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Nutrition, Digestion and Execution

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INTRODUCTION

Nutrition is a study involving the combination of a variety of nutrients that are present in food and also, which helps in the maintenance of growth and development of the body. Digestion is considered as a sort of biochemical reaction that helps in snapping the molecules of the food in order to release energy (Choudhury, Mahanta and Borkotoki, 2014.). The execution of it involves a process of breaking the molecules, either in order to have an efficient amount of energy from it or for a successful disposal of the same from body. The report includes the functioning of various nutrient groups in order to analyse its importance. Disorders caused by the malnutrition have also been discussed in the report along with the basic aspects of digestive system. It also involves metabolic processes involved in process of cellular respiration along with a fact of comparison between cirrhosis and addiction of cocaine during the time of liver damage.

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TASK 1

A. Importance of good nutrition

A good nutrition helps in maintaining a sort of balance between different operations and functions of the body. This involves a well and balanced diet which can help a person to cope with the basic requirements and needs of the body and also, it acts essential enough to stay fit and healthy. Also, it is important to ensure the fact that a good amount of nutrition in the body can also help Mrs Smith to stay away from any sort of diseases or illness. There might be the possibility that Mrs Smith is lacking in vitamins and minerals that are essential to keep the functioning balanced, So Mrs Smith has to take some supplements of minerals and vitamins so that she can have a balanced functioning of the operations and functions of body. Also, along with that she needs to drink an efficient amount of water so that she can be able to manage her weight effectively. A good nutrition will also help in making the immune system more strong because a proper and balanced meal will help Mrs Smith in providing an increased efficiency of the capability to compete with illness or health disorders. Also, if in case, Mrs Smith undergoes some illness or diseases, a proper nutritional diet will help them to cope with the symptoms at much faster rate. So, this can be termed to behelpful enough. There are various aspects that are associated with the nutrient groups and these involve carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water. Every single factor has their own importance and they throw a different impact on the functioning of the body. Water is considered as that factor which helps in handling the homoeostasis and also in carrying all the nutrients inside the body to the cells. Also, it can act helpful enough in excluding out the wastes of the body. Mrs Smith should also take an appropriate amount of water in order to have a balanced weight. Minerals also play an important role.

As a very well known example of this can be considered as sodium, which is being used in a variety of dishes in the daily routine. So, this can help in maintaining the overall volume of fluid inside the body. So, there are various other minerals as well such as calcium, potassium etc. Every mineral has some essential impact on the functioning of body. Mrs Smith also needs to have an adequate amount of minerals and vitamins, so she may take supplements of the same so that she can have an efficiency in the functions of the body, thus having a maintained weight as well. Fats are another sources of nutrition and also helps in maximizing the absorption rate of vitamins. Also, along with this, fats play a very important role in the growth and development of an individual. Some examples of the food containing fats involves walnuts, avocado etc. There are various types of vitamins and they play an important role in providing different functions ( Campa, Martinez and Sherman, 2016.). As in case of vitamin C, it can balance the structure of collagen so that it can result in effectiveness of the vessels, bones etc. Vitamin D helps in maintaining the rate of calcium in the body. So, Mrs Smith needs to take supplements of vitamins and minerals so that different factors and operations of the body can stay maintained and balanced. It is because this will result in an effectiveness of the functioning of operations of the body. Minerals also helps in managing the volume of the fluids within the body. Along with this, there are various other features of it as well such as building bones etc. So, Mrs Smith can ensure taking an appropriate amount of the supplements of vitamins and minerals in order to have an efficient rate of functioning inside body. Therefore, it is very important to have a better rate of nutrition because it can help Mrs Smith in an enormous number of factors.

Some well known examples of the beneficial factors can be considered as minimizing the risks of health issues such as stroke, heart complications, maximized rate of immunity etc. So, all these factors can actually help Mrs Smith to live a happy and healthy life. Therefore, it is very important to ensure the fact that having a proper and balanced diet is very important for maintaining the balance between different operations of the body, therefore Mrs Smith can also ensure the same. The varying functions of nutrient groups also play an important role and every single factor has its own importance on the processes of the body. There are various ways by which Mrs Smith can involve a diet rich in nutrition and some basic ways of it can be considered as having a proper amount of fruits and vegetables, drinking an appropriate rate amount of milk, including meat and other rich sources of proteins etc. There might be the possibility that because of some eating issues, the person may not be able to take an efficient amount of nutrition from the food such as digestion problems etc. So, for resolving the same, proper measures such as treatments etc. can be taken accordingly so that Mrs Smith can also be able to have an appropriate amount of the food. This will also help her to stay healthy and fit enough.

B. One day diet plan

Day

Breakfast

Lunch

Dinner

Monday

2 boiled eggs

150 calories

1 toast 1 coffee

87 calories and

Vegetable salad

Tuesday

1 glass juice

Meat with rice

1 small plate chicken

Wednesday

1 glass milk

366 mg of potassium

Boiled spinach

Leafy vegetables with rice

Thursday

1 boiled egg and 1 glass milk

75 calories + 366 mg of potassium

Fruit salad

75 calories

1 small plate chicken

Friday

1 glass orange juice and 1 toast

8% + 87 calories

Red meat

Omelette with one glass milk

39 calories

Saturday

1 banana and 1 milk

110 calories + 366 mg of potassium

Omelet with rice

Green leafy vegetables

85 calories

Sunday

1 glass juice and 1 sandwich

8% + 87 calories

Avocado with sea food

1 small plate red meat

The body uses every single nutrition in a specific way. Well known examples of the nutrients may be considered as minerals, carbohydrates, water, vitamins etc. that play a very important role in providing an efficiency in the nutrients to the individual. Every single nutrient has some specialisation that they throw a positive impact on the functioning of the body. As if in case of carbohydrates, they act as one of the effective sources that helps in making the brain sharp enough. Carbohydrates are considered as those sources that plays a very important role in the functioning of the brain. For cells, protein plays a very important role. It is because the same is broken down in the form of amino acids. An appropriate amount of water is required to keep the body dehydrated enough that all the processing of the functions can take place in an effective way such as the digestion etc. Vitamins are also considered as essential nutrients that helps in the synthesis of collagen. Whether it is about the ligaments or the blood vessels or the bones, it plays a very important role in the process of synthesis. (Agarwal and Mukhtar, 2017)There are enormous number of vitamins and every vitamin has some significance that is being used on the processes and operations of the person for having an effectiveness in the whole functioning of the body.

In case of minerals as well, there are a variety of minerals such as sodium, potassium, calcium etc. that plays an important role in throwing an impact on the operations. As sodium is a well known example as it is being used in the daily routine, so it helps in managing the overall volume of the fluid so that all cells can be able to function in a basic and normal way. Calcium is considered as another source that helps in making the bones etc. strong enough that there are likely fewer chances of any sort of illness or diseases. Therefore, taking a proper amount of the miners is equally important for maintaining an efficient functioning of the processes. The diet chart has been prepared for Mrs Smith and it has been made by covering all the essential aspects so that she can be able to live a healthy life and along with that, she can also be able enough to manage the body weight. That is the reason, an adequate amount of vitamins, minerals and liquid sources have been included in the diet chart. By these means, she will also be able to make lesser use of supplements and will be having natural sources of these minerals, nutrients and water. All the nutritional values have also been included in the diet chart of Mrs Smith so that she can be able to live a healthier and happier lifestyle. By this, Mrs Smith will also be able to manage her weight.

C. Evaluation of the disorders caused by malnutrition

Malnutrition is considered as a situation when the person either lacks in having an appropriate diet or they have a diet with less amount of nutrients that they are not even suitable enough for coping with the bodily changes and factors. Also, malnutrition can be because of the fact that the diet may also have an extra amount of nutrients because of which there are equal possibilities of causing health issues as well. So, malnutrition can actually throw a very negative impact on the internal operations and processes of the body. There are a variety of health issues that are caused by having an inappropriate amount of diet (Guengerich, 2015 ). An improper diet may also be considered as the one that lacks in nutrients such as carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins etc. So, this can further cause enormous number of issues such as disorders or diseases as well. Some well known examples of the diseases that can be caused because of the lack of an efficient amount of nutrition or malnutrition are rickets, beri beri, Scurvy etc. Comparing all these as below :

Rickets

Beri beri

Scurvy

  • Rickets is considered as weakening of bones.
  • This is caused by the deficiency of vitamin D.
  • The most efficient source of vitamin D is the exposure of light from the sun. 
  • Beri beri is also called as thiamine deficiency.
  • This is caused by the nutritional deficiency of vitamin B1.
  • Sources of vitamin B1 can be dairy products, whole grains, fish, poultry etc. ( Campa, Martinez and Sherman, 2016).
  • Scurvy means a severe pain in some areas of the body such as limbs, but it can also lead to the ulceration in teeth and gums.
  • It is caused by the deficiency of vitamin C.
  • Sources of vitamin C that can be used for treatment of scurvy involves oranges, supplements of vitamin C etc.

TASK 2

Basic aspects of digestive system

Digestion is considered as a process in which the food and its molecules are broken down in order to release an efficient amount of energy from the body (Chew and Ip, 2017). There are two ways actually in which the whole process of digestion can be classified into and these involve the chemical as well as the mechanical way. The smaller parts of the molecules after being broken are being absorbed inside the body and then, the process of release of energy takes place. Different organs involved in the process of digestion with their functioning are discussed as under :

Salivary glands

Salivary glands are considered as the glands that makes the excretion of lubricating liquid known as saliva. Also, it is known for breaking down the overall rate of the carbohydrates. These are also referred as the exocrine glands. In humans, there are three pairs of salivary glands that act responsible enough in the whole process of digestion. Along with breaking it in the form of carbohydrates, it also helps in keeping the mouth moist enough so that person may not feel dry because in that case, the person will often urge about drinking the water. Because of the lubrication being provided by the saliva, the food reaches to the stomach very easily. Pharynx

Pharynx is also considered as a part of the throat area of an individual. The chewed amount of food etc. of an individual is being passed through the same till the oesophagus. This is also termed as a very important factor of the respiratory system (Ullah, Amin and Afridi,2015). Basically, there are two functions that are being served by Pharynx. A sort of flap is being attached near pharynx and it helps in two basic functions, either it routes the food till the oesophagus or it performs the process of respiration by passing air till larynx.

Oesophagus

Oesophagus is considered as a sort of tube which establishes connection between stomach and pharynx. So, whether it is about the food, water etc., the process of transportation can be easily achieved with the help of oesophagus. The basic role of oesophagus is to transport the matter to the stomach so that the further process of digestion can also be able to take place. A ring called the sphincter is also present near the oesophagus and its role is that after the food has been entered inside the stomach, it should be trapped inside rather than getting excluded from the body without the breaking of the molecules.

Stomach

Stomach is classified as a sac which is a quite large organ which stores food inside it. The functioning of the stomach is in a way that it can be able to digest the food and all the molecules can get absorbed properly so that an efficient amount of energy can be released out of it. Hydrochloric acid along with some digestive enzymes are present inside the stomach because these act as two essential factors required for an effective digestion of the food in order to release the energy (Shibany and Tötemeyer, 2016). The hydrochloric acid is being released by the walls of the stomach because it plays a very important role in the process of digestion. So, when food is not being reached to the stomach, the hydrochloric acid gets absorbed by the walls only and this can affect the process of digestion to a huge extent. Therefore, it is very important that the person can take meals on regular intervals so that they can have a healthy and balanced cycle with a healthy digestive system as well.

Liver

Liver is considered as an accessory organ which is found in the right side of the digestive system. Although liver is that organ of the digestive system which deals with enormous number of functions but major function of it is the fact that it performs a well development of bile and then the same is being secreted inside the small intestines.

Gallbladder

The basic role of gallbladder is that it analyses if there is an excess amount of bile present inside the stomach and if there is, then the same is being excluded from the small intestines by means of gall bladder. The excluded extra amount is being saved inside the gallbladder. So, there are some meals that are heavy and it is quite difficult to digest it. So, for such meals, the extra amount of bile that is being stored inside the gallbladder is being used so that those meals can also be stored properly.

Large intestine

Large intestine is considered as a tube just like the small intestines but these are long and thick enough and are in a way that it covers over the area of small intestines. An adequate amount of water is being absorbed by the large intestines. So, the enzymes along with the water that is being absorbed by the large intestines, helps in dividing the wastes in small parts of the nutrients. Also, the amount of wastes that is being collected inside the large intestines is being excluded out from the anal. So, it can also be considered that by means of large intestines, along with the wastes from the indigestion of the food, dehydration of the foods can also be excluded out with the help of large intestines.

TASK 3

Metabolic processes of cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is considered as a sort of pathway in which the glucose is broken down in adenosine triphosphate (ADT). The whole process of cellular respiration is divided into three processes and these are discussed as under :

Glycolysis

In the process of Glycolysis, the glucose is undergone enormous number of transformations chemically. After a number of chemical reactions, the glucose is being converted into pyruvate along with organic molecules. So, it is being transmitted in the form of two molecules of pyruvate and three molecules of organic carbon.

Tri-carboxylic acid cycle (TCA)

TCAis also considered as a combination of various chemical reactions associated with the collection of enzyme catalysed factors ( Spinella, Sawhney and Jalan 2016). It is also classified as a major and important factors for the process of aerobic respiration within cells. This can also be termed as Krebs cycle.

Oxidative phosphorylation

Some electrons from FADH2 and NADH are being stored inside the transport chain.In this chain, they again become empty there. A gradient is being produced when all these electrons come below the chain and when from the same, an efficient amount of energy is being released. While this process, a wide amount of protons are being excluded out from the matrix and then the formation of a gradient takes place.

There are various other ways also by which the breaking down of nutrients can take place in the form of usable products and this can be achieved by the process of lipolysis. In actual, the process of lipolysis can be considered as the breaking up of the lipids and the fats in order to produce a wide range of the fatty acids (Choudhury, Mahanta and Borkotoki, 2014.). Usually, the process of lipolysis takes place inside the adipose tissue. At the time of some activity or exercise, or even during the time, the person is fasting, lipolysis makes use of the stored amount of energy at that time so that a sort of balance can be maintained within it, handling all the functions and processes at a higher extent. The activation process of lipolysis can take place after the binding of protein kinase A. Also, after the activation process starts, it helps in maximizing the overall rate of the process of lipolysis. Triglycerides are being stored inside the body as these are being transported to the adipose tissues after being evolved from the blood. There are some triglycerides present on the VLDL and all these present over it are gone through lipolysis with the help of the cellular tissues. There, the formation of some components such as glycerol along with the fatty acids is taken place as well. The process in which ammonia is being converted in urea is also considered as deamination. Although ammonia is classified as one of the toxic bases available and can prove very fatal as well but with the help of some enzymes and carrier molecules, the whole procedure of the transmission of ammonia into urea can be taken place. Also, the whole process of the conversion in the form of uric acid from ammonia is very energy intensive. Also, it can also be considered that if the ammonia will be converted into ammonia, some less amount of energy will be taken in place as compared to that of the uric acid.

TASK 4

Essay

INTRODUCTION

Cirrhosis is a disorder of liver in which the liver does not perform its function properly. It is a slow progressive disease that takes many years to develop. The development of scar cells takes place that replaces normal and healthy cells of our liver (Guengerich, 2015 ). The liver starts to be lumpy and hard due to formation of scar cells. The portal vein helps in passing of blood into the liver. This vein is made tough due to formation of scar cells that affects normal function of liver. This task covers the cirrhosis of liver due to addiction of cocaine including nitrogenous waste and drug metabolism of hepatocytes during the phase of liv

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