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15368 Downloads I Published: 09 May ,2017
Organizational behavior is being considered as the field of study that understands the attitude and behavior of an individual within the group. The aspect relating to the organizational behavior plays a very important role in an enterprise. This is because by complying with such types of practices, managers can assess the varied kind of attitudes and motives of their employees. On the basis of such type of assessment, flaws in the performance of the employees can be identified by the managers of an enterprise and according to this, they can direct their efforts in terms of removing such type of limitations in an effective way (Amadi-Echendu and et. al., 2010). However, this can be performed by them by organizing various training and development programs with respect to the same.
This report is divided into two parts where two different types of case studies are given. The first part of the study showcases the case of City College and Enterprises. Here, in this case, the relationship between organizational behavior and culture as followed by both the enterprises is identified. In addition to this, this part of the report also depicts about different types of approaches to management and leadership as used by them.
The second part of the report is based on the case study of Egg and Taylor Woodrow. In this section various ways of using motivational theories in a business enterprise is identified (Susaeta and et. al., 2013). Further, with this, the study will also provide a detailed description about different type of mechanisms as used by Egg and Taylor Woodrow with an aim to develop an effective teamwork within an organization.
Organizational culture is defined as the workplace environment that is formed through an interaction of employees within an organization (Adeniyi, 2007). On the other hand, it can also be said that organizational culture is the combination of values, traditions, beliefs, habits and attitudes of individuals that they bring in the environment where they are currently working. There are four basic types of organizational cultures identified as given by Handy’s (Management: Perspective and practice, 2014). It comprises of the following such as power, task and role along with personal culture. These are all enumerated as below:
Power culture: It is the type of culture where the power to make decisions rests in the hands of one person that tends to reside at the topmost position. In this type of culture, quick decisions with respect to any aspect can be taken by the person as the power to make decisions lies in the hands of one person. However, power culture may suffer from staff dissatisfaction as here people consider that they have limited scope for advancement (Amadi-Echendu and et. al., 2010).
Role culture: In this type of culture, the activities of the people are highly influenced by clear and detailed job description. In role culture, the employees know their specified areas of responsibilities that enable them to work towards the same in an effective way. The disadvantage of role culture can be seen in its lack of flexibility approach as it works in a stable environment. The employee that works in such type of culture mainly focuses on maintaining the economies of scale within the enterprise. This will enable the corporation to best utilize their available resources in an effective way which results in increased profits and sales (Banhegyi, 2007).
Task culture: It is the type of culture where teams are formed with an aim to accomplish the specific purpose of an enterprise. Here, the team approach is followed which tends to enable the enterprise in a way to attain its specific goals within the given possible time limit. However, in this type of culture, the contribution of individuals cannot be assessed which demotivates the employees (Blomme and Lintelo, 2012).
Person culture: This follows person centered approach which motivates the employees to work better. But the disadvantage of this culture can be seen in its application as it is very difficult to be implemented in the situation where profit motive is the main aim of an enterprise (Bonnici, 2011).
Besides this, organizational structure showcases the hierarchical arrangement of the persons where the roles and responsibilities of an individual are clearly defined. It is of following types which are enumerated as below:
Tall structure: It showcases large number of layers which is depicted in the form of a pyramid. This structure has the following features such as high levels of control and lack of communication (chitale, mohanty and dubey, 2012).
Flat structure: It is the type of structure where most of the middle level functions and levels have been eliminated. Here good flow of information can be maintained as it involves limited numbers of employees (Daft, 2010).
Matrix structure: In this type of structure, a team from different departments is formed with an aim to accomplish specific objectives of an enterprise. This contains features such as quick decision making and best utilization of workers skills (Waltz, 2009).
On the basis of the analysis of the case, it can be assessed that City College possess flat structure which contains very few number of layers. In the given case, Mr. Wakefield resides at the top most position. He is followed by principles from various departments such as Administration, Teaching Operation and Human Resource Department etc. This type of structure will prove to be a beneficial aspect for an enterprise as by complying with such type of arrangement, queries of the student can be solved their dissertation in an effective way. However, with this type of structure strict compliance of people cannot be maintained (Drucker, 2012).
On contrary to this, Enterprise follows tall structure that possesses large number of layers. In Enterprise, this is arranged in following way; here Andy Taylor resides at the top most position which is considered as the CEO (Chief Executive Officer) of company. He is then followed by the Enterprise General Managers that provide their assistance to the other groups of City Managers. In this type of structure, quick decision making approach can be followed as here the power to make decisions resides in the hands of one person (Ehlers, 2009). This type of condition sometimes demotivates the employees as they feel that they are not considered as an important part of the organization. However, this is not seen in the case of Enterprise due to their compliance with ‘’open door’’ policy where the employees are provided the opportunity to present their views in front of the management of the organization (Håkonsson and et. al., 2009).
City College complies with the Task culture where teams are formed with an aim to carry out the specific objective of an enterprise (Hosie and Smith, 2009). In context of the given case, they have the objective of providing utmost quality education to their students. However, this is to be achieved by them by employing multi talented employees within the organization.
In comparison to this, Enterprise has power culture. Here, the decision is taken by one person named as Andy Taylor (Iqbal, 2011). Their culture lies on this perspective that “Take care of your customers and employees first, accordingly the profits will follow”.
There is a strong relationship is being found between the organizational culture and structure of an enterprise. The aspect relating to the formation of culture largely depends on the structure followed within the organization (Moore, 2007). In collective way, both are considered as important aspects as they possess their significant effects on the motivation and satisfaction of the workers. On the basis of the analysis of the case it is assessed that City College has an objective to build a sustainable college which can be achieved by them if they follow an effective combination of organizational structure and culture. In addition to this, the combination of organizational structure and culture causes its significant effect on the flexibility approach followed within the college (Mills, Bratton and Forshaw, 2006).
Further with this, City College has an aim to provide utmost satisfaction to their staff members so that they will be able to deliver their effective services to the students. This objective of the enterprise can be accomplished by them through the combination of flat structure and task culture (Pors, 2008). With the help of task culture, the work of the City College employees can be directed to one approach that is providing utmost satisfaction to their students. On contrary to this, by using flat structure, queries of teachers and students can be solved out in an effective way. This will lead to City College in terms of increased profits and sales. This is because increased satisfaction of employees can be gained if their obtained problem is to be solved out in an effective way (Saame, Reino, and Vadi, 2011). This will enable them to work better within an enterprise which ultimately leads to increase in the profitability of the firm. Overall, it can be said that the combination of task culture and flat structure is proving to be a beneficial aspect for City College as it is helping in improving the performance of an enterprise which is seen in the form of better results of students (Robbins, 2009).
Behavior complies as the acts and conducts of the persons which they direct towards others (Sambrook, Analoui and Doloriert, 2013). On the other hand, it can be also be said that it showcases the responses of the persons which they give when particular type of instances occur in front of them. In this regard, there are various factors identified that influence the behavior of an individual. These are all enumerated as below:
Ability and skills: Person that possesses higher ability and skills renders best results to the organization. This will lead to increase in the sales and profits within an enterprise.
Attitude: This depicts about the tendency of persons to respond positively and negatively towards certain ideas. If some person has positive approach towards the situation, he/she will direct his/her varied efforts with respect to achieve the same in an effective way (Shahin, Naftchali and Pool, 2014).
Perception: It showcases the person’s way of thinking with respect to particular stimuli. Perception of the employees influences their responses to a particular environment. It is with the help of this aspect only; they see the thing in both positive and negative aspect.
Personality: Personality of an individual is largely affected by the following factors which shapes the behavior of the persons. It comprises of family, society, heredity, culture, education etc. The behavior of an individual at workplace is largely influenced by the culture where they belong (Sheard and Kakabadse, 2004). For example, if some individual has a culture where all the works are done in a disciplined manner then at that time the particular individual complies with the same.
City College has an aim to become first choice of an individual. In addition to this, the corporation has an objective to provide exclusive learning opportunities to those students that are unable to gain the same. On the other hand, they have another objective to create a secure teaching establishment (Singh, 2009). On the basis of the analysis of the case it is assessed that, the employees of City College are multitalented. Beside this, they provided their effective support to their other staff members that are in need. This comprises under the category of ability, skills and culture of the persons at work. It is with the help of such type of aspect only that the objectives of an enterprise which is relating to providing utmost satisfaction to the students can be met in an effective way. In addition to this, some of the workers at City College have an attitude towards their work that they must be involved in the process of decision making. This has been correctly done by them by relying with flat structure (Sokolowski, 2013).
Leadership can be defined as the ability of a person which is used by him/her with an aim to influence the working of his/her employees in an effective way. In this respect, there are three basic types of leadership styles identified which is generally followed by the managers of an enterprise. These are all enumerated as below:
Autocratic leadership: It is the type of style where the leader directs strict action towards the followers. In this, the power to make decision rests in the hands of one person that usually resides at top most position (Spagnoli and et. al., 2012).
Democratic leadership: In this style, the leader showcases his/her concern towards the employees and also motivates them to work towards the objective of the enterprise. Here the employees are provided with an opportunity to express their views in front of the managers of the enterprise which will motivate them to work better (Susaeta and et. al., 2013).
Laissez-Faire leadership: It is also called by the name of delegative leadership style. Here the leaders are hands off and allow their group members to make decisions.
On the basis of the analysis of the case, it is assessed that City College follows democratic type of leadership style approach where people are provided full freedom with respect to presenting their ideas in front of the management of the organization in an effective way. On contrary to this, Enterprise complies with different approaches to the management style (Tohidinia and Mosakhani, 2010). Here in Enterprise, managers are provided full freedom with respect to forming the selection of their own preferred leadership style (Agarwal, 2014). On the other hand, their preference with respect to the selection of an effective leadership style largely depends on the situation prevailing within the enterprise. For example, if a manager has to make a quick decision, they tend to rely with autocratic approach. On the other hand, when they have to encourage team work approach among their employees, they rely with the aspect relating to democratic type of leadership style (Waltz, 2009).
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The theory of X and Y was given by an American social psychologist named as Douglas McGregor in the year 1960. This theory showcases the fundamental way of managing people within an organization. The aspect relating to the theory X reveals that people are managed in an effective way if strict control and supervision is complied over them. In this respect, it can be said that theory X relies with authoritarian type of leadership style. On the other hand, in theory Y employees are provided full opportunity to grow and develop within an organization. Here, they will self control themselves without any kind of external supervision (Yeh, 2008).
On the basis of analysis of the case it is assessed that both City College and Enterprise complies with Douglas McGregor theory X and theory Y related approach where they are specifically using management style of theory Y. City College complies with theory Y related approach by organizing various kinds of personal and professional development programs for its staff members. On the other hand, Enterprise relies with the approach that each employee must be provided an equal opportunity to contribute with the ideas to the decision making process. This will yield utmost satisfaction in an employee which will enable them to deliver their best services to the enterprise. Overall, it can be said that both City College and Enterprise relies with human relation related approach where the development of workers resides at the top most priority (Randeree and Chaudhry, 2012).
Egg and Taylor Woodrow adopted the following leadership styles to motivate their employees at the time of changes (Adeniyi, 2007).
Autocratic styles- Under this, both the companies provide strict control over the people to implement change. They use this when they do not have enough time and give merely orders and put various kinds of restrictions. In this situation, the employees get negative motivation because they do not like the attitude of their leaders as the leaders merely concentrate on getting the work done. The employees are not given consideration and never asked for suggestions. The workers are threatened by their bosses because they are very strict and use extremely unprofessional way to complete their task (Amadi-Echendu and et. al., 2010).
Democratic style- Under this, the leaders of Egg and Taylor Woodrow follow participative style to motivate their followers so that they can easily get the work done with minimum time. The organization takes appropriate suggestions from the employees and gives them the freedom to share their ideas and complaints for the given situation. It is very helpful to implement changes in the company with team work (Banhegyi, 2007). They appreciate the work done by the people with rewarding them for their motivation so that they work better.
Laissez-fair styles- In this, Egg and Taylor Woodrow have trust and confidence in their employees that they possess qualities and capabilities to work better. They delegate authority to take decision and complete their work with responsibilities. It is a very helpful style when the employees resist change. The workers get higher level of motivation and work well which leads to quick implementation of changes at the workplace (Blomme and Lintelo, 2012).
Thus the leaders must possess a combination of all the above styles so that they can better manage the affairs of the company because the situation requires different kind of attitude to implement change on the right time. From this Egg and Taylor Woodrow will have higher productivity with greater profitability (Bonnici, 2011).
Egg and Taylor Woodrow adopts following motivational theories in their organization for improving working condition. Egg adopts Elton Mayo and McClelland's human relation which emphasize on greater motivation among employees so that they can work better with higher level of satisfaction (Daft, 2010). For this, organization ensures under Mayo’s theory about good flow of communication with team work whereas Taylor Woodrow adopts expectancy theory so that they can provides good working condition for workers which leads them achieve higher productivity. Egg concentrates on human relationship by providing them good atmosphere where they like to belong to group. Employees try to avoid high risk and work as per limited risk so that they can win competition. It provides proper feedback on regular basis to their worker so that they can improve their work method as per the requirement. It helps organization to achieve higher rate of return (Waltz, 2009). Taylor Woodrow appreciates working of their employees so that they can contribute better and increase their level of performance for achieving target of rate of return of the company. Firm provides necessary resources to employees and rewards them for better work so that it can obtain expected results (Drucker, 2012).
In comparison with Taylor Woodrow, Egg allows their worker to participate in decision making process related to work so that everyone get their interested job which in result bring higher level of motivation among all workforce (Ehlers, 2009). It provides employees to engage with group and promote team work whereas Taylor Woodrow motivates them by providing necessary support for doing their work and emphasize on reward from outcome. Egg facilitates by giving necessary required environment like some employees like to work alone and other likes to connect with group whereas Taylor Woodrow provides necessary resources to do job for individual outcomes instead of group performance. Therefore they have different ways to motivate their employees for enchasing productivity with greater performance and improving work environment (Håkonsson and et. al., 2009).
Motivational theories bring significant changes in both Egg and Taylor Woodrow. It has improved overall performance of the organization for work better. Organization gets following modification at workplace-
Creation of familiar work environment (Egg) – With the help of Elton Mayo Corporation has applied effective communication and making it sure that employees do not get repeated work so that they can work with zeal and enthusiasm. Egg promotes team work at work place so that people try to contribute their effort to a great extent which ensures overall shared success of group. It brings creation of familiar environment at workplace which boosts morale of employees and achievement of higher level satisfaction (Hosie and Smith, 2009).
Changes in structure of organization (Egg) - With help of McClelland's human relationship theory for motivating people Egg gets higher productivity (Iqbal, 2011). It helps organization to change internal structure so due to different roles and requirement of personnel for working condition so that they can achieve their targets. As it was demanded by the worker because of changes in their perception like they want to control and influence others with getting regular feedback (Mills, Bratton and Forshaw, 2006).
Modification in the process of performance appraisal (Taylor Woodrow) - With the help of expectancy theory of motivation Taylor Woodrow has changed its way to appraise performance of employees (Moore, 2007.). It is because it emphasize in on outcome and performance and for that firm provided required resources to get work done in effective manner to achieve expected results. Due to clear roles and responsibility of individual worker it has become very convenient for organization to maintain records of employees and proper instruction for job. By this company can better assess the roles and working of employees which helps to give them reward for their good work. It leads to achieve higher profitability in the Taylor Woodrow (Pors, 2008).
Group contains more than two people for effective running of organization because team work can better contribute towards performance than individual work. They has following characteristics-
Team work- Under this group of people works in team for the specific task so that they can better contribute towards success. Team work provides quick result with higher level of satisfaction among group. They work hard to achieve targets (Robbins, 2009).
Combined effort- Team contributes towards given task with combined efforts which leads to get expected results for Egg and Taylor Woodrow.
Shared success- Members work hard with using their capabilities and power so that they can shared status (Saame, Reino and Vadi, 2011). It leads to recognition of group among the company which motivates employees to a great extent to work better and it helps to boost morale of them.
Egg and Taylor Woodrow applied various approaches to influence worker in positive manner. They make provision for rewards for those groups who performs excellent. Egg specifies clear roles and responsibilities of groups to achieve target of the company so that it can get higher profitability. Company has allowed workers to recognize themselves by the managers so that there is continuous flow of appropriate information (Sambrook, Analoui and Doloriert, 2013). Under this Mayo’s theory contributes that there should be better relationship between management and their team so that they can get motivation to work better which leads to efficient running of business. In case of Taylor Woodrow, it used techniques to appreciate work of employees by giving them rewards so that they motivate for achieving specified objectives. Group has influence of managerial performance because they ensures about way to improving working condition as well as environment of workplace which helps to increase performance of employees (Shahin, Naftchali and Pool, 2014).
Therefore behavior of group influence to a great extent in the organization which in turn affect performance of overall company and enables it grow in the market with greater productivity.
Team work is greatly influenced by the managerial activity and their perceptions towards team. There are several factors which ensure effectiveness of Egg and Taylor Woodrow. These are as follows-
Communication- Effective communication helps business to run smoothly in the direction of success because teams required timely feedback and daily basis information to meet target goals with less deficiency (Sheard and Kakabadse, 2004).
Performance appraisal- Under this, employees get motivation due to reward given them for the better working. It creates positive attitude towards organization and they work with zeal and enthusiasm which leads to increase productivity and profitability of organization (Singh, 2009).
Management- Better management of group by providing proper information and resources required to perform task so that they can complete work efficiently. It boosts morale of the team members and creates sense of achievement which results in growth of the organization for long run (Sokolowski, 2013).
Build sound employees-employers relationship- Organization concentrate on better relationship among employers and workers. Egg emphasizes on the activity ‘Know Your People’ among them so that they get recognition and work better for the continuous flow of production (Spagnoli and et. al., 2012).
Performance of Egg and Taylor Woodrow is threatened by Management absence for decision making at team level. Under this, there is absence of managerial involvement for taking major decisions regarding team work like for setting goals and rules and regulation as well as feedback provision (Susaeta and et. al., 2013).
It harms overall performance of teams along with effectiveness of company due to lower productivity (Tohidinia and Mosakhani, 2010). Thus these factors affect team as well as overall organization to a great extent because these are directly engaged with the productivity and profitability of firms.
Technology plays a vital role in the functioning of teams because ultimately equipments and updated technology going to expand organization in the long run with coverage of greater market share. Egg and Taylor Woodrow can have following advantages by technologies-
Technology enables team to work better with continuous flow of operation. It facilitates their work to be completed on time so that they can meet deadlines and can perform with zeal and enthusiasm (Agarwal, 2014).
Both organizations will have greater productivity with technological effects which in turn helps to increase sales of the firms to a great extent.
Faster growing organization with quick services automatically attracts customers towards them which in turn help to retain customers as well as connect new buyers. It helps organizations to cover huge market share with greater market potential (Yeh, 2008).
Egg and Taylor Woodrow will have higher profitability with updated technology such as highly equipped machinery, database management system which helps to keep records and assists firm to forecast sales. It ensures growth and survival of firms in long which leads to increase profitability (Susaeta and et. al., 2013).
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There are requirement of various updated tools and equipments for providing training and coaching to employees so they can contribute their best to achieve target return with achievement of long as well as short term goals (Randeree and Chaudhry, 2012).
Organizational behavior is the major part for ensuring performance of the firm because it includes all aspects related to personnel involved. Study concludes that management approaches which ensure effectiveness of firm by using different organizational theories also gives the certainty overall performance of company in long run. The report also summarized about relationship between managerial structure and culture which greatly influence working of company by effecting performance of employees. Further it concludes about style of leadership adopted to motivate employees for implementing changes in the organization without any kind of resistance. Addition to this, Firms adopts several motivational theories which results in bringing of changes in the performance process and creation of familiar working condition. Report also elaborates about team work and impact of technological changes so that they can work better to enhance sales and overall productivity of given organization. Thus it ensures efficient presentation of association.
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