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Aspects of Business: Leadership and Management

306 Downloads I Published: 06 Apr ,2019

Introduction

Leadership and management both are considered as essential aspect within the business as with the effective leadership individual can easily direct and lead their employees towards the goal. On the other hand, management aspect focuses on managing and organizing all the resources within the organization so that organizational aims are achieved. Leadership is termed as an effective approach through which leaders within the organization direct and lead the staff towards achieving goals (Voegtlin and et.al., 2012). On the other hand, management function within the organization mainly focuses on managing and planning the activities and tasks so that they can easily achieve the objectives. Therefore, it is stated that for achieving the organizational goals and objectives business requires both management and leadership concept. The present essay focuses on understanding relationship between management and leadership as some authors consider these functions as interchangeably term while some authors distinguish both the functions within the organization.

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Leadership within the organization is considered as an effective method that concentrates on accomplishing the objectives of business along with motivating and leading employees so that they can attain the future goals. For example, leader within the giant supermarket like Tesco renders rewards to employees for their outstanding performance in order to motivate them within the workplace (Lunenburg, 2011). However, concept of management generally focuses on managing and organizing the tasks and resources in order to increase the overall productivity and service quality of organization. For example, with the help of effective management within the cited organization, manager can get easily succeed in organizing workforce and allocating proper tasks to each of the employees so that they can easily achieve the stated short term objectives.

Leaders within the organization are the one who provide standardized and frame guidelines to the staff members and employees so that they can become accountable to render quality services (Barling, Slater and Kelloway, 2010). However, leader within the organization must possess ethics that assist them in managing staff effectively that may further put positive impact on their morale. This will further result in benefiting the organization by increasing their productivity and enabling retention of employees that improve their performance. On the other hand, managers are the one manages all the activities, tasks and resources within the firm so that they can easily perform the tasks and results for accomplishing the goals and objectives.

As per the view of Anderson and Anderson (2010) leadership and management both considered as interchangeable terms as both the concept focuses on accomplishing the aims and objectives of the organization (Anderson and Anderson, 2010). With the management of all the activities and resources within the enterprise manager requires effective leadership skills so that they can direct the planned workforce to perform their activities in order to succeed in attaining objectives. Apart from this, Fletcher and Arnold (2011) has also state that both the concept focuses on different aspects that is management concentrate on managing activities and other resources like human, time, physical and equipment etc (Fletcher and Arnold, 2011). Furthermore, the management concept also focus on different aspects such as planning, budgeting, coordinating, time management, controlling, problem solving etc. so that manager within the enterprise can easily achieve the objectives. On the contrary, Meredith-Belbin (2011) has asserted that leadership concept keep motivate and empower their staff so that they can render proper services within the organization that further assist in attaining the future goals and perspectives (Meredith-Belbin, 2011). There are different aspect of leadership that leader use within the organization for creating conducive organizational culture that support in leading the staff towards the goals. For instance, vision, motivation, building relationships, counselling, coaching, mentoring etc. that lead and direct the individual towards attaining the future and long term goals.

On the contrary Toor and Ofori (2008) has stated that both the terms are different from each other as leadership inspires staff members within the organization while management plans the activities and manages workforce so that they can attain the stated goals (Toor and Ofori, 2008). For example, if the ultimate goal of Tesco supermarket is that during festive season, they need to increase their sales up to 50%. In such situation, leadership function must concentrate on motivating and encouraging employees to render proper services during the festive season so that Tesco can easily accomplish the goals. On the other hand, management function focuses on planning and organizing all the resources in an effective manner so that they may achieve the target during season. In addition to this, Walumbwa Avolio and Peterson (2008) has also stated that behaviour of leader within the workplace concentrates on establishing clear vision and direction so that they can motivate and lead employees towards attaining the long term future goals. On the contrary, McGurk (2010) has stated that management function focuses on planning, controlling, budgeting and setting deadline for the constituted agenda as well as allocating adequate resources so that they can easily attain the aim (McGurk, 2010).

As per the view of Zaleznik (2001) manager within the organization are the one to whom managerial function and tasks is being allotted for achieving the desirable outcome through performing key aspects and function that is organizing or planning (Zaleznik, 2001). On the other hand, leader within the organization will set the direction and lead their staff to follow the stated path to attain the future objectives and goals. On the contrary some researcher has also stated that leader within the organization has creative ideas and passion that support in achieving the vision while, manager has mindset that is stabilized and analytical. Furthermore, Gagnon (2012) has also stated that management and leadership both the concept are different from each other. In order to concern the workplace both the concept use different steps for the process within the organization (Gagnon, 2012). For instance; for establishing the vision of the giant supermarket management focuses on different steps such as first management will develop the plan and allocate estimated budget for the vision. After that they would develop process step and also set the deadline for accomplishing the activities. On the other hand, Stacey (2012) has stated that leaders while establishing the vision of Tesco they focuses on steps such as setting direction where company want to go and develop the vision of company (Stacey, 2012).

After that leadership will also develop the strategic plan for the staff in attaining vision of the firm.
In addition to this, leadership and management concept also have differences while executing the vision in organization. Voegtlin Patzer and Scherer (2012) has stated that management while executing the vision control the processes then determine the problem that arises or will arise while executing the vision in the processes (Voegtlin, Patzer and Scherer, 2012). In addition to this, management soften takes low risk approach for solving the problems that arises within the organization. On the other hand, leadership concept is totally differ from the management perspective as leader will motivate and encourage their employees to execute the vision in their processes (Mendenhall and Osland, 2012). Furthermore, leader while executing the vision they energizes staff in overcoming the barrier that arises while enabling and resisting the change. Moreover, leader also differ from the manager as it often take high risk approach in order to solve the problem that arises within the enterprise.

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Furthermore, according to Trkman (2010) management concept within the organization also focuses on their relationship with the staffing as it will concentrate on proper job structure as well as outlined rules and processes that staff has to follow (Trkman, 2010). On the other hand, leadership concept concentrate on assessing the relation to people or staff rendering services within the organization that through aligning people, enabling proper communication to direct them towards the goals etc. moreover, Lunenburg (2011) has also stated that management function within the organization concentrate on controlling and solving the issues through taking corrective measures and enabling proper planning of the solution so that they can easily resolve the issues (Lunenburg, 2011). On the contrary Barling, Slater and Kelloway (2010) has stated that in the situation of issues or problem within the company leadership concept focuses motivating and encouraging their employees and staff to take decisions by their own to resolve the issues (Barling, Slater and Kelloway, 2010). Furthermore, the leader will also energise the staff to seeks and resist the change so that they can easily meet the objective and overall goals of the organization. On the other hand Anderson and Anderson (2010) has also stated that both the concept are different from each other as management focuses on delegating the controlling power in the lower hierarchy level, organizes staff properly as well as maintain adequate and proper structure so that they can easily focus on the human development (Anderson and Anderson, 2010). On the contrary, leadership concept focuses on creating the guiding coalition as well as teams within the organization so that they can accept the vision and resist change in the proper manner.

As per the view of Fletcher and Arnold (2011), leadership and management approaches within the organization are quite similar as these guide and control the manpower in achieving their goals and objectives (Fletcher and Arnold, 2011). As management function at the workplace ensures that all the activities must be planned and operated in a scheduled manner so it requires leadership approach to lead and motivate the team in performing the scheduled tasks as well as activities. For example, based on the style of leadership, management within Tesco supermarket focuses on autocratic style. This bossy management style within the supermarket will not win the heart of individuals who are performing services at the workplace. However, it will damage the relationship between management and employees. Therefore, following the leadership function by the manager plays a significant role in directing them to get succeed in attaining new things.

In addition to this, Meredith-Belbin (2011) has also stated that management and leadership are quite similar terms that are required within the organization to perform activities in a proper manner (Meredith-Belbin, 2011). In the present scenario, it is essential for manager to possess leadership skills as well as managerial skills so that they can easily manage the activities.
In addition to this, Walumbwa Avolio and Peterso (2008) has also stated that management and leadership are quite similar terms that are required within the organization to perform activities in the proper manner (Walumbwa, Avolio and Peterson, 2008). In the present scenario, it is essential for manager to possess the leadership skills as well as managerial skills so that they can easily manage the organizational activities in order to achieve the targeted goals and aims.

There are different theories of management as well as leadership that benefit the organization in enhancing productivity as well as motivating staff members for rendering proper services within the workplace. Management theory states that needs of individual or staff within the organization are mainly influenced by their attitude and beliefs (Toor and Ofori, 2008). When manager believes that staff within the workplace has lack of ambition level so that incentives or motivation is required by which they may increase the overall productivity of organization then this is considered as Theory X management style. On the other hand, management while focusing on theory Y believes that employees within the supermarket are voluntary motivated towards the work and taking responsibilities. If manager of Tesco believes in the concept of Theory X then he or she will focus on using the authoritarian leadership style at the workplace to increase the organizational productivity. Managers who believe in theory Y will promote involvement from the staff. Therefore, these management theories at the workplace are essential for the organization as manager will use different leadership styles to direct and allow the staff members to perform their activities. As per the view of Wang and Poutziouris (2010), another management theory which states that there is close relationship between the two concepts of leadership and management is contingency theory (Wang and Poutziouris, 2010). This theory asserts that managers within the organization take effective decisions through considering the situation rather than taking decision that suits in all the conditions. For example, if any dispute arises among the staff and customers within the supermarket then manager at that time, utilizes the participation leadership style and listens to both the parties and then makes decisions. On the other hand, if manager is aware regarding the unethical practices performed by any staff member in the supermarket then in such situation, manager must use autocratic approach to eliminate unethical practices from the workplace. Therefore, from assessing the above management theory McGurk (2010) has stated that manager requires leadership skills and concept to lead and direct their workforce in accomplishing the planned activities and tasks (McGurk, 2010).

On the other hand, there are different leadership theories that support in managing the workforce, activities and other resources within the organization. According to Popovici (2012) behavioural leadership theory it describe that leader does not possess specific set of traits but they have behaviour and style that they utilize in the different situation (Popovici, 2012). They have found that there are mainly three form of leadership style that is authoritarian, democratic and laissez-faire style. As per the view of Mendenhall and Osland (2012) under authoritarian leadership style leader or manager within the supermarket dictates and order the activities that need to be performed by the staff members (Mendenhall and Osland, 2012). Furthermore, another leadership style is democratic under which manager or leader focuses on taking collaborative decisions through allowing their employees to put their suggestion and views in the organization. In addition to this, last style is laissez-faire under which leader delegates all the power and authorities to their employees and staff members so that they may take effective decisions (The Leadership versus Management debate: What’s the difference, 2016). From the above leadership style it can be assessed that there is interchangeable relationship between both the concept that support the overall organization in managing and leading the organization towards the goals and objectives.

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Conclusion

The aforementioned essay has concluded that for succeeding in the competitive market and to attain the goals and objectives of firm in the proper manner it is essential to focus on leadership and management aspect. With the management of all the activities and resources within the enterprise manager requires effective leadership skills so that they can direct the planned workforce to perform their activities in order to succeed in attaining objectives. It has also summarizes that both the aspects are different from each other as leadership is being used to direct and lead the employees within the organization towards attaining the specific goals on the other hand, management focuses on managing and organizing the resources as well as so that they can ensure optimum utilization of resources within the specific time period. Moreover, Leadership and management both considered as interchangeable terms as both the concept focuses on accomplishing the aims and objectives of the organization.

References

  • Anderson, L. A. and Anderson, D., 2010. The Change Leader's Roadmap: How to Navigate Your Organization's Transformation. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Barling, J., Slater, F. and Kelloway, E., 2010. Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence:An exploratory study. Leadership and Organisational Development Journal. 21. pp. 157-161.
  • Fletcher, D. and Arnold, R., 2011. A qualitative study of performance leadership and management in elite sport.Journal of applied sport psychology.23(2). pp.223-242.
  • Gagnon, M. E., 2012. the perspective and practice of leadership by managers within a state correctional agency: an instrumental case study. [Pdf]. Available through: <http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/ijls/new/vol7iss1/IJLS_Vol7Iss1_Gagnon_pp48-70.pdf>. [Accessed on 17th May 2016].
  • Lunenburg, F.C., 2011. Leadership versus management: a key distinction–at least in theory.International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration.14(1), pp.1-4.
  • McGurk, P., 2010. Outcomes of management and leadership development.Journal of Management Development. 29(5). pp.457-470.
  • Mendenhall, M. E. and Osland, J., 2012.Global leadership: Research, practice, and development. Routledge.
  • Meredith-Belbin, R., 2011. Management teams: Why they succeed or fail.Human Resource Management International Digest.19(3).
  • Popovici, V., 2012. Similarities and differences between management and leadership. Academica brâncuşi” publisher.
  • Stacey, R.D., 2012.Tools and techniques of leadership and management: meeting the challenge of complexity. Routledge.
  • The Leadership versus Management debate: What’s the difference. 2016. [Online]. Available through: <http://www.educational-business-articles.com/leadership-versus-management/>. [Accessed on 17th May 2016].
  • Toor, S. U. R. and Ofori, G., 2008. Leadership versus management: How they are different, and why.Leadership and Management in Engineering. 8(2). pp.61-71.
  • Trkman, P., 2010. The critical success factors of business process management.International journal of information management. 30(2), pp.125-134.
  • Voegtlin, C., Patzer, M. and Scherer, A.G., 2012. Responsible leadership in global business: A new approach to leadership and its multi-level outcomes.Journal of Business Ethics. 105(1), pp.1-16.
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