CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Topic: Key issues and challenges in managing healthcare services in emergency and disaster: A study International relief organizations, UK
Background of study
Disaster may be defined as a sudden accident that causes serious injuries or loss of human life. Earthquake, flood, landslide, tsunamis etc. are the main disasters that closely influence the life or health aspect of individuals. Along with this, epidemic diseases also create emergency level to a great extent (Brett and et.al., 2014). Both these aspect may result into high level of disruption in the operations and functions of health care firms. At the time of disaster number of people who access health care services increase with the very high pace. In this, health care personnel face difficulty in offering better care services to people (Sheldon, 2011). The rationale behind this, at one time, it is not possible for the personnel to offer high quality care services to each patient. Along with this, availability of bed and other equipments also are the main elements that create issue in front of health professionals.
The present dissertation is based on International relief organizations UK that offers emergency relief, rehabilitation, development assistance and programme services to vulnerable communities. In the recent times, care home has 2000 professionals who offer services to the people affected from the situation of disaster. Hence, such dissertation will shed light on the main issues and challenges associated with situations like emergency and disaster.
Research aims, objectives and questions
Aim of the present study is to analyze the issues and challenges faced by International relief organizations in managing healthcare services during the time of disaster and emergency. On the basis such aim following objectives has been developed is enumerated below:
- To analyze the work processes and operations of International relief.
- To assess the issues and challenges associated with the management of healthcare at the time of disaster as well as emergency in the context of International relief.
- To recommend suitable ways for overcoming the issues and challenges faced during emergency and disaster.
Q.1Which kind of work process is undertaken by International relief organizations?
Q.2 What are the challenges that International relief organizations faced in relation to managing operations at the time of disaster?
Significance of the study
Findings of such study are highly important for other scholar who will conduct investigation in the field of health care and disaster management. In the recent times, interest level of scholars is increased significantly in the healthcare sector. Hence, study and its outcome will provide high level of assistance to other scholars in getting deeper insight about the impact of disaster on the management of emergency services. By making evaluation of such aspect researcher can frame hypothesis for the upcoming time period. Along with this, by making evaluation of the findings of such study Islamic and other relief organizations of UK can frame highly competent strategies to deal with the situation of disaster. Moreover, natural disaster has high level of impact on the level of emergency services which are offered by several healthcare organizations. In this, report will helps care units in developing sound risk management strategy which in turn helps them in coping up with the undesirable situations.
Rationale of the study / reasons due to which research is needed
Structure of dissertation
Chapter 1: Introduction
In the first chapter of dissertation scholar sets aims and objectives by analyzing the issue in depth. Under this chapter, researcher presents the background of study and specifies the extent to which study and its outcome prove to be beneficial for various entities. Besides this, researcher also clearly exhibits the structure of dissertation in which the whole study will be carried out or structured.
Chapter 2: Literature review
Once, aims and objectives related the study have been setting down thereafter researcher makes evaluation of books, journals and scholarly articles related to healthcare and emergency services. In this, researcher makes evaluation of various scholarly articles to gain deeper insight about the topic and for the preparation of brief thesis.
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Chapter 3: Methodology of research
Third chapter of dissertation presents tools and techniques which will be undertaken by scholar to resolve issue. Hence, in this researcher selects approach, philosophy, data collection and analysis by taking into consideration the topic or issue. Thus, by selecting suitable tools researcher can present the fair solution of issue.
Chapter 4: Data analysis and findings
Chapter of data analysis is highly significant which provides deeper insight about the solution derived from investigation. Hence, in this researcher makes evaluation of the views of respondents by preparing several themes. Along with this, researcher will also support the findings by taking into account secondary data analysis.
Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations
Final chapter of dissertation will present the conclusion on the basis of information derived from evaluation. In this, by preparing themes researcher will presents the findings in a conclusive form in relation to the issues that are facing by International Relief organizations, UK. Along with this, researcher will also recommend the ways in this chapter that International Relief organizations, UK can employ to cope up with the situation of disaster.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
Literature review may be defined as a tool which is undertaken by the researcher to generate understanding about the research issue. In this, researcher evaluates positive and negative aspects in relation to the research issue by taking into account books, journals and scholarly articles based on the management issues of healthcare. It is highly significant which in turn helps in evaluating the respondents view in an appropriate manner. By this, researcher can present the fair view or solution of the problem in an effectual way.
2.1 Issues and challenges that are facing by healthcare firm at the time of disaster and emergency
According to the views of Pereira, Wire and Stiller (2017), in UK planning aspect in relation to the emergency services are grown significantly as compared to before years. Moreover, threat of terrorism increased in UK to a great extent in comparison to the previous times. By considering such aspect, firms which are operated in the health care sector places high level of emphasis on development of sound strategic framework. From investigation, it has been assessed by author due to the lack of having flexible planning approach firms which are operated in health care sector face problem in relation to emergency management. Moreover, in the case of strict planning approach it is not possible for the firm to make changes in the existing framework. However, on the critical note, Campbell, Neill and Higgins (2017) presented that there is a disconnection between the entities that drafts and implement the plan. Moreover, without having deeper insight about the manner in which plan needs to implement personnel are not able to carry out activities effectually at the time of emergency. Hence, effectual and clear communication is highly required between the members for managing all the aspects in a prominent way. Due to the lack of having effectual communication system business units face difficulty in managing the emergency services or aspects.
In accordance with Leonard, Hughes and Pruitt (2017) at the time of natural disaster and emergency care unit requires more bed, medicines and other aspects which are highly associated with providing services to the patients. Moreover, care unit maintains standard bed by considering the average level of requirements and availability of space. However, at the time of emergency, manager of care organization faces difficulty in delivering high quality services to the patients. In addition to this, waiting line also increased significantly at the time of emergency due to having limited equipments or machineries for check up. Meacock and et.al., (2017) claimed that care organization faces difficulty in managing the operation not only due to the people who suffered from disastrous aspect but also from local people. Moreover, at the time of emergency, local people also faces several health related issues and require specific care services. Hence, it is one of the main aspects due to which waiting line increases to a great extent. Due to such aspect, care unit faces difficulty in coping up with the situation of emergency.
Phillips and et.al., (2017) found in their investigation that place at which emergency created also impose problem in front of care organizations operated in UK. Moreover, care unit is in position to offer only primary aid facility to the patients on such concerned place. It is not possible for the health care organization to develop effectual setup and offer highly effectual care services to the patients. In the recent times, government authority places order to offer medical services to people who either suffered from natural disaster situation such as earthquake storm etc. or terrorists attack. In this, place at which undesirable activities happened creates difficulty in managing the emergency situation. For instance: Countries of European is always ready to help each other. Hence, if situation of natural disaster occurred in Denmark then it is not possible for care organizations of UK to deliver high quality services at such place.
However, Darby and et.al., (2017) argued that care organizations can offer quality services with the governmental support. Moreover, government authority provides care units with all the possible resources which they require for offering services to the patients. Buttke and et.al., (2017) stated that international relief organizations work in UK faces difficulty in the management of emergency services because at this time care unit needs enough and skilled personnel. At the time of emergency, to handle large number of patients care unit requires more personnel as compared to daily need or level. Besides this, competent personnel are another main requirement to handle the situation of emergencies. Moreover, care personnel can handle the undesirable situation more effectually only when they have leadership, communication, analytical thinking and decision making ability. Moreover, if managers and senior authorities do not have ability to give clear instructions to the subordinates then it may result into more issues. Along with this, personnel of healthcare must have ability to take suitable decision in accordance with the situation. In the absence of having all such skills among the personnel care units face problem in managing or coping up with the emergency situation.
In their own investigation, Bunn and et.al., (2017) presented that care organizations of UK face issue in managing emergency due to the transportation issues. At the time of emergency, care unit needs more ambulances for fulfilling the needs of patient. The rationale behind this, at the time of natural disaster and terrorists attack people who requires medication facility increases significantly. Hence, to save the life of individuals care unit requires more ambulance. Thus, due to the lack of having enough facility care unit faces difficulty in offering service or facilities to the patients.
2.2 Work process and operations followed by healthcare at the time of emergency
In accordance with Remick and et.al., (2017) at the time of emergency care unit requires to place high level emphasis on effective communication aspect. Moreover, communication is the key which in turn helps in coordinating all the activities more effectually. Hence, at the time of emergency by communicating each and every aspect with the team care unit can offer quality services to the patients. However, on the critical note, D’Onofrio and et.al., (2017) said that leadership is vital for managing the work process or aspects at the time of emergency. The rationale behind this, during the condition of emergency individuals or care personnel requires guidance about how to manage work and overall situation. Moreover, at the time of emergency need of care personnel increases to the significant level (Lin and et.al., 2017). Along with this, effectual coordination is also required among the personnel to manage work process at the time of disaster. Hence, by providing guidance to the personnel regarding working aspect concerned authority can improve the work process or aspects to the significant level.
On the other side, Robertson (2017) stated that by framing strategic and competent plan manager of health care organization can make improvement in the work process or operations top a great extent. Moreover, without having sound strategic framework care units face difficulty in making their best efforts in the right direction. Further, Bourgois and et.al., (2017) presented that by delegating the roles and responsibilities of personnel higher authority of health care organization can facilitate smooth functioning of the business or work process and aspects. Moreover, when roles and responsibilities of individuals are not delegated properly then it may result into duplication of work. Thus, by assigning responsibilities to the individuals care unit can ensure smooth functioning of the working process or aspects.
CHAPTER: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology consists of tools and techniques that have been employed by the researcher during whole study. With the motive to conduct investigation in the best possible manner scholar is required to prepare suitable methodology. Hence, in this, researcher mentions approach, philosophy, type, data collection and analysis methods that have been used for deriving suitable solution from issue.
3.2 Research type
Qualitative and quantitative are the main two types of research that can be undertaken by researcher to resolve issue. In qualitative investigation, researcher presents solution by making assessment of underlying facts or opinions. Hence, researcher can present solution of survey and interview in an effectual way when qualitative investigation undertaken. On the other side, quantitative investigation suits when facts and figures are analyzed. Hence, researcher can evaluate the outcome of survey in the best possible way when quantitative investigation is conducted. In the present study, to assess the issues and challenges which Islamic Relief International faces qualitative research design has been selected by the researcher. In this, by evaluating qualitative facts scholar would become able to present fair view of study.
3.3 Research approach:
Inductive and deductive are the main two approaches that can be used by the researcher for evaluating research issue. Inductive approach is the one which starts with an observation and ends with the generalization of new theoretical framework (lick, 2015). Hence, by conducting evaluation of dataset researcher finds new theory. On the other side, in deductive approach, researcher tests hypothesis developed according to the existing theoretical framework. Hence, to evaluate the issues related with the effective management of health care during emergency and disaster inductive approach has been undertaken by the researcher. Hence, researcher has presented findings and new theory by evaluating the specific pattern or trend.
3.4 Research philosophy
Philosophy of research is highly concerned with the assessment of ways in which data will be gathered and analyzed by scholar. Research philosophy can be divided into two parts such as interpretivism and positivism (Silverman, 2016). In this, selection of research philosophy is highly influenced from the type investigation carried out by researcher (Mackey and Gass, 2015). In interpretivism philosophy, researcher finds solution by evaluating facts. On the contrary to this, in positivism philosophy scholar identifies solution by conducting evaluation of numeric and realistic facts or figures. Hence, interpretivism philosophy has been used by the researcher to analyze qualitative issues. In accordance with such aspect, by interpreting qualitative facts researcher can present the extent to which situation of emergency and disaster affects effectual management of health care services.
3.5 Research type
To carry out research in an appropriate way, scholar is required to select suitable research type out of two such as qualitative and quantitative. Hence, researcher selects quantitative type when solution of the issue will be determined through numeric facts and figures. On the other hand, qualitative type helps in assessing the underlying reasons of issue. Hence, by evaluating qualitative data researcher can present or build hypothesis for future evaluation. For the present study, qualitative research type has been selected by the scholar. Moreover, according to the nature of issue such type highly suits to the study which in turn helps in assessing the issues related with the better management when emergency situation occurs.
3.6 Data collection
Primary and secondary are the main two types of data that can be undertaken by scholar for the purpose of investigation. Data which is collected by the researcher specifically to meet the research purpose from survey, observation etc. methods known as primary data (Dunlap and et.al., 2016). Primary data collection methods are highly effectual which in turn provides assistance in gathering information according to issues which is going to be investigated. Hence, by collecting suitable information in line with the research issue scholar can present fair view of study. On the other side, secondary data may be defined as one that published by some other authorities. Thus, by evaluating journals and scholarly articles which are related to the research topic data can be gathered by the scholar.
Hence, with the aim to derive suitable outcome data has been gathered by the researcher from secondary data sources. Thus, books, journals and government reports have been evaluated by the researcher to gather secondary data which are related to management of emergency services in healthcare. This in turn helps in meeting the goals and objectives of present investigation to a great extent. Thus, by using secondary data sources researcher has assessed the problems that faced by Relief international in managing the services provided by them. By taking into account secondary data sources systematic review has been conducted by the researcher.
3.7 Data analysis
Data analysis may be served a process which is undertaken by the researcher to derive suitable solution of issue from the gathered data set. By using suitable tools and techniques according to the type of investigation undertaken researcher can present results in an appropriate. Qualitative data set can be evaluated by the researcher in an effectual way by employing thematic perception test technique. In this, researcher prepares theme and thereby makes evaluation of respondent’s views through the means of results derived from literature review. On the other side, in quantitative analysis scholar makes evaluation of data set by undertaking chi-square, T and Z test, descriptive statistics, regression analysis tool. Such data analysis technique helps in finding suitable solution only when numeric facts and figures are analyzed. Thematic analysis technique has been selected by the researcher to evaluate or analyze qualitative data set. On the basis of this aspect, researcher has done analysis of data by preparing several themes according to the aims and objectives. Hence, systematic review has been done by the researcher with the help of brief thesis prepared in literature review section. In this way, by considering the findings presented by different scholars researcher has assessed the difficulties which are facing by the health care managers in relation to disaster and emergency management.
3.8 Ethical considerations
In addition to this, authentic reference list has been prepared by the researcher to show that work is highly authentic. This in turn shows that credit has been given by scholar to the author of related source from where data is undertaken. Besides this, data has properly been rephrased by the researcher which in turn shows that findings are new rather than copied. Thus, all the ethical aspects have been followed by the researcher to raise the effectiveness of study.
3.9 Validity and reliability
To ensure high level of validity data has been collected by the researcher from latest sources. Study which has been published after the year of 2007 has been used by the researcher. The reason behind using latest sources is that they offer highly effectual information in line with the strategic business environment. In addition to this, to make the study high reliable only those articles have been used by the researcher which is related to the emergency management services. Moreover, specific articles provide highly authentic information regarding the issue over others. Thus, suitable brief thesis has been prepared by the researcher by using appropriate sources or articles related to emergency and disaster management. Further, all the sources have properly been cited at the end of line and mid of the paragraph. This aspect shows that research study presented in not copied from anywhere. Along with this, it also shows that findings of the study are new and appropriate.
3.10 Research limitations
There are mainly three elements such as time, money and availability of data set that have an impact on the effectiveness of study. In the present study, data has been gathered by the scholar only from secondary sources. Moreover, Relief International organizations do not allow for the investigation or research purpose. In addition to this, due to having limited monetary resources systematic review has been conducted by the researcher. It is highly significant which in turn helps in meeting the goals more effectually on the basis of literature review section. In addition to this, difficulty has been faced by the researcher in relation to the collection of data. Moreover, there are several sites that cannot be accessed by the investigator easily. Thus, by conducting in-depth investigation or research scholar has gathered data related to emergency and disaster management.
CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
Data analysis is the process which lays high level of emphasis on arranging, evaluating and analyzing gathered information through the means of specific tools. This chapter of dissertation furnishes information about the view points of various respondents which have been selected for presented study. In this, by preparing themes according to the research aims as well as objectives systematic review has been conducted. Along with this, all the discussion presented in data analysis section has clearly been supported from thesis prepared in the literature review section.
Theme 1: Difficulties that are facing by the managers in managing the services at the time of disaster and emergency
In the recent times, situation in relation to disaster and emergency occurred more frequently. The main causes behind the occurrence of emergency is undesirable wars, terrorist attack etc. Further, flood, earthquake etc. are the main situations that come under the category of disastrous situation. Both such aspects impose high level of difficulty in front of care organizations. Due to unavailability of nurses they face difficulty in managing the situation of emergency. This aspect can clearly be supported with the literature review section which in turn presents that at the time of disaster and terrorist’s attack nurses require in terms of number increases to the significant level. Besides this, health care professionals and nurse’s work in care unit have to offer services to both regular and additional patients at the time of emergency occurrence.
In addition to this, it has been assessed that place is one of the main constraints which imposes problem in front of professionals as well as care unit. Moreover, it is not possible for care professional and concerned unit to give better treatment to the patients where emergency situation occurred. Hence, all such are the major issues that are facing by care professionals and units at the time of emergency. By considering all such aspects it can be stated that care units which offer emergency services need to keep in mind the issues associated with disaster and emergency service management. This in turn enables care organization to develop highly competent framework that helps in avoiding difficulties in an effectual way.
From evaluation, it has been found that care professionals face difficulty in managing the situation of emergency due to the lack of having proper coordination. Moreover, at the time of emergency care professionals and managers have to take quick action for offering better facilities to the patients. Besides this, sometimes personnel also do not have idea about the activities which they need to perform. Thus, clear guidance and instructions are highly required to coordinate activities in the best possible way. Hence, in the absence of having clear plan or framework there is duplication of efforts.
Along with this, it has been identified that at the time of disaster care unit requires more equipments or resources as compared to the general situation. Hence, at the time of emergency situation care units face difficulty due to the unavailability of enough equipment as well as other resources. Moreover, more rooms are required at the time of emergency because care unit has to offer services to both existing and other individuals who suffered from the situation of disaster. It is one of the main reasons due to which care organization faces difficulty in offering services to the patients. Besides this, ambulance is another major resource which care unit requires more during emergency. Thus, due to having limited vehicles, it is not possible for care unit to offer effectual services to the patients. Besides this, issues in relation to the unavailability of enough medicines and other equipments such as X-ray machine difficulty is facing by International relief in delivering high quality services to the patients. Thus, it can be stated that unavailability of enough resources may result into delay in treatment. In this way, difficulty faces by International Relief at the time of disaster.
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Theme 2: Action needs to be taken for managing the situation of disaster
From secondary data investigation, it has been assessed that there are several actions which care unit needs to undertake for ensuring effectual management of disaster. It has been found from the analysis that by developing and maintaining effective relationship with other care units can manage undesirable situation more effectually. Moreover, through the means of combine efforts care organizations operated in UK would become able to deliver quality services to patients during emergency. Further, care units require placing emphasis on organizing training sessions for personnel. Hence, by conducting training care organizations can prepare personnel for the undesirable situations which will arise in near future. Moreover, if personnel of care unit does not have ability in relation to decision making and problem solving then it may result into delay in treatment. Thus, with the help of skilled and competent workforce care units would become able to manage the situation of disaster more efficiently.
Further, care organization requires to lay high level of emphasis on employing risk management strategy. It also has been found from secondary data analysis that by framing and considering risk strategy care organization can deliver cost effective services to the patients. On the basis of such aspect by making contingent plan care unit can cope up with undesirable situation or emergency more effectually. Moreover, risk management plan contains information regarding all the situations and ways to manage with it. Thus, by preparing highly competent plan professionals work within care unit can deal with the situation of emergency in the best possible way. Moreover, risk management plan provides deeper insight to care institution about the manner in which they need to deal with the situation of emergency and disaster. Hence, by considering such aspect manager of health care professionals undertake risk management strategy or plan. In addition to this, by maintaining the record of disastrous situation and its related impact care professional can develop suitable framework for the upcoming time period. Moreover, records provide deeper insight about the aspects due to which concerned authority or care unit failed to cope with the situation of disaster and emergency. Hence, by considering all the reasons behind failure care unit would become able to develop highly competent plan.
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
From the above report, it has been concluded that there are several issues that are facing by care organizations, UK. It can be revealed from the report that at the time of emergency issues arise in relation to availability of ambulance, care personnel, equipments, rooms etc. All such are the most common issues that have direct impact on the management of services. Thus, to manage the situation of emergency it is highly required for care organizations, UK to develop sound and competent framework. Besides this, it can be inferred that through the means of leadership and sound communication system situation of emergency can be managed by care organization, UK. It can be summarized from the outcome of investigation that employees of the care unit are highly able to cope up with the situation of emergency. It can be seen in the investigation report that care organization does not have enough equipments to cope up with the emergency arises at the time of emergency.
The rationale behind this, at the time of emergency care personnel requires more equipment for delivering better services to the patients. Hence, by preparing competent risk management plan manager of care unit can deal with the situation of emergency or disaster more effectually. It can be summarized from the report that care organizations, UK place high level of emphasis on the adoption of risk management strategy or framework. Moreover, risk management strategies assist manager in taking strategic or suitable action at the time of emergency. It also has been presented that managers face high level of issues in coordinating the activities at the time of disaster due to the rise in number of patients. Besides this, place where emergency occurs and care unit situated high differs. Due to such aspect, manager faces issue in managing the operations in an effectual way. Thus, care unit is required to take significant action for managing activities and process at the timer of emergency in the best possible way.
- It is recommended to Islamic Relief international to build effectual relationship with other care organizations. By doing this, care unit can overcome the issue in relation to unavailability of equipments in an effectual way.
- By organizing training sessions Islamic Relief International can enhance the skills and competency level of personnel to a great extent. By providing specific training to personnel care unit can develop highly competent workforce. Moreover, at the time of emergency effectual coordination among the entities are highly required. Hence, by organizing training session care unit can enhance the communication skills of personnel. Moreover, in the absence of having proper communication skills personnel face difficulty in managing their activities. Thus, by improving the competency level of personnel firm can attain success to a great extent.
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