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6375 Downloads1 I Published: 06 Oct ,2018
Organizational change can be determined as process in which firm aim at identifying a issue that is affecting the management negatively. As per the identified problem steps are taken so that firm will be able to make improvement in their business operation (Benn, Dunphy and Griffiths, 2014). There are both negative and positive aspects of change and there are also cases in which it causes major issues. However, plans are implemented with all the barriers are identified and proper steps are taken so that all can be involved in the organizational change. Present report is about Marriott hotel which aims at providing their customers with high quality services. There are issue like employee motivation and in order to solve it, management is planning to implement democratic leadership style. This report covers the changes that has taken place within the organization. Further, it includes different type of approaches which can be implemented by the firm in order to make the changes implement in the organization.
Change which occurs in an organisation and that consider impact on entire performance that define as major factor leading change. Change management identifies theoretical approaches which would be applied on organisation to resolve large number of issues (Benn, Dunphy and Griffiths, 2014). Structure of an organisation consider specific culture and list of strategies are established according to trends. Major factors which runs for change in an organisation structure that effect on rules and regulation. Changes may take place in marketing plan, technology or any other related issues which effect on the position of an organisation. There is sequence of steps that organisation follow to align operational and managerial accounting programmes that can be implemented.
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Implementation is used for new techniques where training is provided to new employees so that they get more skilled (Cameron, and Green, 2015). Firstly, risk management and investigation sector examine various weakness and risk that outcomes of an organisation go slow in process. Secondly, they aim to help and navigate changes for development of the firm. Strength and weakness determine impact on company due to change management.
Organisation change refer as “competitive environment and modification of management”. Changes determine the impact for an organisation may be in positive or negative in which strategies are followed. Organisational change means an activity where large companies make changes to develop and discuss with new situation in market (Cameron and Green, 2015). Informing and involving people also creates an opportunity for others to take part in implementing in changes for development. Implementing works for lightning burden which work that is distributed in different department.
Kurt Lewin's change model is owned strategies of change management. They determine three level which align changes consider such as freezing, changing, unfreezing. Unfreezing stands for preparing ourself to plan strategies for development. Changes states it learns about changes and to understand till depth of issue and what is its limit. It supports in organisation which in the form of training, coaching and learning by mistakes. Freezing is most important phase of process in change management where company analyses to make changes in structure (Oreg, Vakola and Armenakis, 2011). Therefore, move forward in flow which design criteria of behaviour which cited firm adopted while making changes. At the end work on rules and programmes which plan in respect of strategies, process and trends.
Stage of theory in organisation change formulate new techniques which align requirement of an organisation considering stage theory of organisational change. They include awareness of issue and possible solution. By using both perspective's, organisation moves from one stage to next stage (Engeström and Sannino, 2011). Changes in firm structure forms change in society or environment is supportive or may not. Training is most important where learning never ends and clear communication always achieve success in business.
Marriott International is world leading lodging company which controls internal environment of business. Headquarters of an organisation are located at Washington, United Kingdom. It successfully achieved a prestigious position in consumer service and productivity in hospitality sector. Cited firm considering a wide range of facilities including breakfast, sports facilities, swimming pool, GYM, parlours in almost countries. After a period when globalisation occurred, diversification forms in range of products and service entire the world (Thomas, Sargent and Hardy, 2011). This group consider management services like education, health care and living services for senior citizens. They started their business only with soft and cold drinks in the market of hospitality. Marriott creates strong business with brand name which provide facilities of food products and drinks. They began their business with providing drink and food facility by which they got famous and then they expand their business with lodging system. The cited firm accelerated their growth with place according to trends and culture. Company diversified into three parts such as flight service, food service and lodging services (Shin, Taylor and Seo, 2012). The organisation commonly catered to upgrade travellers to pay extra for quality of facilities in hospitality sector. Marriott organise very sincerely and result out ahead in atmosphere of economic.
International Business environment and factors which prevail there to provide broader base for expanding business in cited firm. Work to sustain in market and maintain a unique position in market (Battilana and Casciaro, 2012). Organisation has to face various number of weakness and challenges which originates from hospitality sector. Organisation decide to align business with customs and withstand against competition. There is major change which take place which align with new orientation adopted by Hotel Marriott.
Employees are demotivated – As demotivation describe minimizing their work effort which it feels or act in an organisation. Demotivation refer an engagement to unacceptable way. It occurs lack of motivation, lack of satisfaction and lots of energies were hampered which discourage. Marriott follow autocratic leadership style (Battilana, Gilmartin and Alexander, 2010). There are few ways to manage demotivate employees such as Employees generally receive reward for their performance. It helps to criticize poor performance and praise them for good work. Performance of an employee is to be superior which they include attitude and high level of loyalty to customer. Whereas, lack of motivation effect on productivity and service. Brand name and image of hospitality is necessary to country's tourism. Environment of working in an organisation get affected and they don’t match satisfaction of customer. By these employees never work honestly and even they want to leave organisation. It directly affects competitive against other company (Carter, Armenakis and Mossholder, 2013). Therefore, to resolve this issue leadership style is to be change in an organisation. Encouragement make employees satisfaction and enjoy with their job. Money is regarded as major target of most worker. Research in work with leadership style focus on monetary rewards which inspire employee of an organisation. They have to diversify from autocratic to democratic leadership style. In democratic style they encourage efficient and motivated staff to work together. It considers positive impact on performance of an organisation. Manager should work with high commitment and positive attitude which it leads well in hospitality sector. They must regard by encourage their morale as involving spirit of work as well as creates willingness.
As mentioned in above about Hotel Marriott, it is very clear that it is slightly difficult to maintain the way for achieving success and make position in market. The entity of cited firm which undergo on changes that directly or indirectly impact on the activities of firm. It is to be carried out in every department (Oswick, Grant and Wolfram, 2010). Demotivated employee play role in hospitality industry which affect external factor. Organisation structure lead to adverse effect which mean to fail organisation. This section includes identification of changes is relevant which management theories is mentioned. After that changes are to be listed with various benefits. New policies were designed for implementation which develop business in hospitality sector.
SWOT is an abbreviation for strength, weakness, Opportunities and threats. This analysis is an instrument which is used in concept of management. Hotel Marriott is an organisation which consider wide scope of activities which is divided in functional department. In this report cited firm has required a unique position (Rooney, Paulsen and Jones, 2010). Company has divided its structure into food, lodging, sports facilities and beauty care. There are some factors affecting each segments which is mentioned as:
SWOT analysis is detailed in above section which disclose need for change that would accept by Hotel Marriott. They expand their scope in operational department of international business. Company increase new entrants which effect competition in market (Rolland and Roness, 2011). The cited firm understand importance of conceptual internal factors which prevails different managerial aspects. As observation poses different perspective with respect of benefits and drawbacks of organisational environment. There are various list of profits and drawback of Hotel Marriott which conducted with SWOT analysis as follows:
Objective Perspective – It is constructed to achieve goal of an organisation which leads importance and position in market. Benefits were obtained from SWOT analysis consider to acquire maximum market share effectively (Miller, Miller and Mor, 2010). Weakness of cited firm must be highlighted which they face issues in applying strategies effectively. Opportunities would state risk factor to attain various objective. Threats determine risk factor which arise issue in future and unable to plan for risk management. There are few drawbacks of SWOT analysis such as it doesn't consider the fact working in control of management which leads to fail to achieve success.
Social Constructionist Perspective – List of benefits which it contains with context to them states the importance where it promotes standards and belief in society. Weakness is detailed under SWOT analysis is unable to build relation and positive impact with customer by providing lots of services (Rolland and Roness, 2011). Opportunities which are listed out by finding with areas and society which results better such as taking sponsorship of charity campaign and of senior citizens. Threats might form in future by increasing issues in society. On other hand, factors prevail regional area of an economy which is considered in internal analysis and it consists incomplete information regarding factors which influence morals, values and beliefs on most of the people (Ahearne, Lam and Bolander, 2010). By analysing SWOT analysis organisation work on weakness and threats to attain objectives and benefits to society with effective performance. Hotel Marriott should resolve the main political issues as well as high fluctuation of prices in market which forms competitive. They have maintained their strength and opportunities such as strong position in business of hospitality and organise enhancement growth in their service.
Ultimate aim of any organization to gain maximum profit and this is only possible when they will be able to understand their customers’ needs and requirements. Accordingly, services should be provided so that more and more customers can be identified (Cameron and Green, 2015). There are conditions in which one get to identify the issues that are faced by firm and they implement strategies that are helpful enough to make their firm achieve their goals and objectives. There is different type of issues that are faced when changes are implemented. Changes are very important that enables to improve the performance level. Below given are the key conceptualization of the role of change agent:
Clear vision: When a change has to be implemented, then it requires management to set off out clear vision. This help to develop path on which they will be able to reach them. Further, it should be communicated to employees and others who will get affected by the change (Oreg, Vakola and Armenakis, 2011). As per the case, Marriott hotel wants to make changes in the leadership style and so it is important that they convey the ultimate aim for the change that they have to achieve.
Persistent and patient: when a change is to be implemented, then it is important that all the steps are taken as overnight changes cannot be implemented. There are cases in which people face issues or accepting the changes immediately. In this context, it is important that management make employees experience as it helps them to understand the ultimate aim of implementing the change (Engeström and Sannino, 2011). To make use of democratic leadership style, it will require time and that has to be done when all understand the reasons due to which change has been adopted.
Opinion from others: Changes are implemented according to the information and knowledge that a person possesses. Sometimes it also includes people from whom help is taken in order to come up an effective solution. Changes are identified as per the type of issues that are faced. As per the case, Marriott hotel was facing issue in respect to motivation. In order to overcome this situation, management thought of making change in the leadership style (Thomas, Sargent and Hardy, 2011). This type of leadership style enables to provide opportunity to people for sharing their views. In this context, opinion should be taken so that changes can be implemented effectively.
Knowledgeable and leads by example: When change has to be implemented, then it requires effective support from the team who has planned the change. When changes take place in the type of work which was done from past many years and suddenly changes are made, then it creates issues. With proper information when provided to employees, it enables to develop trust and confidence over the plan and changes that management want to develop. This is helpful enough to get proper support from employees and they will put on their full efforts to support the organization.
Developing relationship: Changes within the organization are not easy to implement. There are certain things which has to be considered so that workers feel comfortable (Shin, Taylor and Seo, 2012). All the implementation of strategies can only be made with management of the firm has developed that trust and confidence within workers so that they can effectively understand the situation and improvement.
There is different type of approaches which are helpful to make sure that the change can be implemented. In this context it includes dialogic and problem centric approach. Below given are the explanation of problem centric approach:
Problem centric learning: This is a type of approach which enable to the learner to develop their understanding according to real problem (Battilana and Casciaro, 2012). In order words, it provides real time problems that help to implement strategies that are helpful to develop knowledge and learning. It is helpful to develop problem solving skills while providing them insight for the current knowledge which one possess. In accordance with this approach, there are three principles which are involved and they are as follows:
Active learning: As per this learning, people are free to control their learning process. These people are able to identify the set of problems and to come up with appropriate list of solutions which are helpful to solve the problems.
Integrated learning: In this learning, people will focus over the problems that are currently faced (Battilana and Casciaro, 2012). In this context, individual will make use of real time experience with the help of which one will be able to solve the issues in an effective manner.
Cumulative learning: In accordance with this learning the issue that one wants to solve becomes more complex and challenging. This type of issues enables to support the learner to make development as a whole. It helps to make improvement in the problem solving and decision making skills.
Below given are the benefits of Problem centric learning:
Below given are the drawbacks of this approach:
Dialogic approach: This is a type of approach which enables the organization to implement change in an effective manner. It covers all the areas with the help of which changes can be implemented. There are about four steps which are included in this approach (Rooney, Paulsen and Jones, 2010). Employees are the face or organization as they have direct interaction with customers. They are the one who present the services that are delivered by organization. However, issue arise when changes are implemented and to avoid this type of problem there are four steps which fall under dialogic approach which are as follows:
Exploring and engaging: This is the part in which organization identifies that issues that they face (Rooney, Paulsen and Jones, 2010). As per the found problem, they will aim at engaging others and try to explain the seriousness of the problem.
Building and formalizing: Different way to over the issues are listed out among which one of the best strategy is implemented that will be helpful to resolve the problem. Then systematic plan is developed that can help in make other understand.
Implementing and evaluation: The plan and the best strategy that has been selected is implemented. However, the changes require time so that all can get adjusted to it. Then proper evaluation is made so as to know whether the plan made is working as it was designed.
Developing replications: This is a type of situation in which firm get to know what all has occurred and the other related changes which has caused (Oswick, Grant and Wolfram Cox, 2010). It also includes the behavioural and the performance level that has affected because of plan that is adopted.
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Below given are the benefits of Dialogic approach:
Below given are the drawbacks:
As per the findings, it can be stated that among these two, Marriott hotel should make use of Dialogic approach as it covers all the essential areas with the help of which proper plan can be made and develop and the organizational change can be implemented in an effective manner (Carter, Armenakis and Mossholder, 2012). Through this approach, management of Marriott hotel will be able to implement democratic leadership style within the organization.
From this report, it can be articulated that there are many organizations which provide their customers with similar products and services. They make sure that they implement strategies that will help them to gain competitive advantage. As per the issues that are found by the firm, they develop plan and make changes in the organization and issue can be solved. It is important that all the changes to be communicated with workers as there are cases in which some of them find problem in adjusting with the changes. There should be proper evaluation made so that organization will be able to identify the understand the areas in which they lack. Accordingly, steps should be taken with the help of which firm can make other involve and changes can be implemented effectively.
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