons which they give when particular type of instances occur in front of them. In this regard, there are various factors identified that influence the behavior of an individual. These are all enumerated as below:
Ability and skills: Person that possesses higher ability and skills renders best results to the organization. This will lead to increase in the sales and profits within an enterprise.
Attitude: This depicts about the tendency of persons to respond positively and negatively towards certain ideas. If some person has positive approach towards the situation, he/she will direct his/her varied efforts with respect to achieve the same in an effective way (Shahin, Naftchali and Pool, 2014).
Perception: It showcases the person’s way of thinking with respect to particular stimuli. Perception of the employees influences their responses to a particular environment. It is with the help of this aspect only; they see the thing in both positive and negative aspect.
Personality: Personality of an individual is largely affected by the following factors which shapes the behavior of the persons. It comprises of family, society, heredity, culture, education etc. The behavior of an individual at workplace is largely influenced by the culture where they belong (Sheard and Kakabadse, 2004). For example, if some individual has a culture where all the works are done in a disciplined manner then at that time the particular individual complies with