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Organisation and Behaviour ICON College Level 5

1105 Downloads1 I Published: 12 Feb ,2020

Introduction

Organization behavior defines firm internal management towards external environment. It is mixture of knowledge and skills that defines how company 's employees interact with each other. GSK organization behavior is example of good management strategy and motivation approaches( Nguyen, 2014). It is one of leading heath care company in Britian. This reports presents GSK company's cultures environment and their working conditions. This reports also focus on different types of motivation theory used by company such as equity theory with their usefulness and limitations. It also analyzes different organization culture and their impact. Company core values are integrity and respect for their patients.

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Task 1

1.1 organization cultures and structures

Organization cultures can be defined as values and behaviors that express how company's management and employees interact and handle business issues. It involved values, beliefs, , management style, visions, norms, and systems of a company.

According to Charles handy there are four types of cultures in business environment.

Power culture:In this type of culture organization follow few rules and regulations. In these systems decisions are taken by few people and employees are judged by their performance rather than how they done things.

Role cultures:In this culture environment of organization are highly controlled and employees know their roles and responsibility.

Task cultures: When in an organization teams are formed to perform specific tasks or projects and address specific problems or progress in projects that is called task cultures (Katan, 2014.) Its mainly influenced by organization's teams.

Person cultures: In person cultures organization are fully depended on individuals. People belongs with similar training and backgrounds. Power lies in individuals not with organization. GSK is followed by similar cultures in company. The company is very much affected by individuals characteristics and behavior.

Compare and contrast

structures: GSK followed hierarchical structures in which company powers flows from top to bottom. GSK organization structures in focus team work across functions whereas workers within functional division tend to perform on specific project. GSK projects are often taken by teams from different disciples (Eriksson, and Hansson, 2013.). Cross functional teams are often work on projects. Company's research teams are fully empowered and focused on their works. Company uses both theory X and Y in managing people. In Pfizer company structures is also similar to GSK. All decisions are taken senior management. In GSK company focused on team work but in Pfizer they focused more individuals' performance. The company uses centralized structures for firm but for subsidiaries decentralized operational structures.

Cultures: Cultures of GSK workplaces has open environment. People working in company have common understandings and relationships with each other. Company has very welcoming and make good communication with their workers. It offers flexible working hours for their workers. GSK cultures is highly effected by individuals' behavior. Company's cultures focus on integrity, operating with transparency and respected for employees and their working principles. Cultures of company build mutual respect for each other and focus on continuous improvement. In pfizer cultures focus on investment in people (Coghlan, and Brannick, 2014). The company focus on build environment so make strong relationships with their employees. In GSK company focus they focus on innovation but in Pfizer focus on more development of individuals.

1.2 Effects of cultures and structures on organization performance

Cultures and structures are two different concepts for company but purposes are similar is increasing productivity of company. In GSK has flat hierarchical structure in company. This structures have a numbers of layers that means command flow from top to bottom. Company uses this structures for completing their task with specialist skills.

GSK cultures support innovation (Zipf, 2016). It cultures represents integrity and openness in environment. Employees has freedom to work in their own way. It cultures promotesflexibility. Creativity and they work with long term vision. Effects of cultures and structures on company 's performance are as follows.

Evaluating employees performance:GSK structures help to company to evaluating performance of individuals. The hierarchical structure of company allow to mangers to evaluate work of their employees (Grossberg, 2013.). Through this structure mangers can evaluate individuals skill and performance and according to their performance mangers allot work to their employees. Organization cultures help to company to provide better communication and give freedom to their employees so they can enhance their skills.

Achieving goals: Structures provide common goal to company. In GSK company's command flows from top to bottom. Every employees of company meet their projects deadlines through their team leaders who are in charge of delegating tasks (Coghlan, and Brannick, 2014.). Company's structures provides team work for their employees. Cultures of company provides to individuals to completing tasks on time by using their own creativity this help to company improves its performance by achieving its goals on time and gain customers loyalty.

Provides better solution: Company's structures provides better management and they adopt changes according to market. Business environment is dynamics so consumers needs, government regulations and technology are always changed though this structures company managers can solve any problem (Katan, 2014). Company cultures provide better communication to their employees so they can easily outline problems and presents ideas to their managers. By structures and cultures company can find the best solution for their problems.

Communication: organization structures gives appropriate channel of communication to their employees. It provides to employees how to communicate and to whom. For example finance employees will discuses their problems with team leader and team leader will discuss this problem with department head. Through this structure of communication company can avoid useless information at lower level.

Unity: A shared culture provides unity in company. In GSK there are many employees who belong to different backgrounds, cultures and traditions. Shared culture provides better understandings and better communication (Stafford, and Miles, 2015.). This open communication helps to solve conflicts in company. Company structures provide common goals employees and they can easily work with each and work for common goal.

1.3 factors affects individuals behavior

Individuals behavior is can also affect business of company. A team is formed from different individual who belongs to different areas. All individuals have their own value, cultures and, beliefs. In a company may be some conflicts rises because of different perception of employees towards company. Individuals behavior can also affects by different factors which are given below.

Personal factors:All employees who work in company have some habits which may be genetic in nature. If an employee in company have problematic personal life that leads irrational behavior at workplace (Negus, 2013). Every employees of company have their own values and morals. Sometimes in company employees followed high morals which can effects business of company if employees morals are different from company's ethics. Individuals relationship status can also effect GSK workplace and can spoil the work cultures.

Demographic factors:It includes incomes, age and geographic region of employees. Income has great impact of individual behavior in GSK. Employees who earn less income have less money to spend (Mai, 2015.). Age can be considered as important demographic factors that affect individuals behavior at work place. The relationship between age and job can effects business as employees who are old in age are more conservative in nature and less adoptable of changes. Performance of old people can be declined as they have less stamina as compare to young people.

Psychological factors:It refers to thoughts, feeling, attitude of human behavior at workplace. This factors can influence decision making ability of individuals. Feelings of individuals can effect performance of workplace (Eriksson, and Hansson, 2013). To prevent from these factors GSK provides they motivate their employees towards their work by offering rewards and incentives to their employees. Company discuss individuals values and beliefs and related to company's norms as well as structures so employees can more satisfaction from their job and deliver better work to company.

Environmental factors: It involves work cultures of company. Employees feel comfortable at workplace if work culture of company is positive (Nguyen, 2014). Company's rules and regulations should be similar for everyone and they should be for encouraged to employees. In GSK company keeps transparency at every level so no conflicts can take place between company and its employees. Company provides training to their employees so they can upgrade their skills and employees performance can be increasing and they established long term relationships with their employees.

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Task 2

2.1 Different leaderships style

There are three main styles of leaderships in company. Autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire. Effectiveness of these leaderships styles in the company are as follows.

Autocratic leadership: In this leadership style company all decisions are taken by company's management. In this leadership GSK employees can work without any pressures because of supervisor are around them every time (Matsson, and Dahlqvist, 2013). The effectiveness of these approaches are that company's employees can provide better work without any burden. In Pfizer company they apply this style so employees provide better work according to company's guidelines as all decisions are taken by top level of management.

Laissez-faire leadership: This kind of leadership style offers minimum direction to their employees. This approaches can be apply by company when they have well trained employees and efficient directors who need less supervisor on their work (Grossberg, 2013). GSK can apply this approaches for those employees who are working in company from a long time and well aware about company's cultures it provides better work culture for employees.

Democratic leaderships:This approaches focus on provides freedom to employees to use their creativity and think innovative and also provide enough control on their employees without imposing any restriction on their employees. GSK apply this approaches in it company. This approach is foundations of all other management styles.

2.2 Organization theory

Only organization cultures and structure is not only key success for business of company.

Company's management is also very important to run business. GSK can apply theory different theory in its management.

Theory X and Theory Y: It applies on that company where employees gives averages performance. This approaches have assumption that average worker have no ambition, and stay away from all types of responsibilities in company (Grossberg, 2013). GSK apply this approach on where employees perform repetitive work in company. This management theory helps company improve their work consistency. Theory Y apply where employees of company are well trained and self motivated. The company applies this management theory to provides more innovation in their work. Through this theory company's employees take responsibility and more dedicate towards their work.

Scientific theory:This theory focus on improve workflows and labor productivity in company. This theory suggest right person for right job. GSK apply this theory on its employees who are part of research team so more innovation can be bring in company through increasing employees' efficiency.

Human relation theory:This theory defines human relations with a company. This theory focus on human relations, motivation, and productivity of employees. This theory also focus on satisfaction of employees need and their exceptions from their work (Zipf, 2016.). This theory focus on that every employees in company is an individuals first so company should treat them like human. In GSK company always focus on building strong human relationship with their employees and offers flexible working hours to their employees.

2.3 Evaluation of theory

Management theory helps to company to delivery extraordinary results. Company GSK also focus on different approaches of management to enhance its productivity and efficiencies. The different theory of management used by the company and its competitors are as follows.

  • Scientific theory focus on how to increases employees productivity and efficiency of workers in company (Cummings, and Worley, 2014). This theory apply at every area of company. Company focus is on innovation in their works. They hire the best talent in company and provides sufficient training to their employees. While its competitors Pfizer company focus on research and development.
  • Human relationships' theory focus on developing better relations with their employees. GSK always focus on build strong and long term relations with its employees. Company provides good ethical standards for their employees so they communicate to their mangers on any issues.
  • Theory X and theory Y focus on two different aspects of company. Theory x focus on repetitive work and excellence in their work (Coghlan, and Brannick, 2014). This theory applies on those worker who perform average work in company. Theory y focus on giving freedom to their workers who achieves excellence in their work and less motivation required. GSK apply theses theory on their employees so they can increase productivity in their workers. While its competitors uses this theory for development of employees.

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Task 3

3.1 Impact of leadership styles

  • Autocratic leadership helps to company's employees to motivate by providing better guidelines to there employees. Employees of company feel comfortable with their works. Organization provides better supervisor for their employees and guidelines so conflicts can take place within internal management of company (Nohria, and Khurana, eds., 2013). Through these employees become aware about firm's practices and develop more confidences about their work. GSK uses such leadership styles so their employees get aware about their work.
  • Laissez-faire leadership, By using this approaches GSK create more confidence in employees. In this approaches' company's employees need fewer guidelines for their workers. It is useful for company when they have well trained employees. Organization uses such styles when employees need less direction regarding work. Mangers focus on employees' creativity and innovation. Through this approach mangers maintain and create productivity in their existing employees.
  • Democratic leaderships is used by management hen they focus on more creativity with enough control. GSK uses this approaches for their employees to develop their creativity with fewer restrictions on employees so workers develop their own thinking.

3.2 Motivational theory

There are several types of theory that can apply by company. Motivation is the best techniques used by company to motivate to their employees. Through motivation organization can enhance their employees productivity at work place and their performance. The two types of theory used by GSK to motivated their employees.

Equity theory: It focuses on providing fair treatment to each employees in organization. GSK uses this theory so they can provide better treatment to their workers. Equity is measures by comparing contribution and benefits of employees (Negus, 2013). Employees efforts improve performance of company then mangers need to give rewards. It also focuses on providing equal wages to every persons in company. By using this theory the corporation give transparency in their work and promote better workplace ethics.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs: This theory is based on psychological needs of humans. According to this theory employees have some psychological needs for regarding their jobs. Every employee is individuals first (Stafford, and Miles, 2015). These needs are safety, belonging, esteem and self actualization. GSK understands those needs and try to fulfill them by providing better working conditions and set code of conduct for their employees.

3.3 Usefulness of motivation theory

  • Equity at workplace means every worker receives fair treatment. In GSK they use this theory to motivate their employees by providing transparency in their work. Mangers give equal opportunities to every employees so they do not discourage by company's practices (Cadenhead, and Danielli, eds). Usefulness of this theory is that it bring transparency in work and gain employees loyalty. Limitations of this theory is that it is impossible to check employees mind and find reasons of their dissatisfaction.
  • Maslow's provides useful guidelines for company about humans needs. By fulfilling those needs organization can provide better working conditions to their employees (Katan, 2014.). Then major limitations of this theory is that needs are can not be checked. There is not appropriate methods to satisfy workers personal needs. Mangers of the company find difficulty to measures employees needs.

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Task 4

4.1 Nature of group and group behavior

When two people or more than two people work together for common purposes and mutually deepened on for their action and information is called group.

There are two different types of groups in GSK formal and informal group.

Formal group:It is systematic in nature. Responsibilities are set different for different people with a common goal to achieve its targets (Mai, 2015). Task group and example of formal group. In the company there are many teams which work formally. In functional division of organization they set targets and projects for employees. In GSK research projects is example of formal group. In which people from different disciplines works for together common purposes.

Informal group:It is different from formal group. Whereas formal is more official in nature informal group individual draw norms for themselves (Eriksson, and Hansson, 2013). There are norms and set standards for informal group. In formal group they focus on personal growth. There are some informal groups in organization. Example of such group is labor union in company which created to help workers in company and try to solve their issues.

4.2 factors that affects teamwork

Teams are always effect by different factors that are available in organizations environment. Some factors are given below.

Team size: Team size has great impact on performance of teams. Through teams size company are able to ensures productivity in their works. More numbers of team members help to team to provide better ideas and more resources are available for company (McGregor and Doshi, 2015). More numbers of team members can create conflicts and decreases productivity in company. In GSK they evaluate team size and their effectiveness among members.

Individuals skills: Individuals skills can also affect team work in business firm. In a company where individual skills are more developed than group skills that it can affect performance of group (Nguyen, 2014). Group is not based on individual skills it is about team work. Conflicts may rises between team and their members regrading individual behaviour. GSK focus on this problem try to solve problem regarding teamwork.

Communication: Effective communication give better working conditions at workplace. Communication help to employees solve any issues regarding to their job (Heizer, Render,and Munson,2016). In the drug manufacturing company they offer open communication Chanel between employees and their manger so they solve any issues regarding to their working process or business firms.

Leadership:Leadership gives direction to team and their members. With help of leadership workers get motivated and better performance to company. Through effective leaderships team can perform better. The company focus on that give provides good leaders to teams which are working in firm.

4.3 Impact of technology on team functioning in GSK

Technology are changing the functions of every company. Advancement in technology teams in GSK update themselves to work effectively. Impact of technology on GSK teams are as follows.

Strong communication: Through technology communications improved among group members of GSK. Different group members can easily communicated with other even if they are not at same places at same time.

Better organization cultures:Technology bring better innovations and development in company products (Cadenhead, and Danielli, eds., 2013). Open communication helps to build strong relationships between employees and they provide better work to company.

Management process: Technology helps to company and their working teams to gaining information about their customers through CRM software. It also makes easy for teams to doing business online (Matsson, and Dahlqvist, 2013). It helps to company and teams because of technology they can perform more efficiently short time and save costs.

Help to build strategies: Technology helps team to make better business strategics for company.

Recent development in information technology helps to company to bring more opportunities for company and they can develop their products according to their customers needs.

Increasing productivity: Technology helps to company to increasing in productivity. GSK uses technology to their research and gaining information and build communication. Which helps to company to save costs and time and productivity increases. Technology helps company to competitive in business environment

Workplace: Technology creates flexibility at workplaces. Employees of company can work from anywhere (McGregor, and Doshi, 2015) Distance between different locations of company has eliminated. Employees of company can communicate with each other by using internet or make video calls.

Conclusion

Organization structures and cultures is important part of its behavior. Goods organization structures promotes good quality in workplaces and improve team spirit among employees of business firm. Use of advance technology within business environment help company to modify it techniques so they can provide better work. In GSK company mangers try to apply different types of management theory and motivate their employees. It cultures provides transparency among employees. It also provides open communication channel between employees and their mangers so they can solve any issues. From the above report it can be conclude that organization behaviour of GSK is good and provides better services internally and externally. Company need to focus more information technology so they can make more provides more innovative products. Through this company can attracts more customers and retain their relationship with them.

References

Books and journals

  • Cadenhead, D.A. and Danielli, J.F. eds., 2013. Progress in surface and membrane science (Vol. 13). Elsevier.
  • Coghlan, D. and Brannick, T., 2014. Doing action research in your own organization. Sage.
  • Cummings, T.G. and Worley, C.G., 2014. Organization development and change. Cengage learning.
  • Eriksson, H. and Hansson, J., 2013. The impact of TQM on financial performance. Measuring Business Excellence.
  • Grossberg, S., 2013. The Adaptive Self-organization of Serial Order in Behavior: Speech, Language. Pattern recognition by humans and machines: Speech perception, 1, p.187.
  • Heizer, J., Render, B. and Munson, C., 2016. Principles of operations management: sustainability and supply chain management. Pearson Higher Ed.
  • Katan, D., 2014. Translating cultures: An introduction for translators, interpreters and mediators. Routledge.
  • Mai, D., 2015. Organizational Cultures of Remembrance: Exploring the Relationships Between Memory, Identity, and Image in an Automobile Company (Vol. 21). Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.
  • Matsson, A. and Dahlqvist, A., 2013. The impact of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards on employees’ motivation–A case study of an insurance company.
  • McGregor, L. and Doshi, N., 2015. How company culture shapes employee motivation. Harvard Business Review.
  • Negus, K., 2013. Music genres and corporate cultures. Routledge.
  • Nguyen, L., 2014. Bounced between two cultures: Study of smoking behavior of Korean Americans.
  • Nohria, N. and Khurana, R. eds., 2013. Handbook of leadership theory and practice: An HBS centennial colloquium on advancing leadership. Harvard Business Press.
  • Stafford, D. and Miles, L., 2015. Integrating cultures after a merger [White paper]. Bain & Company.
  • Zipf, G.K., 2016. Human behavior and the principle of least effort: An introduction to human ecology. Ravenio Books.
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