CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of study
Retention of workers is considered as significant aspect in terms of achieving business goals and objectives. However, retention of staff is also considered as the crucial source of competitive advantage for business. In the current era of globalization, changes in technology, global economics and trade agreements etc. directly influences employee/employer relationship. Thus, loyalty of employees are considered as crucial aspect and thus it helps business to attain desired objectives (Ojakaa, Olango and Jarvis, 2014). Moreover, if skilled employees leave the job than it is considered as the loss for firm and therefore, it decreases the future rate of success. Employees who are highly skilled might leave the organization for better opportunities as they face issues related to dissatisfied, underpaid etc. Therefore, it is essential for business to encourage such employees and provide them proper motivation such as incentives, monetary benefits so that they could be encouraged and retained within firm for long term. Thus, motivation is considered as the crucial aspect that helps in retaining staff within workplace and carry out the best business practices (Bonenberger and et. al., 2014). It is essential for the management of organization to undertake preventive strategies so that retirement could be stop. Therefore, motivation of workforce is essential factor that helps in adopting different ways through which complications could be identified which are being faced by workers and thus explore different preventive strategies so that early retirement could be avoided.
Apart from this, lack of information regarding the employees affects their performance in relation to retain productive employees within firm. However, without proper information business is not able to differentiate between productive employees from non productive employees. Workers are responsible for both success and failure of business, therefore, it is essential for management to provide them effective training so that their skills and capabilities could be enhanced in an effective way so that they could be retained within firm (Bode, Singh and Rogan, 2015). Thus, non productive employees need to be punished while productive employees need to be rewarded for attaining business success. If the business is fortunate enough to retain talented workers, thus, business may still have to cope with agency costs resulting from them and their co-workers. Management need to encourage workers that results in retaining skilled employees within firm in terms of satisfying their needs and achieving business objectives (Newton, Becker and Bell, 2014).
It is essential for every business enterprise to involve employees in making business decision and thus encourage them so that desired objectives could be attained. Moreover, it also helps in minimizing the risk of failure within firm and thus protect the workers through retaining them within organisation. In the current era, business environment has become very competitive and therefore it is essential for firm to have qualified employee so that business needs could be fulfilled (Dar and et. al., 2014). Human resources are considered as the crucial resource for firm and therefore, they need to be encouraged in terms of improving their satisfaction level within firm. Motivation could be defined in terms of adopting different strategies which is being produced with different results at different times so that best outcomes could be attained. There are different motivation factors identified which involves reward, promotion, recognition, good working conditions, job security etc. Thus, all such motivational factors helps in retaining skilled workers and thus attain business objectives (Naqvi and Bashir, 2015).
Further, retention is defined as the factors that helps employees to encourage workers to continue working within firm. However, retention of valuable employees helps leaders to attain competitive advantage in business. Thus, it is considered that motivation is the main aspect that helps in retaining skilled workers and attain organizational targets. Here, preventive strategies are considered as crucial part and thus for that both monetary and non monetary rewards have been adopted which helps in exploring preventive strategies so that retirement could be stopped. There are different types of motivational methods i.e. monetary and non monetary which helps in encouraging workers so that desired business objectives could be attained (Buciuniene and Skudiene, 2015). The present study, is based upon motivation aspect which is considered as crucial because it is the best tool in terms of retaining skilled workers so that business objectives could be attained. Study also reflects its effectiveness in terms of carrying out motivation factor so that skilled staff could be retained within firm for long term. Thus, it is the best way within private security organization that employing skilled workers helps in satisfying the needs of customers and therefore, they need to be motivated so that they do not leave the organization and serve customers effectively. However, if they are dissatisfied than it might impact in the form of leaving the business which creates loss for firm. Hence, effective strategies needs to be adopted by firm and retain skilled workers so that desired targets could be attained (Fogarty and et. al., 2014).
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1.2 Statement of problem
In the current dissertation, understanding employee perspectives and measuring their retention factors are considered as crucial for business success. Therefore, each worker within firm creates their own understanding so that issues could be addressed. Employee motivation has been studied in depth. While, the biggest misconception was that good wages are always considered as primary motivational factor among workers regardless of the industry they are working within firm (Alam, 2015). Here, the identified problem is that management of private security organizations are required to identify the complications which are being faced by them in retention of skilled contractors. Thus, through adopting motivational techniques it helps in exploring preventing strategies to stem retirement. Therefore, workers need to understand the needs of their supervisors and thus make them aware regarding the motivational factors so that employees could be retained within firm. There are different issues faced such as employee commitment, productivity and retention so that such challenges impacts upon the future of retaining talented workers. For instance, at several times, employees leave the organization, surprisingly without any information thus such departure affects the productivity of firm. Thus, it impacts the business in terms of loosing skilled employees and thus decreases the efficiency of firm in market (Ojakaa, Olango and Jarvis, 2014).
It is essential for business to motivate and retain employees, managers and thus for that employers are required to place effective measures to motivate and satisfy employees in regard to retain them. Thus, there are different questions raised related to workforce retention. It is essential for employees to be aware regarding workforce retention efforts carried out within private security agency so that they are able ot encourage their staff and thus results in satisfying their needs and wants (Bonenberger and et. al., 2014). One of the main issue faced by organization is in terms of retaining skilled workers and thus improve productivity within firm. Satisfied employees are considered as crucial aspect because managers of private security organisation requires retaining their talented workers and overcome the employee attrition rate.
Management of firm faces significant issues prevailing within firm in terms of improving commitment of employees and retention so that desired results could be attained. Also, it is essential for individual to develop employees commitment and retention. There are different factors that need to be adopted in terms of motivating workers at work through identifying their needs and thus provide them different benefits such as money, responsibility, participate in decision making, promotion etc (Bode, Singh and Rogan, 2015). However, all such benefits are considered as crucial and therefore, it helps in encouraging workers so that they could be retained within firm for long term. There are several studies being carried out upon employee motivation and retention but here the problem that is being addressed is in relation to undertake what effective measures i.e. training and development, recognition, reward and job security etc. Thus, such issue need to be overcome through adopting effective measures and thus carry out effective motivation practices so that desired objective of retaining skilled workers could be achieved (Newton, Becker and Bell, 2014).
1.3 Aims and Objectives
Aim of this study is to analyse the impact of motivation on the retention of staff in workplace. Following are the different objectives of study-
- To examine the effect of reward, security and salary on employee retention.
- To identify the relationship between employee motivation and retention.
- To find out the main retention factors for employees working in private security organisations.
- To identify complications experienced by Private Security Organisations in their retention of skilled contractors.
- To recommend preventive strategy to stem retirement.
1.4 Research questions
- What is the effect of reward, security and salary on employee retention?
- What is the relationship between employee motivation and retention?
- What are the factors that will make an employee of the private security organisation work within job?
- What are the complications experienced by Private Security Organisations in their retention of skilled contractors?
- What are the recommendations to adopt preventing strategy to stem retirement?
1.5 Significance of study
It has been considered as effective aspect that helps in improving the rapid growth in business and thus satisfy the needs of workers. Main reason for these schemes of development which needs to support the different issues faced by them. Retention is considered as crucial aspect as it is the best way that helps in engaging workers for long term. Main purpose of retention is to prevent the loss of competent and skilled workers from leaving the business and thus it could have adverse impact upon the productivity of profitability of firm in market (Dar and et. al., 2014). However, carrying out retention practices have become a highly challenging task for managers so that retention and attrition needs to be managed. It is essential for management to undertake effective reward system and thus it helps in achieving business objectives so that productive workforce could be retained within firm for long term. Here, the study is being carried out that helps in developing effective contribution within two primary levels and thus provide satisfaction among workers to enhance business objectives (Naqvi and Bashir, 2015). Main importance of carrying out this study is to explore different preventing strategies to stem retirement and thus experience complications in order to retain skilled contractors within firm.
Further, the study could also be used by businesses in terms of encouraging its staff and helping them to retain within business for long term. Thus, it is crucial for enterprise to undertake effective measures for motivating employees and thus improve the satisfaction level of workers. Thus, it is essential for business to raise their performance and retain skilled workers within organization (Buciuniene and Skudiene, 2015). However, researcher selects such topic in relation to provide information regarding motivation to personnel so that they could be retained within workplace and thus enhance the business performance. Therefore, such study is being carried out so that employee motivation is being studied in terms of satisfying them and thus retain them within firm for long time.
1.6 Structure of dissertation
Below are the structure of dissertation that discussed as follows:
Chapter 1 Introduction: In this chapter background and problem has been explained that identify for carry effective research program. It assists to determine role of leadership which assist to attain continuous improvement in the organisation. It is crucial for the firm that enhance performances which aids in maintains desires results. As results, researcher can make proper functions and operations in systematic manner.
Chapter 2 Literature review: It is the another chapter which carries by researcher for understand in depth study. In this aspect, leadership ascertain role for making continuous improvement. It assists to prepare profitability of the company in systematic manner. It also discusses with different framework so that investigator could be discuss on the objectives that build appropriate research program. In addition to this, views of different people assist to maintain outcomes and positive aspects.
Chapter 3 Research methodology: It is the chapter which involves various tools and techniques for accomplish outcomes in appropriate manner. In addition to this, scholar has aim to assess data which collected for conducting research program. Further, number of respondents are demonstrate views to attain positive results in research study.
Chapter 4 Data analysis: In this chapter collected data has been evaluates with qualitative and quantitative sources. In this aspect, questionnaire is design in effective system with considering different views from respondents. With the help of different people views, researcher can enhance their performances within the enterprise. It evaluates views that make analysis within the business research topic.
Chapter 5 Conclusion and recommendation: It is the last chapter that assist to evaluate outcomes of the research. It makes effective results for maintains and improving business performances for attaining competitive advantages. In this aspect, recommendation has been determines for attaining competitive advantages.
CHAPTER 2- LITERATURE REVIEW
This is an important aspect of the research that enables to determine the type of research that has to conducted by the other investigators (Agarwal, Yadav and Acharya, 2015). In this context, there are different type of research that are conducted by individuals on similar topics. In order to perform any set of job it requires one to have certain motivational factors that encourage and boot up the moral of workers to put on their full efforts to perform effectively and efficiently. It important for the firm understand the motivational factor's so that they will be able to boost up the workers moral towards work. In this chapter concept of motivation employees retention will be discussed. Further, it includes the link between motivation and workers retention. Moreover, there are different motivational theories that will be included that are helpful enough to reduce the rate of retention within the organization.
2.2 Concept of motivation and employees retention
As per Das and Baruah, (2013) motivation can be defined as an aspect that triggers the individuals to develop positive perception within their mind, this encourages them to perform effectively and efficiently. In order to as per the view points of Nujjoo and Meyer, (2012) it can be stated that motivation is helpful enough develop the interest and willingness towards the work that is being provided to them. This way the employees develop positive attitude and work effectively. On the other hand, there are different type of issues that are being faced by management within the organization among which one of the main issue is related with workers turnover (Abadi, Jalilvand and Khanzadeh, 2011). Management invest highly on worker requirement, their training, salary, etc. and for this purpose, time is consumed. When worker leave the firm, then it affects the business negatively and huge loss is occurred. Shah, Akhtar and Riaz, (2012) stated that retaining workers is highly beneficial when compared with hiring a new employee as workers working know better about the firm. Retention of workers is one of the function of HR manager and they focus on developing strong relationship with workers so that they will be able to perform effectively and efficiently. One of the main reason identified for the employees turnover is lack of motivation. There are different type of issues that are being faced within the organization by workers and when they are not able to perform effectively, then there is negative impact over the performance (Anyim, Chidi and Badejo, 2012). Main part of role is to be played by HR department as they need to identify the issues or problems that are faced by employees and accordingly steps should be taken with the help of which workers can be boosted up and encourage to perform with their full efficiency. Further, there are different type of issue that are faced by management due to the reason of demotivation. Ultimate aim of any firm is to gain maximum profit, this is only possible when they will be able to understand the need and requirement of customers (Uzonna, 2013). When management is able to make changes within their products and services, then they able to satisfy their customers requirements. According to Dysvik and Kuvaas, (2013) employees are the face of organization as they have direct interaction with customers, they are the one who present the products and services. When they are not able to perform their set of role in an effective manner, then it has negative impact over the firm and their sales get affected. From this it can be stated that demotivated workers fail to understand the requirement of customers and to deliver them services and when workers are retained, then it has positive and it also enables to raise the firm with their profitability (Aminudin, 2013).
2.3 Reasons for demotivation
As per Iliopoulos and Priporas, (2011) different individuals have diverse set of perception and preferences. In this context, there are different reasons that can be stated due to which workers get demotivated. With this respect, below given are the reasons due to which employees get demotivated:
Lack of communication: With in the organization, it requires to have effective communication and interaction. It enables to develop trust and confidence within the mind of customers. Further, there are issues that are not being shared by workers and one of the cause of this is lack of effective communication (Kuvaas and Dysvik, 2010). When there is interaction, then it enables to develop strong bond and they tent to share the issues that are faced by them. Thus, it can be stated that workers get demotivated when there is improper communication.
Lack of understand: There are different type of roles and responsibilities that has to be performed by individuals within the organization. As per Bulut and Culha, (2010) employees get demotivated when they do not have proper information about the type of roles and responsibilities that has to be played by them. It is important for the management to have proper monitoring of employees so that they get to know the issues or problems that are faced by them accordingly steps are taken to improve them.
Discrimination: This is one of the issues that are faced by workers within the organization (Mohanty and Mohanty, 2014). For example, there are people who have develop negative perception that men are more capable than workers and due to this issue, male worker's ware given more opportunities. This is a type of discrimination that is faced by women. This negatively affects the performance and they rate of motivation gets reduced.
Lack of training and development: According to Deal, Stawiski and Ruderman, (2013) workers need to be provided with proper training and development. This enables to enhance the skills and capabilities that are required to perform the job. Akhtar, Aziz and Salman, (2014) stated that, in order to perform any set of given job, it requires certain skills that will support to complete the work in an effective manner. However, when employees do not possess, skills tat are required, then it negatively affects the perform and this becomes a reason for demotivation.
Work load: There are conditions in which private firm make the workers so much loaded that they fail to do not proper time to get time for their personal work (Awolusi, 2013). Due top workload, it creates stress and it causes the reason for conflicts with subordinates. One of the reason for the cause is lack of time management skills. Within the work place, it requires workers to have effective time management skills so that they will be able to prioritise the work.
Ineffective leadership: Ljung, (2010) stated that leaders are the one who guide and direct workers to wards the goals and objectives of the firm. There are conditions in which workers do not have proper information about the objectives that are set by the firm. When it is effectively conveyed the managers of the leaders, then they are able to develop path on which they will be able to reach them.
Health working environment: There are certain health related facilities that are provided by management and this boost up the moral of workers. Furthers, there are tools and equipments that has to be provided to workers so that they will be able to perform the set of roles and responsibilities that are provided to them (Plewa and Quester, 2011). Employees get demotivated when workers are not delivered with proper safety within the working environment.
2.4 Effect of reward, security and salary on employee retention
There are certain set of exceptions that individuals have towards work. In this context, it includes salary, incentives, security and reward system. When workers get to satisfy their needs and requirements, then it helpful to get retained. When a workers tent to leave the firm, then HR will try to identify the issues and work over and try to retain them (Thaden, Jacobs-Priebe and Evans, 2010). In order to retain workers below given are the strategies that are being followed, these are also helpful enough to raise the motivation level:
Rewards system: As per Khan, Zarif and Khan, (2011) rewards are given to workers as per the type of exceptional performance that are performed. When employees are rewarded as per their performance, then the rate of competition among subordinates also increases. In order to get rewards, individuals tent to put on their full efforts. According to Ditlev-Simonsen and Brøgger, (2013) there are different type of reward system which are monitory or non monitory. In this context, there are rewards in which individuals are provided with additional responsibility and other reward in which appreciation of cash is provided.
Security: It is important for the management to make sure that they deliver their workers with healthy working environment in which they will be able to work effectively and efficiently (Chugh, 2012). Further, it also includes health care benefits to workers, when there is not such security that is provided to them, then it demotivate workers.
Salary: There are certain expectation that workers have towards the work they perform. It is important for the firm to make sure that they deliver their workers with salary as per the amount of that is being performed by them. This can be determined as the effective way with the help of which workers can be retained (Muslim, Dean and Cohen, 2016). This encourages and boost up the morale of employees enables them to think over not leaving the firm.
2.5 Link between Motivation and Employees retention
According to Agarwal, Yadav and Acharya, (2015) both employee's retention and motivation have strong relation with each other. Workers can be retained when they are able to develop motivation towards the workers they perform. It is essential to make sure that HR department understand the type issues that are being faced by workers and accordingly steps should be taken through which they will be able to overcome the problem (Goyal and Babel, 2015). For example, there are issues related with conflicts within the organization and this can be determined as one of the issue due to which workers tent to leave the firm. In such condition, it is the responsibility of HR department to make sure that appropriate steps are take adequate decision are made with the help of which conflict situation can be eliminated and workers can be retained.
Further, there are different steps that take in order to retain employees. It is important that workers should have the feeling towards their job that it is challenging and interesting. As per Agarwal, Yadav and Acharya, (2015) motivation acts as catalyst in order to make individuals successful. In this context, it is the responsibility of managers and leaders to make sure that workers are encouraged and motivated so that they can put on their best output. Further, Das and Baruah, (2013) stated that employees should be appreciated as per the performance that they have made. This enables to develop positive attitude and also improves the performance rate. In order to boost up the moral of workers one of the effective way is with the help of communication. It enables to develop trust and confidence for the work that is being performed and subordinated. There are case in which due to lack of communication, the rate of confusion raises (Nujjoo and Meyer, 2012).
This way there are misunderstanding take place within subordinates. It is the responsibility of management to make sure that there is effective communication among workers and strategies like informal meetings, reward system, additional responsibilities, etc. should be provided. As per the view points of Abadi, Jalilvand and Khanzadeh, (2011) it can be stated that leaders and managers are important as they enable to develop positive perception with their mind and they get to retain customers. When employees are not able to develop willingness or interest for the work their perform, then it creates issues for firm in order to retain. Work can only be performed effectively when individuals have interest over it and they when they feel that the work does satisfy them mentally. There are conditions which workers have certain set of expectation which they have from the work they perform and they have also set their own personal goals. When the objectives set are not achieved, then it creates issues and increases the rate of demotivation (Shah, Akhtar and Riaz, 2012). Management should be understand the objectives that are set by them for personal growth and accordingly support should be given.
2.6 Complications experienced in retention of skilled contractors
There are different set of aspects that are considered by employees in order to change the firm and look for another one. In this context, below given are the reasons for change:
Self development: According to Anyim, Chidi and Badejo, (2012) there are certain set of expectation and personal goals that are set by individuals when in the type of work they perform does not make them reach the objectives, then they develop negative perception and the rate of interest for the work also declines. It is essential to feel personal satisfaction for the work their perform, this is done in order to raise their professional opportunities. In order to overcome this problem, one of the effective tool is through self development programs, it enables to raise the employee's retention level (Uzonna, 2013). Generally individuals prefer to make use of the services that provide them with higher funds.
Recognition: As per Dysvik and Kuvaas, (2013) individuals who are not appreciated may acknowledged somewhere else. It is important for the management to make sure that workers are appreciated for the handwork and they should be rewarded so that others will be able to recognise. This enables to raise the willingness and interest towards the work. In this context, management should make use of workers recognition program, this will have significant impact over retaining workers, specially those who are top professionals (Aminudin, 2013). Most of the organizations in price sector fail to make recognition for most of the workers. With this respect, risk analysis is used in order to identify the workers who may pose retention risk.
Compensation packages: According to Iliopoulos and Priporas, (2011) workers expect to have equitable pay for the work they perform. With this respect, one of the steps that organizations should take is related with raising the packages for compensation. In this context, it includes salary, retirement program, insurance, leaves for workers, etc. This can be understood with the help of an example, employers can introduce health related insurance or bonus to workers which enables to raise the perception of individuals in positive manner (Kuvaas and Dysvik, 2010). Further, it is also important to make sure that the compensation that are being provided to workers are in line when compared with the firms that deliver their customers with similar products and services.
Hygiene factors: Workers who are working at different post or on different salary do seek job satisfaction. In this context, hygiene factors can be determined as the factors that is helpful enough to eliminate dissatisfaction (Bulut and Culha, 2010). There are different type of tools and equipments that needs to be provided to employees so that they will feel safe and they freely work towards the job that is being assigned to them. When healthy working environment is not provided, then it affects the performance level of employees and it also causes to increase the risk of retention. Further, the quality of work improve and the time that taken by individual to complete the tasks get reduced and customers get satisfied when equipment are used and provided to employees by management.
Improver leaders and managers: When workers are hired, then it is important to make sure that they have effective leaders or managers who will be able to support them to perform their set of roles (Mohanty and Mohanty, 2014). When this does not happen, then the interest with which they had joined get negatively affected. The type of guidance that they get may not be effectively due to which workers fail to understand the type of roles and responsibilities that has to be played by them. Managers and leaders should be able to encourage and boost employees for the work they perform and develop the willingness for work so that risk of retention can be reduced.
2.7 Importance of motivated workers
According to Deal, Stawiski and Ruderman, (2013) motivated workers will always seek positivity in the type of role that is provided to them. Business gets highly benefited through workers who are motivated. In this context, below given are the importance of motivation to organization:
High productivity: When interest for the work is developed, then it helpful enough to raise the performance level of workers. Main aim of any firm is gain maximum profit. This is only possible when employees are able to understand need of customers and to deliver them as per their requirement (Akhtar, Aziz and Salman, 2014). There are firms that deliver their customers with similar products and services. When there are motivated workers, then it becomes favourable enough for the firm top attain competitive advantages.
Profitable operations: Motivation can be determined as the important tool that enables to raise the profitability. Employees start putting all their efforts to understand the type of roles and responsibilities that has to be played by them (Awolusi, 2013). When workers are able to understand their roles, then it enables them to understand their customers and deliver them with high quality services. This way the rate of profitability increases and the objectives set are attained.
Improves efficiency of workers: Ljung, (2010) stated that there are certain set of skills and capabilities that is required so that their job can be performed. However, with the help of motivation, employees individually put on their efforts to improve the set of skills and capabilities. This happens when workers is highly motivated, they will work towards understand the areas in which they lack and they also take help from their subordinates so that the rate of performance level can be raised.
Resolves conflicts: There are different type of issues that are being faced by individuals in which one of the main issue is related to conflicts. Due to this issue, employees do not prefer to work together and this way the rate of confusion increases (Plewa and Quester, 2011). However, when workers are motivated, then it becomes helpful for the HR to coordinate with all the manner who have problem with others and proper discussion can take place with the help of which conflict can be solved. This is only possible when the individuals have interest to solve the problem (Thaden, Jacobs-Priebe and Evans, 2010). Thus, it can be stated that employees are able to workers together and to put on their combined efforts through which organization goals can be achieved and employees can be retained.
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2.8 Theories for motivation
As per Khan, Zarif and Khan, (2011) motivational theories are applied in order to understand the factors through which workers can be encouraged and boosted up with the help of which employee can be boosted. In this context, below given are the motivational theories:
Maslow's hierarchy of need: This is a type of motivational theory that was developed in the year 1943. This theory is highly beneficial for the management it enables to make employees motivated and to put on their full efforts towards the work (Muslim, Dean and Cohen, 2016). There are five stages that are involved and they are as follows:
Physiological need: This is a type of need in which, management of the firm need to consider the basic requirements to be fulfilled. In this context, it includes salary which is the basic need with the help or which individuals are able to fulfil their basic requirements.
Safety need: As per this need, it is important for the firm to make sure that employees should be provided with healthy environment in which they work effectively and effectively.
Love and Belongingness: Works should have proper interaction with others so that they develop a sense of importance (Chugh, 2012).
Self esteem: It is essential that workers should be provided with additional responsibilities in accordance with the type of performance that are made by them.
Self Actualization: There are certain personal goals and objectives that are being set by individuals and management should support workers so as to make them achieve.
Theory X and Theory Y: This is a type of theory in which workers are categories in to two part. One in which employees are skilled and capable, on the other hand employees who are dissatisfied. In this context, workers who are not satisfied, dislike work and highly demotivated are put into theory x (Ditlev-Simonsen and Brøgger, 2013). On the other hand, all the workers who like their work, take decisions, individuals who are dedicated, etc. are put in not theory y. workers underneath theory x are given proper training and development so that they will be able to improve the areas in which they face issues. For theory y also workers are provided with training so that they will be able to improve their set of skills and capabilities.
CHAPTER 3- RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is considered as the systematic analysis which involves different methods applied within the study. However, the theoretical analysis comprises of different tools and techniques helps in improving the knowledge (Nuttin, 2014). Also, it is the process which is being used in regard to collect information and data in relation to make crucial business decision making. Research methodology involves different tools such as research interviews, surveys etc. in regard to provide both current and past information. Researcher aims carry out the study in relation to achieve the set objectives. It discusses different research tools i.e. research design, strategy, data collection, data analysis, sampling etc. All these tools helps in identifying the aims and objectives and achieve the same so that set targets could be attained.
3.2 Research philosophy
It is being considered as the vast topic that helps researcher to assess that research philosophy deals with source, nature and development of knowledge. However, the idea of knowledge creation helps in creating an effective part of completing the research. Thus, addressing research philosophy helps in involving researcher to being aware about forming beliefs and assumptions (Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 2014). Research philosophy is being positioned at the outer layer of research onion and thus helps in completing the research methodology chapter of study. Research philosophy is the study that helps in reflecting crucial assumptions in regard to serve as a crucial base for research strategy. There are 4 different types of research philosophy such as pragmatism, positivism, realism and interpretivism. Researcher is required to identify the method through which data is being selected i.e. qualitative or quantitative as it is the base for which research philosophy is being adopted. For instance, for qualitative method, interpretivism philosophy is suitable while for quantitative study positivism philosophy is being adopted (Cooper, 201Schmidt and Hunter, 2016). Therefore, it is essential for researcher to adopt effective philosophy so that desired aims and objectives could be attained. It is the best way through which in-depth analysis is done as small samples are selected for investigating the outcomes.
In the current dissertation, qualitative study is being carried out therefore, interpretivism research philosophy is adopted to conduct the study. It is the best through which in-depth analysis is done to select small samples and thus identify the impact of motivation through which skilled contractors could be retained within firm for long term and also explore preventing strategies to stem retirement (Creswell, 2014). Adopting such type of philosophy helps in evaluating the subjective part and thus attain desired aims and objectives. Interpretivism philosophy helps in obtaining crucial information so that researcher could carry out both primary and secondary data collection in order to conclude the research study.
3.3 Research design
It is another crucial tool that helps in describing the general plan regarding what needs to be done in relation to answer the research question. Research design helps in formulating the overall strategy which helps in choosing to integrate the different components of study in a coherent and logical way. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that stated research problem could be addressed through collection, measurement and data analysis (Cerasoli, Nicklin and Ford, 2014). It is being divided into two groups i.e. exploratory and conclusive. Exploratory research is stated as the way through which it helps in exploring specific aspects of research area and do no aim to provide final results to research questions. Within exploratory study, researcher obtains the power to even change the direction of research up to a great extent. While, conclusive research design involves two different categories i.e. descriptive and causal. Descriptive research design helps in describing the specific elements, causes or phenomenon in regard to carry out the research area. Whole, causal research design is being conducted in regard to assess the cause and effect relationship within the dissertation (Vaishnavi and Kuechler, 2015).
In the current dissertation, conclusive research design is being adopted within which descriptive method is selected as it helps in identifying the impact of motivation upon retaining skilled contractors and explore preventing strategies to stem retirement within workplace. With the help of descriptive research design it helps describing the specific elements of the research and attain desired aims and objectives (Dörnyei and Ushioda, 2013). Thus, such method helps in describing the varied ways through which employees could be encouraged and retain within firm for long time.
3.4 Research approach
It is one of the crucial tool of research methodology as research approach helps in identifying the relevance of hypothesis to the study as it is considered as the main distinctive point within deductive and inductive approaches. Within deductive approach it tests the validity of assumptions i.e. theories or hypothesis while inductive approach helps in contributing to the emergence of new theories and generalizations that results in attaining desired outcomes. There are three forms of research approach i.e. inductive, deductive and abductive. However, it is considered that relevance of hypothesis is stated as the main distinctive point which helps in identifying the different between inductive and deductive approaches (Pinder, 2014). Researcher aims to undertake effective research approach in order to completion of study as it is the best way through which it expresses the need for learning more about theories and concepts and thus identify the impact of motivation in terms of retaining skilled contractors in workplace and stem retirement. Thus, selecting appropriate research approach helps in collecting data and thus attain desired results in the form of achieving stated aims and objectives. Deductive research approach is the method that helps in testing the validity of identified assumptions i.e. theories and hypothesis so that they could reach to desired outcomes. Further, inductive research approach is another method that helps in contributing to the development of new theories and methods in general manner. On the other hand, abductive research approach which results in developing new theory or modify the existing one (Dinh and et. al., 2014).
In the current research on assessing the impact of motivation upon retaining skilled staff i.e. skilled contractors in workplace, inductive research approach is being selected as it results in obtaining information from general to specific. Thus, it is considered as the best way through which research could collect data and explore the phenomenon so that different themes and framework could be developed in regard to reach to specific conclusion (Gelman and et. al., 2014).
3.5 Research strategy
It is considered as the step by step action plan that helps in giving direction to thoughts and efforts which enables to conduct the research in a systematic manner so that proper schedule need to be developed in regard to produce quality results in the research. Through adopting effective research strategy it helps scholar to collect background information and thus analyses the data in regard to reach to specific conclusion (Vohs and Baumeister, 2016). There are different types of research strategy such as case study, surveys, observation, interview, experiments etc. All these strategies are considered as crucial for researcher to conduct the study and reach to end outcomes. Using effective research strategy helps scholar to collect appropriate information and data so that issues could be avoided and thus collect valid and reliable data so that set objectives could be attained. Through adopting appropriate research strategy, scholar helps in obtaining best information and thus identify the impact of motivation upon retaining skilled contractors in workplace. It involves two main types of research strategy i.e. qualitative and quantitative (Fowler Jr, 2013). These methods are considered as crucial for accomplishing the study and obtain desired outcomes. Adopting qualitative research strategy helps in using different theories and models so that specific subject matter could be discussed in relation to identify the impact of motivation upon workforce and result in retention of them for long term. Further, quantitative research strategy is another strategy method that involves different statistical and mathematical tools so that outcomes related to the impact of motivation upon employee retention could be addressed.
In the present dissertation, qualitative research strategy is being adopted that involves use of different theories and concepts so that aims and objectives could be attained. Through using such strategy it helps in reviewing different theories and concepts related to motivation and thus identify the impact of it upon retention of workforce (Larsen-Freeman and Long, 2014).
3.6 Data collection
In the present dissertation with aim to in the present case researcher is to analyses the impact of motivation on the retention of staff in workplace. To successfully complete the study researcher has made use of primary and secondary data for successfully completing the study. Emphasis has been given for collecting authentic and reliable data so that required objectives of the study could be achieved. Data collection enables for gathering necessary information that is being required for properly accomplishing the objectives of the study. Primary data has been used through questionnaire method (Richey and Klein, 2014). It is data that is collected first time and in this different types of methods such as personal interview, observation and questionnaire etc. Furthermore, secondary data collection is another crucial method which helps researcher to use existing information which has been already collected in past. There are different sources through which secondary data could be obtained such as newspapers, journals, online websites, government publications etc. Collecting such type of data requires less time and resources so that useful data could be obtained through carrying out such research (Nuttin, 2014).
In the present dissertation, both these methods i.e. primary and secondary are used to conduct the study. With the help of primary data collection it helps in preparing questionnaire and obtain information from respondents regarding impact of motivation on retaining skilled contractors and explore preventive strategies to stem retirement. While, secondary data collection method is used so that literature review could be completed using different secondary sources i.e. journals, researches and articles (Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 2014).
Sampling is considered as the technique that helps in selecting the population from the whole universe upon which study is being conducted. Therefore, adopting sampling technique i.e. probability and non probability sampling and thus collect information so that suitable responses could be collected. In the present research, probabilistic sampling tool is being adopted so that it provides equal opportunities to every respondents in relation to obtain unbias information (Cooper, 2016). With the help of simple random sampling method so that information is being collected in random manner and thus carry out the dissertation in order to identify the impact of motivation on the retention of skilled contractors and identify preventive strategies to stop retirement. The selected sample size is 100 respondents who are working as managers in private security organizations so that they are able to identify the different ways of motivation in order to retain skilled contractors and thus stop retirement within workplace (Schmidt and Hunter, 2014).
3.8 Data analysis
Data analysis is another technique that helps in analysing the data with the help of inspecting, controlling, transforming and modelling data with the aim to discover crucial information so that effective conclusion could be made. In the present dissertation, scholar uses qualitative research strategy and thus thematic analysis is being done in order to evaluate the impact of motivation to retain skilled contractors and explore preventing strategies to stop retirement (Creswell, 2014). Here, thematic analysis helps in preparing different themes so that evaluation of collected data could be done in regard to achieve stated objectives. With the help of developing thematic analysis it helps respondents to obtain different reviews, opinions with the help of pie charts, graphs so that desired information could be attained.
3.9 Ethical consideration
Ethical consideration is considered as the crucial tool which helps in involving the research participants and do not harm them in anyway. Also, privacy protection of participants needs to be ensured so that research could be carried out in an effective way. At the time of collecting data from respondents it is essential for researcher to consider ethical regulations and does not collect information from restricted websites. Further, participants involved in research should not be forcefully involved while they should be told to give their voluntary participation through providing them knowledge about the stated topic so that desired outcomes could be attained (Cerasoli, Nicklin and Ford, 2014). Researcher is required to collect information from authentic websites so that no fake information could be collected regarding selected topic. Another ethical consideration need to be focused by researcher is of plagiarism free content as they need to keep in mind that proper rephrasing should be done of the content collected from different websites so that no issue of copying the text has been addressed. The whole dissertation needs to be written in own words and thus it could be useful for other researcher as well.
3.10 Validity and reliability
Reliability is considered as the assessment tool that helps in producing stable and consistent results. While, validity is considered as the simple means of measuring the data what is being supposed to. Thus, both these tools helps in producing valid and reliable information so that appropriate outcomes could be attained. Here, scholar makes crucial information that needs to be both valid and reliable and should not affect the collected sources (Pinder, 2014). Thus, identifying the impact of motivation on retention of skilled contractors and explore preventing strategies to stem retirement so that different sources are used to obtain reliable information. Information related to the particular subject is being collected from reliable and valid websites so that no fake or unwanted information is being collected and it also helps in overcoming the issues.
CHAPTER 4- DATA ANALYSIS
Data analysis is considered as one of the crucial chapter in dissertation and thus researcher is required to analyse the collected data so that significant information could be attained. Hence, the collected data helps in evaluating the results in an effective way. Through adopting qualitative strategy, scholar is required to carry out thematic analysis and thus interpret each and every question and draw pie charts and graphs. Thus, interpretation is done by the scholar through developing different themes so that subjective information is being carried out.
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