It has been reviewed from the study that students of the age group of 3 years are facing issues related to reading comprehension. Teachers need to plan proper literacy framework for students because implementing an effective literacy program helps students to pay more attention on their reading comprehension and develop skills which is necessary (Boushey & Moser, 2012). Thus, such challenge need to be met by educators through carrying out Daily 5 framework and thus it involves varied choice of activities to work independently towards personal literacy goals.
- Read to self
- Work on writing
- Read to someone
- Listen to reading
- Word work
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Over the past ten years Australians have witnessed a national literacy crisis play out across their television news channels, on the pages of newspapers and, in more recent years, on social media. Throughout this crisis, literacy education remains the policy and pedological focus for educational department, schools, communities, teachers, students and politicians. Predictable, with student literacy levels at an all-time low (Dougherty Stahl,2016), policy and curriculum interventions that offer simplistic and often alternative solutions to the latest alleged problems were introduced, trialled and implemented (Duty, 2000). This includes a stronger focus on teacher and school accountability and an emphasis on researched based teaching models and strategies being incorporated in the classroom (Duke & Block, 2012). However, according to the National Assessment of Educational Progress [NAEP], even with all the research and policies aimed at improving students reading outcomes, students are still not making the progress needed to create a literate future workforce, particularly in areas of comprehension (Hiebert,2014). The NAEP statistics also indicate that there has been no outstanding progress in reading comprehension achievements of year three students, as well as a rapid decline in disadvantaged children across all areas of our country, all of which contribute the current literacy crisis (Kim & Wagner,2015). This literature review will critique the work of other educators, policy makers and theorists, who have been the guiding force across western countries over the past decade in ‘best practice’ for literacy reading comprehension instruction and learning, and will allow the author to effectively determine whether or not the levels of students reading comprehension skills and development is a process that teacher have the most control over, and if the implementation of strategies, such as The Daily 5 Framework, to year three students who are performing below the nation reading comprehension benchmark, once a day during literacy blocks, improve their reading comprehension (ACELY1679) (ACELY1680).
Moreover, Daily 5 framework helps in improving literacy block routine which guides both student and teacher behaviour in regard to create a classroom of engaging and independent readers and writers. Through such framework it helps students to participate in meaningful activities and work upon their limitations so that they could be given proper participation in classroom activities and thus improving their reading block.
What does research tell us about teaching reading in general?
For a better understanding of reading comprehension, given the fact that reading comprehension is inherently embedded within the development of reading skills, an exploration of the historical background of reading instruction and its effects on a student’s ability to comprehend establishes the foundations of this review (Kim, Park & Wagner,2013). This foundation was formed after viewing past texts submitted over the past decade by the author of each journal, article and study under review.
Before the emergence of the 1960 revolution of cognitive psychology, the essential goal of learning to read began with understanding the meaning of what is being read (Kim, Petscher & Foorman,2013). Although he acknowledged that phonics has a role to play in learning to read, he stated the reserve that ‘too often the line between phonics and reading is not drawn.’ His work also features of some aspects of teaching reading that were not yet acknowledged in his time yet proven to be instrumental for reading instruction later on. For example, his work clearly testifies his cognitive perspective on reading instruction and early on, he shared his insight into the notion of metacognition. Among other points that he made is the importance of the facilitative role of prior knowledge in reading which eases the way to understanding meaning. One last aspect worth mentioning about his work is his perspective into second language reading. Having worked and observed foreign researchers, he acknowledged that reading in a foreign language is quite different from and more arduous than reading in one’s own native language. He wrote: ‘This is especially noticeable in the case of someone reading in a foreign language which he does not pronounce easily but which he comprehends rather rapidly’ (Küçükoğlu,2013).
What is the importance of reading comprehension?
Who decides the standard level of year 3 reading comprehension and what are the current levels of reading comprehension amongst year 3 students?
It has been evaluated that standard level of year 3 reading comprehension has been decided because it is the level that is essential for children to have knowledge regarding reading comprehension. Thus, it is a set standard level of reading comprehension and thus students will be thankful for the opportunity to choose their own literacy adventure within Daily 5 structure. In addition to this, it also gives learners the opportunity to refocus upon their brains so that they are capable of maintaining attention during periods of direct instruction (LaShomb, 2011). Students at 3 level should develop their reading comprehension and independently enhances their skills and capabilities. Teachers are required to introduce unique strategy and begin to create classroom environment where all the students feel that they can be successful. For a 3 year learner reading comprehension is essential and thus quickly enhance the learning capabilities so that merit approach among students could be developed. There are different reading and writing standards who decide to set standard i.e. Literacy Learning Progressions. However, such framework describes that early years in terms of time, students need to spend in school so that they can improve their learning and reading comprehension (Meeks, Kemp & Stephenson, 2014).
Further, the current levels of reading comprehension amongst year 3 student states that currently they have very weak reading skills and thus teachers need to focus upon reading comprehension and develop individual learning so that learning proficiency could be developed. Teachers need to identify the skills of learners and thus develop reading comprehension among 3 year students so that their proficiency level could be increased. However, there is a significant difference on the levels of reading proficiency of students and thus helps in improving skills of students at 3 year so that in future it could help them to raise their capabilities and skills (Rankin,2013).
Reading proficiency level at year 3 requires improving understanding of students and thus analyse the skills and capabilities of students so that in future they can raise their understanding level. Carrying out effective learning essentials and thus bring positive results in terms carrying out desired results. Students carries out reading proficiency and thus they can improve their level of education so that at year 3 only they can start learning and bringing positive outcomes (Scharlach,2008). Also, it is significant for individual to develop reading comprehension and thus develops program for 3 level students so that their skills could be enhanced.
Why are students lacking necessary reading comprehension skills in year 3?
It has been found that students are lacking for necessary reading comprehension skills at the age of 3 and thus there are various committees formed for improving such skills and abilities of students at 3. Therefore, proper reading, writing and learning skills need to be improved in relation to develop individual skills and thus at such an age they could possess better understanding of reading proficiency and participate in intervention program so that desired results could be attained (Scull, 2010). Also, it is essential for teachers to encourage students to develop their reading comprehension so that students at 3 years struggle with reading. Thus, it has been identified that students are suffering from reading comprehension due to they have not been provided balance diet, healthy environment and literacy activities. Teachers need to measure progress of their students and identify their weakness so that reading comprehension could be developed.
Structured teaching needs to be provided to struggling students at 3 years so that they can improve their learning capacity. Proper training and development need to be given in regard to improve literacy curriculum and thus focus upon targeting teaching that is structured helps in involving the purposeful of a range of strategies. It has been evaluated that struggling readers at 3 years often read less, have less exposure to print and therefore, they possess limited knowledge of reading comprehension (Trainin,Hiebert & Wilson,2015). Hence, it is essential for teachers to identify the weaker sections of society and provide them proper education regarding reading comprehension so that they can improve their skills and overcome crisis in the future. Teachers are required to teach high frequency words to struggling readers and thus helps in improving automaticity so that reading comprehension could be improved.
There are various students at 3 years who face difficulty in reading comprehension and therefore teachers are required to understand their speed, accuracy and proper expression so that training could be provided according. All such things need to be fulfilled and thus helps in improving fluency in reading so that reading comprehension could be developed. Further, opportunities need to be provided so that fluent reading could be given and thus support weaker sections in regard to help students with learning abilities. Therefore, such skills could be improved which results in raising the fluency of learning and thus bring positive outcomes (Veenendaal, Groen & Verhoeven, 2014).
Why is reading comprehension?
Reading comprehension is considered as the ability which results in reading text, process it and understand its meaning. Therefore, it is essential for readers to develop simple to teach, learn or practice and thus develop an ability to comprehend text which is being influenced by their traits and skills in order to develop ability to make inferences. However, if word recognition is difficult, students requires using too much of their processing capacity in regard to read individual words (Wooley, 2010). It also involves several reading comprehension levels which involves different levels of processing, and thus develop deep thought to carry out effective understanding and thus improve their understanding.
Comprehension levels can now be observed through using different approaches and thus improve individual learning so that best results could be achieved. Improving their understanding it would impact upon teaching students and thus employ self guided methods for enhancing reading comprehension and thus results in improving efficiency (Dougherty Stahl, 2016). Encouraging students to develop their efficiency and thus introduce different reading concepts so that it enhances the learning capacity so that 3 year students should also learn various knowledge systems and thus improve skills and efficiency. Therefore, it is essential for them to improve their reading comprehension so that better skills and capabilities could be adopted.
Further, it is stated that learning comprehension results in carrying out best skills and thus improve their learning capabilities so that set outcomes could be attained. Also, learning disabilities could be enhanced so that learning curve could be developed. It helps in enhancing students to develop skills and capabilities and thus they can carry out enhancement in their learning (Duke & Block, 2012).
Moreover, it is essential for developing reading comprehension so that learners could develop effective understanding so that better outcomes could be developed. Moreover, improving understanding results in enhancing the best outcomes and thus improve successful results. Therefore, it is essential for learners to bring positive results so that learners could understand reading comprehension (Duty, 2000). Therefore, proper reading, writing and learning skills need to be improved in relation to develop individual skills and thus at such an age they could possess better understanding of reading proficiency and participate in intervention program so that desired results could be attained. Also, it is essential for teachers to encourage students to develop their reading comprehension so that students at 3 years struggle with reading. Thus, it has been identified that students are suffering from reading comprehension due to they have not been provided balance diet, healthy environment and literacy activities. Teachers need to measure progress of their students and identify their weakness so that reading comprehension could be developed (Hiebert, 2014).
How do educators assist year 3 students improve their reading comprehension?
Children start developing a sense of their world since they are born. But the skill of comprehension in reading develops with time. So in order to enhance the reading comprehension skills of children of 3 year old, following are the emergent patterns that could be utilised by tutors for increasing the effectiveness of this skill:
Book as prop: When children do a selection of their books, minimum attention is paid to the topic and rather it is treated like other playing toys by them. Therefore, books of 3 year old children should be made in such a manner that keeps a hold of their attention and at the same time delivers them with necessary knowledge while reading, through attractive pictures and symbols (Kim, Park & Wagner, 2013).
Using audio books: If the tutor takes help of audio books then, the children will be able to get an idea about how the words are pronounced. So, this way will grab the attention of children. Audio of poems could be played in front of children and at the same time tutor could do actions to make them understand in much more enhanced way. This way the children's reading comprehensions ability will be enhanced as well (Kim, Petscher & Foorman, 2013).
Reading out to children: The tutor must make a habit of everyday making them read at least two books. The book's variety can be changed so that children do not get bored with reading the same book every day (Küçükoğlu, 2013).
Asking questions: After the children have read their comprehensions, tutor must frequently ask questions about the particular topic. This gives the idea that whether the students are able to understand or not, to the tutor (LaShomb, 2011).
Serving a good reading example: If the students are not able seek a model of reading in front of them then, their build up fascination towards reading will dwindle in a very quick manner.
·Incorporating multiple domains of development: The learning from children are done in much better way when inclusion of multiple-senses is there. Once interest from child side is shown and tutor already begins utilising natural setting for identification of those letters then, implementation of various activities for incorporating many senses. For this, Alphabet crafts technique can be used where shape of each letter can be learnt by child along with its sound. Inventory over the interests & strengths of child shall be taken (Meeks, Kemp & Stephenson, 2014).
It can be concluded from the study that reading comprehension is essential part and thus improves the learning skills of students . It helps in raising the reading comprehension which results in improving 3 year students learning program so that their results could be enhanced. It is essential for them to carry out desired operations so that best results could be attained. Teachers are required to improve their understanding skills and thus bring enhancement in their level of improving reading and writing standards who decide to set standard i.e. Literacy Learning Progressions. However, such framework describes that early years in terms of time, students need to spend in school so that they can improve their learning and reading comprehension.
Further, the current levels of reading comprehension amongst year 3 student states that currently they have very weak reading skills and thus teachers need to focus upon reading comprehension and develop individual learning so that learning proficiency could be developed. Teachers need to identify the skills of learners and thus develop reading comprehension among 3 year students so that their proficiency level could be increased. However, there is a significant difference on the levels of reading proficiency of students and thus helps in improving skills of students at 3 year so that in future it could help them to raise their capabilities and skills.
- Boushey,G., & Moser,J. (2012). Big Ideas Behind Daily 5 and CAFE. The Reading Teacher, 66(3), 172-178. doi:10.1002/trtr.01116
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- Duke,N.K., & Block,M.K. (2012). Improving Reading in the Primary Grades. The Future of Children, 22(2), 55-72. doi:10.1353/foc.2012.0017
- Duty,S.L. (2000). The Impact of Daily 5 and CAFE Literacy Framework on Reading Comprehension in Struggling Fourth Grade Readers: A Case Study. Education and Human Development. doi:10.15760/etd.2706
- Hiebert,E.H. (2014). The Forgotten Reading Proficiency: Stamina in Silent Reading. Text Project Article Series.
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- LaShomb,J.M. (2011). The Effects of the Daily Five, Developed by Gail Boushey & Joan Moser, on Classroom Literacy Instruction. Education and Human Development.
- Meeks,L., Kemp,C., & Stephenson,J. (2014). Standards in Literacy and Numeracy: Contributing Factors. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 39(7). doi:10.14221/ajte.2014v39n7.3