Impact of teenage pregnancies on education, health, housing and employment in London, UK

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Project ABSTRACT

Teenage pregnancy can be defined as a teenage girl, usually within the age of 13-19 becoming pregnant. Major aim of the current research is determining the major impact of teenage pregnancies on education, health, housing and employment in London. For attaining this aim the researcher has focused on different reasons of teenage pregnancy and its impact on education and health of teen mother. Further, focus has also given on determining the different effects of teen pregnancy on employment and housing facilities of teen parents. Further, determining different ways for reducing the negative effects of teen pregnancy was also considered as major objective of this report. Researcher has used the secondary data collection methods such as literature review for obtaining appropriate facts and figures. Including this, researcher has use appropriate tools of research methodology for conducting whole investigation in effective manner. These tools include positivism philosophy, deductive approach, descriptive research designs, secondary data collection method qualitative research techniques and thematic analysis. Findings of the current investigation has reflected that major reasons of adolescent pregnancy in London are peer pressure, lack of parental guidelines, inadequate knowledge, sexual abuse and rape, teenage drinking habits and different social and economic factors. All these factors decline the academic performance and health of teen mother. Along with this, it has also reduced the career opportunities which can affect the housing facilities also. Overall, teenage pregnancy has adverse impact on whole life of the teen parents and child.

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What is In teenage pregnancy?

In teenage pregnancy human females become pregnant under the age of 20 till the pregnancy ends. It is become a serious social issue in British culture. A research study has disclosed that in the developed nation teens have had sexual relationship at least in once between the ages of 15 and 19 (Viner et.al, 2012). According to the facts and figures London has high teenage pregnancy rates as compare to other countries, so government of the nation needs to pay specific attention towards this social problem because it has very adverse impact on social and economic position of the country. It increases the birth rate of the country which affects the population and economic position of the whole nation.

Different research studies have concluded that there are different traditional approaches which play important role in reducing teenage pregnancy rates. These include sexual education and qualitative sexual health services (Wilson, 2012). But, at present teenage pregnancy is became a very crucial issues which have various social disadvantages such as unemployment, poverty, discrimination and poor health conditions, etc. Therefore, for addressing these entire issues researcher has decided to conduct research study on determination of impacts on teenage pregnancy on education, health, housing and employment in London.

Problem statement

There are different research studies which have concluded that teenage pregnancy is one of the major social problems of London which affect the whole society. In the United Kingdom is very crucial problem as compare to other developed nation. So, researcher has chosen the area of London for the whole investigation. It is a problem for organization because rate of teenage pregnancy is increasing year by year (Minnis et.al, 2013).

Major reason behind this issue is lack of sexual education in schools so, there is huge requirements of reevaluation on the subject of teenage pregnancy. Along with this, it is also considered as economic, educational and health issue for United Kingdom. It increases the economic cost of the nation as well as it has also had negative impacts on health of teen age mother and new born child. Including this, it has reflected root problem of education system of London. Therefore, high rate of teen age pregnancy has reflected that government and education system needs to pay specific attention towards the reducing the rate of this problem because it has huge impact on different sectors of the economy, health and education (Duflo et al., 2014). So, researcher has decided to conduct research study on impact on teenager’s pregnancy on education, health, housing and employment in London.

What is the major issues?

Adolescent pregnancy is a worldwide social and educational concern for developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. Most of the company is facing the problem of high rate of teen age pregnancy. It is an issue for teen age mother, child, society and whole economy. It ruins the future prospect of the mother as well as it can create the serious health issue for teen age mother and child (Black et al., 2013).

Why it is an issue?

Pregnancy of teenagers is the major issue because it has negative impact on mother, baby and whole society. Due to the adolescent pregnancy mother cannot complete their education and more likely to be a single parent. Along with this, birth of a new baby in teen age also have negative impact on mother’s and baby’s health. It is an issue because it is closely associated with the poverty and single parenthood (Chin et al., 2012). All these reasons have negative impacts on education system, employment and economy of a nation so, it is a major issue for different countries of whole world.

Why it is an issue now?

It is an issue now because, as per the current investigations rates of teenage pregnancy has increased by 40% in current year (Shore, 2014). Along with this, government of the nation has also invested huge amount of money in reducing the rate of teenage pregnancy by improving the existing education system of the country. But, impact on teenage pregnancy is very high which negatively affect the education, economy, health, housing and employment of country. So, teenager’s pregnancy is one of the major issue for London (Pazol et al., 2015).

Research will shed light on?

For resolving this issue research will shed light on major impacts on teenager’s pregnancy on education of teen age mother and father. Along with this, it will identify the effects of teenager’s pregnancy on health of mother and baby. In addition, focus will also be given on impact on adolescent pregnancy on housing and employment in London (Kane et al., 2013). It will help in attaining all objectives as well as help in resolving the research problem in effective manner.

Significance of the research

The current research report is very significant for different research scholar for conducting future research study on teenage pregnancy. Along with this, findings of the current research study are also beneficial for determining the negative impacts of teenage pregnancy on different aspects. Along with this, it is also very effective government of London because it helps in taking appropriate actions to resolve the issues of teenage pregnancy. Including this, research will be very effective because it helps in determining different reasons behind the increasing rate of adolescent pregnancy in London. These reasons will be very significant for taking actions for reducing the negative impacts on teenage pregnancy. Educational system can also improve their segment of sexual education which will play important role in resolving this issues (Duflo et al., 2014).

Further, findings of the current study will include impact on teenage pregnancy on health of mother and baby. So, it helps different health and social organizations for providing appropriate services to teenage mother and their child. Consequently, findings of the current investigation will be effective for conducting the similar research study on different country.

Introduction

Literature review is one of the major part of the current investigation because it will play important role in collecting appropriate data about teenage pregnancy and its impact on education, health, housing and employment. Literature shows historical investigation on teenage pregnancy which have conducted by different researchers in past. Review of past studies help in getting appropriate insights to understand research problem in effective manner which play significant role in attaining objectives of the research (Kearney and Levine, 2012). Review of literature also significant for determining research gap which play important role in developing research aim and objectives. The current literature review will focus on different research articles relevant to teenage pregnancy and major reasons behind this issue in London. Along with this, it will also discuss different social disadvantages of teenage pregnancy. Researcher will also review different past research studies on impact of teenage pregnancy on education, health, housing and employment (Allen et al., 2012).

Teenage pregnancy

McCullough and et.al, 2012 has stated that “Teenage pregnancy can be defined as a teenage girl, usually within the age of 13-19 becoming pregnant” (McCullough et al., 2012). On the other hand, Chandra-Mouli, Camacho and Michaud, 2013 has concluded that “In teenage pregnancy a girl who have not reached legal adulthood have become pregnant” (Chandra-Mouli et al., 2013). There are different factors by which a teenage girl become pregnant”. These factors related to the different situations which have faced by teenage and a group with them they interact. Different research studies have concluded that rate of teenage pregnancy vary from one country to another country. Rate of teenage pregnancy depends on the sexual and health education system of the nation (Garner and Scott, 2013). In the developed nation education system focuses on the sexual education but still rate of teenage pregnancy in that country is high as compare to developing countries. For example, in 2013, a total of 273,105 babies were born to women aged 15–19 years in United States (About Teen Pregnancy, 2015). Kriz, Gummesson and Quazi, 2013 has stated that “Most of the teenage girls do not prepare to get pregnant by many of the girls do plan for their pregnancy” (Kriz et al., 2013). As per the different health care professional’s teen pregnancies is associated with the extra health risk for both mother and baby. McMillan and Schumacher, 2014 has stated that “to get pregnant outside the marriage is very common In some countries” (McMillan and Schumacher, 2014). In contrast, Ye and Lai, 2012 has concluded that “In different Asian countries community do not allow to get pregnant before marriage. Such types of values and rules help in reducing the rate of teenage pregnancy” (Ye and Lai, 2012). But, in the United States it is not compulsory to get marriage for having child. So, teenagers do not fear to engage in sexual activities. Including this, as per the experience of different health care professionals and gynecologists, many teenagers do not believe that they will get pregnant if they will engage in sexual activities. So, it reflects that lack of awareness and knowledge of teenagers about the sexual activities and pregnancy (Teen Pregnancy, 2015). So, it can harm their individual life which will have negative impact on their health and education.

Reasons behind high rates of teenage pregnancy in London

There are different reasons behind the teenage pregnancy in which low self-esteem is one of the major cause. Lack of love and affection from parents are also consider a reasons of teen pregnancy”. As per this statement if any parents do not provide necessary care, love and affection to their children in these condition teenagers seek it out with their friends group. It increases the chances of sexual relations with their friends (Gay, Mills and Airasian, 2011). Including this, different research reports has disclosed various other reasons of the teenage pregnancy which are described as under:

Peer pressure: Colina-Coca and et.al, 2014 has concluded that “Most of the teenagers feel pressure to make friends in the age of adolescence” (Colina-Coca et al., 2014). Along with this, in this age friends can easily influence the decisions of others in different aspects (Langham, 2015). Likewise, Li, Zhao and Chen, 2012 Has stated that “Teens lets their friends influence their decisions to have sex at the time of lack of awareness about associated consequences” (Li et al., 2012). In the United States it is become a part of their life style but sometimes result occurs in terms of unplanned pregnancy. Most of the health and social care reports have reflected that, 29% of teenagers felt pressure to involve in sexual activities and 33% teens were not ready to get pregnancy. Therefore, pressure of peers is one of the major reason of teen’s pregnancy (Adolescent pregnancy, 2015).

Lack of parental guidelines: Sunil and et.al, 2014 has concluded that “Parental guidelines, love, affection and care are considered as important factors for reducing teen pregnancy problem” (Sunil et al., 2014). As per this statement lack of guidelines and care can divert teenagers towards their friends to find out love and affection which can influence them to get involve in sexual activities. Therefore, lack of parental guidelines in also considered as major reason of teen pregnancy (Daniel and Sam, 2011).

Inadequate knowledge: Bhattacharyya, 2009 stated that “teenagers who are not educated in aspects of sexual relationship have high probability to get unintended pregnancy” (Bhattacharyya, 2009). As per this statement, lack of knowledge about the biological and emotional aspects of sex is also considered as major reason of the unplanned pregnancy.

Sexual abuse and rape: As per the different research studies, sexual abuse and rape arte also one of the major reason of pregnancy in teen age. A health and social care survey has found that most of teen mothers have acknowledged that they were impregnated by an adult man and most of the cases were belonged to the sexual abuse and rape (Copping et al., 2013).

Teenage drinking: Teen drinking and smoking can also be considered as major reasons of teenage pregnancy. Jackson et al., 2012 has concluded that “Many teens do experiments with different types of drugs and alcohol” (Jackson et al., 2012). Along with this, Singh, Rai and Singh, 2012 has concluded that “Most of the teenagers got sex when they were drinking and did not have control self-control due to the use of high alcohol and drugs” (Singh et al., 2012). So, it is also considered as major reasons of adolescent pregnancy.

Social and economic factors: Schargel and Smink, 2014 has stated that “Childhood environment, lower facility of education and income also divert teenagers towards the sexual activity so, these social and economic factors are also major reasons of adolescences pregnancy” (Schargel and Smink, 2014).

Social disadvantages of Adolescent pregnancy

Buckingham and et.al, 2013 has concluded that “Raising a happy and healthy child is one crucial challenge for most prepared parents” (Buckingham et al., 2013). As per this statement, child is one of the major responsibility for prepared parents though it will be a crucial challenge for teen parents. It can negatively affect the health and education of teen mother as well as baby. Inappropriate education of individuals can affect children, families and communities. So, teenage pregnancy is one of the major social disadvantages for every society and nation (Cutler and Lleras-Muney, 2012). But, in contrast, Duflo, Dupas and Kremer, 2014 has concluded that “Quality education, good job mental stability and a safe home are the major requirements in managing social challenge in effective manner” (Duflo et al., 2014). All these requirements take time and cost. But, teenagers cannot get good education, required health conditions and safe home is this age. Therefore, teenage pregnancy is considered as social disadvantage.

Teenage pregnancy and its impact on education of teen parents

Findings of the different research studies have reflected that teenage pregnancy has negative impact on education and academic performance of teen parents. In contrast, Kane and et.al, 2013 has concluded that “this issue affect the education of teen mother high as compare to teen father” (Kane et al., 2013). Black, Devereux and Salvanes, 2013 has disclosed that “Most of the teen mothers were in schools at the time of their pregnancy and after getting pregnant they had to leave school in mid because of different health and mental issues at the time of pregnancy” (Black et al., 2013). Therefore, as per this statement, teenage pregnancy can stop the education of teen mother which lead negative impact on her entire life. In contrary, Goesling and et.al, 2014 has concluded that “Most of the teen mothers do not leave the school during their pregnancy time but they cannot provide appropriate time to study which leads poor academic performance” (Goesling et al., 2014). Therefore, adolescent pregnancy is a carrier barrier for all teen parents. Similarly, Ashcraft, Fernández‐Val and Lang, 2013 has concluded that “Most of the teen mother cannot go to the school after delivery” (Ashcraft et al., 2013). As per this statement, teenage pregnancy can ruin the overall academic performance of a teen mother during and after the pregnancy period. Inappropriate education of mother can directly affect the life of child and mother (Sonfield et al., 2013).

Due to the pregnancy most of the teenage girls needs to take leaves from schools or put their studies on hold which delay their education and reduce their career opportunities. Steinmetz and Sussman, 2013 has also stated that “after delivery teen mother needs to spend most of the time with their baby so, they cannot pursue with their further studies” (Steinmetz and Sussman, 2013). Overall, review of the different research studies has reflected that teenage pregnancy is one of the serious issue for girls which affect the education in negative manner.

Adverse effects of teenage pregnancy on health of mother and child

As per the above discussion teenager’s pregnancy can affect the education of teen parents. Other than this, it can also negatively affect the health of mother as well as child. Viner and et.al, 2012 has concluded that “Teenage pregnancy can create number of health risks for mother as well as child” (Viner et al., 2012). According to the health and social care studies “Teenage mothers are not capable to gain adequate weight at the time of pregnancy which lead low birth weight child”. Similarly, Wilson, 2012 has stated that “Low birth weight is linked with the various infant and childhood disorder which is one of the major health risk for new born child” (Wilson, 2012). But Black, Devereux and Salvanes, 2013 has stated in the contrast of the above statement that “when a female gives the birth in the adolescent age, the risk of early born of child has increased” (Black et al., 2013). This type of babies is called premature kids and the result of it is the case of death of baby in infant age has increased. According to Chin and et.al, 2012, “the probability of anemia in teens during their pregnancy has high because of low level of red blood cells in pregnancy stage” (Chin et al., 2012). The reason of developing this disease is deficiency in iron in blood. It has created the problem form both unborn baby and his mother. The major impact of it is increase the risk of premature birth, difficulties in delivery etc. On the other side, Goesling and et.al, 2014 has explored from his research that “having a baby in teenage, puts the mother at a postpartum depression which is a kind of mood disorder” (Goesling et al., 2014). The signs of the following diseases are sadness, difficulties in sleeping, anxiety and sometime the thoughts of hurting baby or itself has raised. Therefore, from the review of the overall research and comparing the various thoughts of the researchers, it can be concluded that the teenage pregnancy has created the adverse effects on the adolescent mother as well as on her child in negative manner.

Impact of teenage pregnancy on housing

According to Larson, 2007, “it is identified that nearly 100,000 children are born into poverty each year in London” (Larson, 2007). Due to this reason, teenagers are facing various issues such as stressful life, unemployment and hectic physical environments etc. In addition, increased risks for preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction and poor school performance are the other major factors which negatively influence life of an individual. In present era, high pregnancy and parenting rates are emerged as serious ongoing problems (Larson, 2007). The negative impact of poverty during pregnancy can be seen in form of subsequent child health outcomes and multiple adverse exposures directly and indirectly. A Minnesota study determined that 94 percent of homeless youth have had sex and 53 percent of homeless teen mothers were daughters of teenage. Apart from this, 41% of homeless young mothers were placed in foster care and 60% more likely to be removed from their parent’s care (National Network for Youth. 2013).

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Positive or negative aspect of teenage pregnancy on employment

The result of teenage pregnancy on the young girls is it has put the full stop on the education indefinitely. The adults who are pregnant are do not find the way to complete their education and it has directly affected the job opportunities. According to Kane and et.al, 2013, “an employed teen girl, she may not be able to continue her job while she is pregnant” (Kane et al., 2013). Keeping a job in pregnancy duration has depended on the nature of the work. The most common job which has done by the teen girls are food servicing, cashier jogs and retail sales. In the context, Ashcraft, Fernández‐Val and Lang, 2013 has stated that “in such type of work, it has required to stand on a single place for the long time which has not well for the teen's in their pregnancy” (Ashcraft et al., 2013). The negative impact of this is, they have left their job and staying back at home. On the other hand, Acharya and et.al, 2014 has explored in his research that “the teens who are dropping their high school education in teen age are facing the state of poverty” (Acharya et al., 2014). This thing has affected the development of child and due to the lack of survival resources, the kids are not able to get the basic living things. Therefore, from the above stated different statements, it has been clear that teenage pregnancy has put the negative impact as well as aspects in employment.Positive or negative aspect of teenage pregnancy on employment

Role of government of UK towards teenage pregnancy

Teenage pregnancy has raised a major issue in the public health sector in 1999. As per the research of Pazol and et.al, 2015, it has identified that “to keep the control over the teenage pregnancy rate, UK government has made Teenage Pregnancy Strategy” (Pazol et al., 2015). The positive outcomes from the following strategy is it has better support to the young parents by which they can learn how to care a baby in teenage pregnancy. Along with this, they can continue their own education and training. This strategy has better able to address the lack of appropriate housing of many teenage parents. The benefits of the following strategy are UK government is now able to deal with the correct risk factors of teenage pregnancy. In the contrast, Steinmetz and Sussman, 2013 has explored in his research that “the UK government has also determine the needs of the community and try to reduce health inequalities” (Steinmetz and Sussman, 2013). The following role of government has improved the well-being and health of the local community in more effective manner.

According to, Sonfield and et.al, 2013 “UK government has to develop some program which help in developing clear and consistent communication with the teens and their parents” (Sonfield et al., 2013). In this context, the government has to adopt the social media by which they can easily reached within the teenagers. But Copping, Campbell and Muncer, 2013 has stated in the contrast of the above statement that “UK government has also played an important role in providing Sex and Relationship Education Guidance which assist the staff of the schools to handle teenage pregnancy issues in the right manner” (Copping et al., 2013). In this context, the rising issue of early child bearing in teen age has increased include the course of teaching sex and relationship education. With the help of this, the teenagers are able to get the guidance and strategies related to the different aspects and issues regarding the teenage pregnancy. In addition to this, Lavin and Cox, 2012 has stated that “Sex and Relationship Education Guidance has also provided the guidance to develop the different policies related to sex and relationship education in the respect of teenagers” (Lavin and Cox, 2012). The various sex and relationship education framework helps in providing the direction to the teens in the context of understand the various aspects of teenage pregnancy. Therefore, UK government has played different kinds of roles in the direction of creating the awareness in the teens and decreased the rate of early child bearing in teenagers.

Different ways for reducing the high rates of Teenage pregnancy

There are various ways which helps in reducing the high rates of teenage pregnancy in UK. As per the viewpoint of Copping, Campbell and Muncer, 2013, “there are some factors helps in reducing the increase rate early child bearing and create the awareness in the teens about the effects of teenage pregnancy” (Copping et al., 2013). For example, the fear of AIDS in the teen male has decreased the intercourse related activities towards the opposite sex and the result of this is it has decrease the premarital sex. Another reason of fall rate of teenage pregnancy is changing the adolescent male attitude towards the sex and relationship. But Winner and et.al, 2012 has not agreed with the above stated statement and suggested that “the mix efforts of global and private health and social care organizations in the direction of creating the awareness regarding the teenage pregnancy in adolescent” (Winner et al., 2012).

According to Cutler and Lleras-Muney, 2012, “the various teen pregnancy prevention programs have helped in reducing the pregnancy rate” (Cutler and Lleras-Muney, 2012). Sex education and reproductive health services, career counselling etc also assist in bringing the awareness and giving the knowledge about the diversified and major impact of early child bearing. In this contrast, Acharya and et.al, 2014 has explored that “by using the different media campaigns, the increased rate of teenage pregnancy can be easily reduced” (Acharya et al., 2014). In this context, by using print and electronic media, it can be easy to increase the approach towards large number of teens for changing the perception related to early child bearing.

On the other hand, Finer and Zolna, 2014 has stated that “with the help of abstinence, it can be simple to prevent from teenage pregnancy in adolescent age” (Finer and Zolna, 2014). It is 100% effective method which avoid early child bearing situations. But Duflo, Dupas and Kremer, 2014 has not agreed with the above statement and suggested that “by using contraception during the sexual intercourse, the teenage pregnancy rate can be reduced” (Duflo et al., 2014). From the research, it has found that 1/3 adolescent girls are not using any kind of contraception in sexual intercourse. Therefore, it is important to educate the teens about the use and benefits of using contraceptions may have bring the changes in the behaviour and attitude of teenager towards the safer sex practices (Trends in Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing, 2015). From the point of view of Kearney and Levine, 2012, “communication is an important method of preventing early child bearing situation in adolescent” (Kearney and Levine, 2012). From the research, a fact has identified that a beginning conversation between the parents and children about early sex has proven more beneficial to stop teenage pregnancy. Hence, from the studied of the numerous literature reviews, it has explored that there are different kinds of methods and ways can help in reducing the rate of early child bearing in adolescent age.

Research gap

Different areas of research, question and problems in a particular field and which have not identified yet are known as research gap. It helps in completing the future research on different subjects. Literature review of particular subject has helped in determining appropriate gap of research. For the current investigation author has conducted review of literature on teenage pregnancy and its major reasons. Along with this there are also various studies which have already completed on teenage pregnancy and their impacts. Literature review has helped in analyzing that large number of researchers have conducted that similar studies on different countries and United States. But, no one has completed the same investigation on London and its key figures about the teenage pregnancy. So, author has find this research gap which has helped in selection of the research subject. Therefore, the current research gap analysis has helped in formulating the research objectives and future investigation on the teenage pregnancy and its impact on education, health, employment and housing.

Research philosophy

Philosophy of the research can be defined as a belief by which researcher can get appropriate data about a specific phenomenon. Paradigm focuses on the subjectivity and objectives of the whole investigation. There are two types of philosophy such as positivism and intrepretivism (Finer and Zolna, 2014). Positivism research paradigm focuses on the objectivity of the whole investigation means it will help in determining the impact on teenage pregnancy on education, health, employment and housing. On the other hand, Intrepretvisim shed lights on the subjective interpretation of the collected data (Acharya et al., 2014).

For the current research report researcher has used positivism research philosophy which played important role in attaining all research objectives in effective manner. Along with this, it coverage the wide range of situations such as it has helped in collecting data about the teenage pregnancy from different sources. Author has use the positivism research paradigm because it provides a most appropriate look to understand the different aspects and perspective of teenagers towards pregnancy which will play important role in resolving research problem and attaining organizational objectives (Minnis et al., 2013). It is also appropriate for whole investigation because it help in adjusting new issues associated with the teenage pregnancy which has helped researcher in understanding the social disadvantages of the adolescent gravidity. Overall, positivism research philosophy has played significant role in completing all research objective in effective manner.

Research Approach

Author uses different types of research approaches for conducting investigation from general and specific manner (Kamal, 2012). Selection of appropriate research approach is based on research subject or topic. Approach of the research also helps in determining relationship between developed theory and researcher’s observations. There are two types of research approaches which can be used by researcher at the time of conducting investigation on teenage pregnancy; these are inductive and deductive research approach. In which inductive research approach focuses on the completing investigation from specific to general and on the other hand, deductive approach helps in accomplishing whole study from general level of focus to specific (Pazol et al., 2015).

As per the current subject of the investigation author has applied the deductive research approach for determining the impact of teenage pregnancy on different social aspects. Using this approach author has analyzed general theory on teenage pregnancy which helped in developing appropriate assumption for the current subject. Afterwards, researcher will move towards specific data from general. Therefore, deductive research approach has appropriate for conducting current investigation because it helps in reducing the time for whole investigation and collecting data (Langham, 2015). Along with this, it is a structured approach of the investigation which will help in attaining research objectives in effective manner.

Research Design

Researcher needs to determine appropriate way and path to complete whole investigation. Research design is most appropriate tool for methodology section of current study which helps in developing a blue print of the whole investigation. Along with this, design of research also plays important role in understanding individual, group of people in terms of psychological and behavioral manner (Wilson, 2012). There are different types of research designs descriptive, exploratory and casual. For the current investigational author has chosen descriptive research design because current subject is very theoretical and subjective. So, selected research designs played important role in understanding the research problem related to the different social issues of teenage pregnancy. In addition, impacts of the teenager pregnancy on health and education can also be determined by descriptive research design (Viner et al., 2012).

Descriptive research study includes different methods of data collection such as observat5ion, case study and survey. For the current investigation researcher has followed case study method. It has chosen by researcher because it helps in conducting in-depth study on individual and group of individual. So, for the current investigation author can complete in-depth study on teenage pregnant girls of London. It played significant role in understanding the research problem and getting appropriate solution of each research question in effective manner (Bodeeb, 2015).

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Research technique

Technique of the research can also be defined as a strategy of the research and major role in research technique is accomplishing whole investigation in qualitative and quantitative manner. Qualitative research techniques focuses on conducting investigation on subjective aspect. On the other hand quantitative research technique helps in getting findings of the research questions using numerical methods (Langham, 2015). Determining the impact on teenage pregnancy on health, employment, education and housing is a theoretical subject so, author has chosen qualitative research strategy for completing whole investigation.

Qualitative research techniques helps in collecting subjective and theoretical data about the research subject which helps in making the final conclusion of the investigation. According to the above discussion author has applied case study analysis for understanding the behavior of teenage pregnant girls of London so, qualitative research technique provided positive contribution in conducting in-depth study on related individuals. It has also helped in understanding the research problem (Bhattacharyya, 2009). It has provided an opportunity to understand the limited cases of teenage pregnancy in depth which has helped in reducing time and improving the quality of findings. Researcher can also conduct cross case comparison and analysis of the current subject which also improve the effectiveness of the research study. So, quantitative research technique is most significant for attaining objectives of the current investigation (Copping et al., 2013).

Data collection methods

Collecting data is most important task of every investigation and researchers used various methods for obtaining facts and figures about the research subject. Sonfield and et.al, 2013 has concluded that “all those methods which help in gathering information are known as data collection method” (Sonfield et al., 2013). Primary and secondary data collection tools are major methods for obtaining information. For the current investigation researcher has used only secondary data collection methods for obtaining facts and figures. Author has not applied the primary techniques because of the different ethical, personal and safety issues of the teenage pregnant girls (Ashcraft et al., 2013).

There are different research studies which have conducted by other researchers in past with the aspects of teenage pregnancy in different countries. So, author has used these studies for collecting secondary information about the research subject. Secondary data collection method has chosen by researcher because it is very time and cost effective as well as easily available on internet. Including this, using this method researcher can collect the data on extensive level which covered different social disadvantages of the teenage pregnancy for London. It could not focus on the actual issue but it has provided appropriate help to researcher to create a base for the data analyzing and final interpretation (Cutler and Lleras-Muney, 2012). Therefore, collected information has helped in resolving research problem and attaining objective in effectual way.

Data collection instruments

There are different instruments which have used by researchers for collecting secondary information. These sources include different research papers and articles on teenage pregnancy. Book, websites, journals and blogs on health and social care services and issues which also helped in getting various information about the teenage pregnancy and its impact. Therefore, all these are the major instruments of the secondary data collection which have used by researcher for collecting facts and figures on impact on teenage pregnancy and its social disadvantage (Singh et al., 2012).

Data Analysis

Analysis of the data is a very systematic process which play important role in examining collected information about the teenage pregnancy of London. There are different tools and techniques by which author can evaluate all facts and figures such as statistical and thematic analysis. In this research author has focused on systematic review of literature which can be examined by using thematic analysis only (Acharya et al., 2014). It is an appropriate technique for examining qualitative information, facts and figures. Thematic analysis will be effective for conducting critical discussion on findings. Overall, analysis of data will provide appropriate conclusion about the impact on teenage pregnancy on education, health, employment and housing.

Major reasons behind the teenage pregnancy in London

Review of the literature or secondary data collection have reflected that there are different reasons which increases the overall rate of teenage pregnancy in London. According the analysis of the information major reasons of teenage pregnancy is peer pressure, lack of parental guidelines, inadequate knowledge, sexual abuse and rape, etc. Including this, study has also found that teenage drinking habits and different social and economic factors are also considered as major reasons behind the teenage pregnancy in London. As per the secondary information peer pressure is the major reason because in teen age girls can easily influence by their peers and friends to have sex without any awareness about the sexual relationship and related problems. So, due to the lack of understanding they get pregnant. Similarly, lack of parental guideline is also a major reason because if parents pay attention towards providing appropriate guidelines to their teen children about sexual relations it help them in increasing their awareness about the problems and consequences of these. It will also reduce the rate of teenage pregnancy. But, in the current lifestyle lack of time and high business schedule increases gap between teen children and their parents. So, parents cannot provide appropriate guidelines to their child. It also increases the chances of teenage pregnancy. In addition, study has also found that inadequate knowledge is also a reason behind the teenage pregnancy in London. Due to the inappropriate education system teenagers are unable to get appropriate sexual education which also increase the teenage pregnancy in London. As per the review of literature rate of sexual abuse and rape are also increasing which augments the unplanned pregnancy among teenagers. In addition, use of alcohol reduce control over their sexual behavior. Various social and economic factors are also included in the major reasons of teenage pregnancy. Overall, study has successfully discovered all the reasons of the teenage pregnancy in London.

Impacts of teenage pregnancies on education

Findings of literature have reflected that teenage pregnancy affect the health of teen mother in negative manner. As per the research, teen mother have to leave he school studies in mid due to the complications in pregnancy. Due to this reason they cannot continue their whole education which ruined their education life in negative manner which reduces their skills and knowledge. Lack of education also affect their career opportunities and further studies. Similarly, research has also disclosed that, after delivery it was also very difficult for teen mother to continue their studies because of different health issues of child and herself. Low education directly affects the whole life of teen mother. Along with this, findings have reflected that, if teen mother does not leave school during their pregnancy but she cannot continue their school which also decline the overall performance of the teen parents. Due to the lack of education, teen mother cannot provide a better life to their children. Overall, teenager pregnancy negatively affects the overall education of the teenage parents in London.

Adverse effects of teen pregnancy on health of teen mother and child

The findings of the literature review has reflected that the early child bearing in the adolescent age has made the negative impact on the health of teen mother and baby. During the teen pregnancy, the chances of health risk has increased. The major adverse effects of it son health of teen mother and her child are not able to gain adequate weight during pregnancy, low birth weight, childhood disorders, premature birth of child which increase the risk of death of baby in infant stage, decrease red blood of cell in body, anxiety, sleeping disorders, sadness etc. All these things have directly made the impact on the health of the child and teen of mother which is not good for both of them.

Impacts of teenage pregnancy on housing

From the reviews of the numerous literature review, it has been explored that more than 100, 000 children born in London and living the life under the poverty. It has created the barriers in the seeking the good education and healthy life. The factors which are affecting individual life are preterm birth, poor school performance etc. It has promoted the teenage pregnancies and parenting rates very wide which is serious problem for any community. The impact of living under poverty has ineffective child mental and physical development and increased the chances of different kinds of diseases. Therefore, many of the teenage mothers are facing the inadequate housing issues and not able to meet the needs of baby.

Effects of teenage pregnancy on employment

The findings of the various literature resources have defines the diverse effects of teenage pregnancy on employment of adolescent female. The effects are negative because during pregnancy in teen age has drop out the education and it has reduced the changes of doing job. The major employment that has performed by the teenagers in the pregnancy are cashier jobs, food servicing and retail sales. These all kinds of jobs are required the long duration standing work which cannot be performed by teen mother for long time. Another negative impact of teenage pregnancy is facing then state of poverty and it has unable the teen mother to avail the basic necessity things for care and development of baby.

Appropriate actions to resolve the issues of teenage pregnancy in London

As per the studied of different kinds of literature reviews, it has important to adopt the new ways which help in reduced the rate of teenage pregnancy in London. The first and most appropriate method is communication between teenage and their parents. The parents has required to explain the consequences of early child bearing. Another strategy which can be adopted for decreased the number of adolescent pregnancy is developing Teenage Pregnancy Strategy by UK government where the teenage parents can learn how to care of baby and complete the education. By using the different media such as print and electronic campaigning, it can be easy to increase the awareness in the teenagers about the consequences of adolescent pregnancy. Along with this, by providing the education related to Sex and Relationship also assist in changing the behaviour and attitude of the teenagers towards the intercourse relationship in early age. By using contraception and other pregnancy prevention methods help in reducing the rate of teenage pregnancy in early age. Rather than this, the private and public organizations mix efforts can also be bring the reduction in resolving the issues regarding the teenage pregnancy in London. Therefore, it is important to create the more and more awareness in teenagers by the health and social care organizations with the help of health promotion and other supportive actions.

Findings and analysis

Thematic analysis has helped in getting appropriate findings which have helped in attaining all research objective in effective manner. These findings have also played important role in getting appropriate solution of every research question in effective manner. As per the above analysis author has found that major reason reasons of teenage pregnancy in London are peer pressure, lack of parental guidelines, inadequate knowledge, sexual abuse and rape, teenage drinking and social and economic factors. In addition, different themes have also helped in getting appropriate findings for determining impact of teenage pregnancy on education, health, employment and housing. As per the research findings education of the teen parents highly affected by the pregnancy and its complications which have direct negative impacts different aspects of life of teen parents. Furthermore, results of the current investigations have also reflected that Teenage pregnancy is one of the major reasons of different social disadvantages such as it affects education of teen mother and child which may affect the whole children, families and communities.

Including this, research findings has shown that teenage pregnancy has adverse effects on education of teen mother which have direct impact on future career and employment. Poor academic performance reduces their job opportunities and income sources which decline their social and economic position. Due to the low income teenage parents face the problem relevant to the housing. Overall, study has found that teenage pregnancy has negative impact on education, health, employment opportunities and housing facilities of teenage mother and child. In London.
The research findings has shown that the early stage child bearing has made the adverse effects of health of mother and child in negative direction. Due to this, both have faced the various kinds of health issues which can affect the development of baby. The common health problems has incurred with child and his mother are anxiety, sleeping difficulties, sadness, mood swings etc. The early child bearing in teenage has increased the poverty rate where the parents are not able to provide the good health and educational environment to their children. Along with this, the job opportunities in teenage pregnancy has decreased for female because it this condition, the teen mother has required the complete rest. But, she has also unable to complete her education which has also reduced the chances of job opportunities in the future. The overall impact of all these things are negative because the parents have disable to avail the basic necessity things for their child development.

In addition to this, it is more important to reduce the high rate of teenage pregnancy and in this context, some right actions are required to be taken. The UK government has to introduce the different types of policies and procedures for creating the awareness and changing the attitude of the adolescent towards the teenage pregnancy. Another action can be take in terms of health and social care organizations have to organized the pregnancy prevention events for the teenager’s so that they can understand the consequences of early child bearing. By using the contraception and other safer sex things during intercourse, the rate of teenage pregnancies can be reduced in London. Along with this, the most important thing is developing a good communication between the adolescent and parents, the teenagers can be prevent from the facing the adverse effects of early child bearing.

Conclusion

Teenage pregnancy is a serious and social issue that may impact the future of young women in negative manner. The current research report has focused on determination of impacts on teenage pregnancy on different aspects of the future life of teen parents and child. These aspects include education, health, employment and housing. For attaining this aim researcher has formulated different objectives which focuses on the determination of major reasons of teenage pregnancy in London. Along with this, suggesting appropriate ways for reducing associated issues of teenage pregnancy is also considered as major objective of the investigation.

Author has followed a systematic review of literature using appropriate search terms. Along with this, author has also followed suitable tools and techniques of research methodology which helped in finding appropriate results for the whole study. As per the above discussion author has used the secondary data collection methods for obtaining qualitative facts about teenage pregnancy. For examining these data researcher has used appropriate method of data analysis which was thematic analysis. Findings and analysis section has reflected that thematic analysis was most appropriate method for examining qualitative information about the subject. This analysis tool has helped enough to get appropriate finding for the current study.

Review of literature and data analysis has disclosed different reasons behind the high rate of teenage pregnancy which include peer pressure, lack of parental guidelines, inadequate knowledge, sexual abuse and rape, teenage drinking habits and different social and economic factors. Therefore, analysis of the research has successfully disclosed the major reasons behind teenage pregnancy. On the other hand, researcher has found the impact on teenage pregnancy on education of teen parents. According to the current research study author has found that teenage mother cannot continue the schooling and further studies because of the different health issues. So, it adversely affect the education and academic performance of teenage parents.

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From the research, the researcher has found that teenage pregnancy has made the adverse impact on the health of the teen mother and its child. During this phase, she has faced the different kinds of health and mental issues which affect the development of her baby. Along with this, the female teens have also lived the life under the poverty and due to this they are not able to provide the good and healthy life to the child. For reducing the rate of teenage pregnancy, the UK government and the other private as well as public organizations should take the different actions to reduce the rate of teenage pregnancy and create the awareness in the teenagers.

Recommendations

As per the research and on the basis of the findings, the researcher wants to suggest some recommendations to reduce the increased rate of adolescent pregnancy. These suggestions are as follows.

  • The UK government should introduced the Sex and Relationship education in the course of school where the teens can understand the consequences of early age relationship (Amoran, 2012).
  • The health and social care organizations should start the Teen Pregnancy Prevention programs so that some important information regarding the intercourse can be understand by teenage students.
  • The private and public organizations should give the mix supports to create the awareness in the teenagers regarding the early age relationship (Buckingham et al., 2013).
  • The different media campaigning such as print and electronics should be used for promoting the health and consequences of early child bearing.
  • The parents should maintained the good communication with teen children and explain them about the adverse effects of teenage pregnancy (Singh et al., 2012).
  • The schools should introduce the Sex Education as part of the study by which the behaviour and attitude of the adolescent can be changed in right direction.
  • The use of contraceptions should be promoted during intercourse activities to prevent the unplanned teenage pregnancies (Chandra-Mouli et al., 2013).

References

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  • Black, S. E., Devereux, P. J. and Salvanes, K. G. 2013. Under pressure? The effect of peers on outcomes of young adults.Journal of Labor Economics.31(1). pp.119-153.
  • Buckingham, J. L. and et.al, 2013. Family medicine: principles and practice. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Chandra-Mouli, V., Camacho, A. V. and Michaud, P. A. 2013. WHO guidelines on preventing early pregnancy and poor reproductive outcomes among adolescents in developing countries.Journal of Adolescent Health.52(5). pp.517-522.
  • Chin, H. B. and et.al, 2012. The effectiveness of group-based comprehensive risk-reduction and abstinence education interventions to prevent or reduce the risk of adolescent pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus, and sexually transmitted infections: two systematic reviews for the Guide to Community Preventive Services.American journal of preventive medicine. 42(3). pp.272-294.
  • Colina-Coca, C. and et.al, 2014. Effects of hypercholesterolemic diet enriched with onion as functional ingredient on fatty acid metabolism in Wistar rats.Food Research International. 64. pp.546-552.
  • Copping, L. T., Campbell, A. and Muncer, S. 2013. Violence, Teenage Pregnancy, and Life History.Human Nature. 24(2). pp.137-157.
  • Creswell, J. W., 2013.Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.
  • Cutler, D. M. and Lleras-Muney, A. 2012. Education and health: insights from international comparisons. National Bureau of Economic Research.
  • Daniel, S. P. and Sam, G. A., 2011. Research Methodology. Gyan Publishing House.
  • Duflo, E., Dupas, P. and Kremer, M. 2014. Education, HIV, and early fertility: Experimental evidence from Kenya. National Bureau of Economic Research.
  • Fiegen, M. A., 2010. Systematic review of research methods: the case of business instruction. Reference Services Review. 38(3). pp.385–397.
  • Finer, L. B. and Zolna, M. R. 2014. Shifts in intended and unintended pregnancies in the United States, 2001–2008.American Journal of Public Health. 104(S1). pp.S43-S48.
  • Garner, R. and Scott, G. M., 2013.Doing qualitative research: designs, methods, and techniques. Pearson Education.
 

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