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12461 Downloads1 I Published: 01 Apr ,2017
Smoking consists of inhalation and exhalation of fumes through burning tobacco in cigars and cigarettes. In the present scenario, there is increasing trend towards smoking for young people. Among smokers, the percentage of youngsters is high who are habitual to smoke as compared to the other age group (McAloney and et.al., 2014.). It is bad habit which negatively impacts the health of an organization. It is taken as a research issue because smoking is one of the main causes behind increasing percentage of health and lungs diseases. Besides this, smoking causes most of the health diseases.
Aim of the research is to identify the trend of smoking among young people and its impact on human health. Objectives of the research are enumerated below:
Literature review consists of evaluating secondary data sources such as books and journals which provides in depth knowledge to the researcher about the topic. Through this, researcher is able to understand the research topic to the large extent.
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According to the view point of McAloney and et.al. (2014) there is increasing trend of smoking among the young people. Individual who first tie tries cigars or cigarettes become habitual.. This aspect clearly states that smoking consumption is continuously increasing. However, it is to be critically evaluated by the Eastwood and et.al. (2015) that it is not only the the cause behind the increasing trend in the consumption of cigar and cigarettes. They claimed that in the present era, people adopt smoking habit as they consider it as status symbol. It is also the main reason due to which youngsters or adults prefer to smoke to the large extent.
In accordance with the view point of Gall and et.al. (2014) smoking negatively impact the health aspects of adults. Smoking is one of the main causes behind the brain, heart and lung diseases. Cigarette smoking closely affects every organ of the body. It is the main cause behind increasing death ratio every year. As per the view point of Chhaya and et.al. (2015) smoking is also one of the main cause behind the lung cancer which may further lead to death of the individual. However, it is to be critically evaluated by Jha and Peto (2014) that cigarettes smoking is not the the cause behind the lung cancer. Use of alcohol and other products which contains tobacco are the cause of rising health diseases among the youngsters. In addition to this, youngsters who are used to smoke are suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. It is also the main reason behind the increasing percentage of death among the youngsters.
As per the view point of Eastwood and et.al. (2015) by organizing the campaign health units can develop the awareness among the chain smokers in relation to the bad effects of it. Health unit can reduce this habit among the youngsters or adults by communication the diseases and their impact upon the human health. It is contradict by Gall and et.al. (2014) that campaign is not only sufficient in order to eliminate the smoking habit among the adults. There are several reasons due to which adults are addicted to drug related products. For instance: Stress is one of the reason due to which individual take resort of drug related products such as smoking. Thus, individual can convert his bad habit into good by identifying the other ways to cope up with the stress related issues. In addition to this, substitute product is also the way through which smoking habit can be eliminated among the adults.
Research methodology refers to the ways and techniques which researcher will undertake in order to carry out the research in an effective manner (Carson and et.al., 2014).
In order to accomplish the research in the right direction, researcher is required identify the types of the research which they require to undertake. Researcher needs to identify nature of the research because it closely affects data collection methods and its analysis (Kremers and Çakir, 2014). In research, there are mainly two types of research such as qualitative and quantitative. For the present study, researcher will undertake qualitative research in order to assess the impact of smoking upon the health and lung diseases of youngsters.
Research findings and solutions are highly dependent upon data collection methods which are undertaken by the researcher. There are mainly two types of data such as primary and secondary data which researcher can use for identifying the appropriate solution for the problem (Rhodes and et.al., 2014). For the present study, researcher gathers primary data through survey technique. Research will conduct survey by preparing the questionnaire which contains both close and open ended questions. In addition to this, researcher will undertake secondary sources such as books, journals and articles which are published by the government. These sources of data collection will provide assistance to the researcher in assessing impact of smoking upon the health aspects of the young people.
Sample is the part of the population which researcher selects by undertaking various sampling techniques (Letourneau, 2015). For this study, researcher undertakes purposive sampling technique which helps him in fulfilling purpose of the research. For the present study, researcher has selected 30 health and social care practitioners who deals with the health problems which are faced by young people.
Researcher will face difficulty in gathering appropriate information from the secondary sources of data collection. In addition to this, researcher will also face problem in collecting primary data through survey due to the lack of interest of respondents.
Data analysis plan
Analysis of data is must to find out appropriate solution for the problem. For this study, researcher undertakes qualitative research so researcher will undertake thematic perception test in order to assess the impact of smoking upon health aspect of young or adults..
Limitation of the research
To find out the solution of the problem, researcher gathers data only from 30 people. It is one of the main limitations of research study which contains views of limited respondents.
Researcher will also follow the ethical aspects by maintaining confidentiality of the respondents. In addition to this, researcher does not exert any kind of force upon the respondents in order to filling questionnaire.
Time management plan
Researcher also makes schedule contains the activities which researcher needs to undertake in order to accomplish the research study. Beside this, it also includes the duration which clearly states the time which researcher will to complete the research study.
Literature review discusses the findings of the secondary data sources such as books, journals and research paper. It is the text of scholarly paper which develops better understanding among the researcher in relation to the topic of the research. Through this, researcher is able to find out the accurate solution of the problem.
As per the view point of Healey and et.al. (2015) trend towards the cigarette smoking among the adults is continuously increasing. The percentage or ratio of the cigarette smoking is shows growing trend. In the present scenario, there is substantial increase in the smoking related aspects after the age of 18. Further, the person who make use of the cigarette for the first time then they become habitual to make use of it. It is contradict by Volkow, and et.al. 2014 that teenagers accounts for the high percentage in smoking rather than adults. People who are below the age of 18 are highly addicted towards the drug related products. For instance: daily average consumption of teenagers is higher as compared to the level of adults. In accordance with the view point of Gall and et.al. (2014) consumption of the cigarette is continuously increasing. There are several reasons due to which cigarette consumption is accelerate. Adults take resort of drug related products in order to remove their stress. Besides this, status symbol is also the main cause due to which they are high addicted towards the smoking.
John (2014) claimed that in the present scenario men and women accounts for the equal ratio in relation to the smoking. Now a days girls and women assumes the smoking as their status symbol. Besides this, the race of the equality that girls are equal to boys is the cause behind the increasing trend of smoking among the girls. In addition to this, tobacco companies increasingly make use of alternative media and decentralized marketing activities in order to attract the young people. It also causes the increasing trend of the cigarette smoking. However, it is to be critically evaluated by McAloney and et.al. (2014) that advertisement is not responsible for the increasing trend in the cigarette consumption. Companies also make advertisement of smokeless tobacco to attract the adults. Nevertheless, young people does not prefer to make use of smokeless tobacco instead of cigarette smoking. The alcoholic element which are fixed in tobacco compel young people to make use of cigarette. Thus, young people or adults lie for the high percentage in the cigarette smoking.
In accordance with the view point of Eastwood and et.al. (2015) cigarettes smoking is injurious for the health. It negatively impacts the health of the adults and other person who smoke. There are several short term consequences are arises when young people smoke such as respiratory and non-respiratory effects. However, it is to be critically evaluated by Gall and et.al. (2014) that not only short terms consequences are arises when people smoke. Long term consequences are also arises when people regularly smoke. Cigarette smoker have to face lung diseases when they are habitual to smoke. According to the view point of Chhaya and et.al. (2015) cigarette smoking is also the cause of heart diseases and stroke. Heart and lung disease are the main issue which may turn into the death of the adults. In addition to this, lung diseases are also the cause of cancer which negatively impact the body and health of the adult.
Jha and Peto (2014) claimed that smoking closely affects the physical fitness and enthusiasm of the individual. It closely impacts the performance and endurance of the young people. In addition to this, people who smoke one pack or more than of it then there is the less chances that they will alive for the more than seven years. Further, smoking also creates many kind of diseases among the young people. Due to this, young people are not able to perform their work with the high level of efficiency and effectiveness. According to the view point of Eastwood and et.al. (2015) heart rates of young adult smokers run faster to two-three minutes faster than the non-smokers. It indicates that heart of the young adult is closely impacted by smoking habit of them. This statement is contradict by Gall and et.al. (2014) that smoking habit causes the lung diseases or cancer instead of heart diseases. People who are habitual to smoke in their early age then they are suffered from the lung cancer. It is continuously rising if people continuously smoke.
According to the view point of Healey and et.al. (2015) young people who are used to smoke then there is more chances that they are suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking is yje main cause of disease due to which adult face difficulty in breathing. It causes the long term disability among the individual which may turn into death. Authors claimed that 80% chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are arises due to cigarette smoking. As per the view point of Volkow and et.al. (2014) smoking closely impacts the each organ of the body. In addition to this, smoking is also the main cause of blockages in arteries which states that there is less oxygen and blood flow to the heart. However, it is to critically evaluated by Gall and et.al. (2014) that cigarette smoking is not the main cause of heart disease. For instance: when cigarette consumption reduced in US market then heart disease is still on the one number one position in relation to the cause of death in US market.
John (2014) claimed that smoking also affects the breathing aspects of the young people. Usually adults who smoke are suffered from the attack of asthma and there by face difficulty in breathing in the proper manner. Further, in the present scenario women are highly involved in smoking. Women who smoke faces difficulty in their pregnancy related aspects. In this stage, cigarette smoking proves to disastrous for both the lady and for her child. Besides this, smoking during the pregnancy may also the cause of born of per-mature baby or child with the lower weight. In accordance with the view point of Healey and et.al. (2015) cigarette smoking increases the chance of diabetes among the young people rather than non-smokers. However, it is to critically evaluated by Eastwood and et.al. (2015) that diabetes are not highly interrelated with the smoking aspects. It occurs due to lack or changes in the the elements which may cause of diabetes.
According to the view point of Chhaya and et.al. (2015) cigarette smoking places high level of impact upon the eyes of the adults. They faces problem of vision loss as well as age related macular degeneration. Thus, all these aspects clearly states that cigarette smoking places bad impact upon the human health.
The trend of smoking has been increasing among young people chiefly because of peer pressure and smoking typically gives pleasure to the smokers. Most of the people start smoking especially in teenage and they get addicted by the time they reach towards the stage of adulthood. The chief reason behind smoking is that people want to relieve stress and smoking gives them the pleasure of forgetting about the pain and stress (McAloney and et.al., 2014). Youngsters are getting more concerned about their status and this is the reason they get towards smoking and alcoholism. As per youngsters viewpoints, they want to look more mature; hence they conduct their experiments to get fun in life. At the same time, young people prefer to smoke due to peer pressure which encourages them to smoke even twice in a day (Eastwood and et.al., 2015). Due to lot of stress and pressure of economic and personal problems, youngsters get into smoking and this impacts their overall health. It is estimated that each year around 207,000 children in UK start smoking and among adult smokers, about two thirds report say that after the age of 18 years, 68% youngsters prefer to smoke. Hence, it can be said that teenagers smoke because they think it is cool and their friends like it as a regular habit.
Youngsters seems to be very much convincing for each other especially when it comes to smoke and this may be particularly true when the entire friend circle and company consists of all smokers. When youngsters see other teen smoking, they change their mindset and as a result, they get motivation from them; hence they are also start smoking. There are several people as well who smoke regularly even after knowing the negative impacts. Passive smoking is another factor that encourages people to get into smoking because smoking entices them towards smoking and other aspects (Gall and et.al., 2014). Smoking includes many hazardous elements and it affects the overall health aspects of human body. One of the chief reasons for increasing smoking is addiction as people are unable to come out of smoking because addiction restrict them to quit that.
Most of the cases are also there where in some youngsters try to quit smoking but due to addiction and peer pressure, they are unable to do so. People live busy life and due to this busy schedule, they face more issues related to stress; thus as a result, they get into smoking more (Chhaya and et.al., 2015). Health related issues have been increasing among youngsters and most of them are related to smoking and alcoholism; thus people need to get aware about the same issues so that they can quit smoking as soon as possible. From the discussion, it is clear that smoking kills many parts of human body; thus people should pay huge concern towards such aspects. The issues related to smoking has been accelerating and this further increases the ratio of mortality. Current smoking ratio is increasing among youngsters; hence family members need to be more concerned about the habits of their children.
Research methodology refers to the tools and techniques which helps researcher in finding the appropriate solution of the problem within the suitable time frame (Carson and et.al., 2014). Research methodology entails the type of investigation which researcher undertakes. In addition to this, it also depicts the methods which researcher undertakes to collect the data. It facilitates the accomplishment of the research in an effective manner.
There are specifically two types of research such as qualitative and quantitative research. In order to assess the impact of the smoking habit upon the health of the youngsters researcher undertakes qualitative research. In this study, researcher places more emphasis upon the smoking habit of the young people and its impact upon the human health. Thus, it is qualitative aspect therefore researcher undertakes qualitative research.
Sample may be defined as a subset which are selected by the researcher from the population by undertaking the suitable sampling procedure and method (Schmidt, 2015). There are various sampling technique such as stratified, random, purposive sampling method etc. Researcher undertakes the purposive sampling method to select the suitable sample for the study. In purposive sampling, researcher selects sample on the basis of their understanding in relation to the respondent which are suitable for the research study. For the present study researcher selects
30 health and social practitioners who deals with the health disease and problems of the young people. Through this, researcher is able to fulfill the purpose of the research by identifying the accurate solution of the problem.
Accuracy and appropriateness of the solution is highly dependent upon the kind of data which are gathered by the researcher. There are mainly two types of data which researcher can collect for their research study. Primary data are those which are collected by the researcher for the first time as by taking into consideration the problem of the research (Rhodes and et.al., 2014). Whereas data which are collected by the another researcher for their own research are known as secondary data. In order to assess the impact of smoking upon the body or human health researcher undertakes methods of primary data collection. Researcher collects the primary data through survey technique with the help of the questionnaire. Through this, researcher is able to take the real or practical views of the respondents. Along with the primary data sources researcher also undertakes secondary data sources such as books, journals, research paper and article published by the government authority. Theses data sources also helps researcher in finding the appropriate solution of the research problem.
Researcher also requires to undertake all the ethical aspects and consideration in their research study. Researcher follows all the ethical aspects by maintaining the confidentiality of respondents. It is one of the main aspect due to which respondents are hesitate to fill the questionnaire. Researcher can encourage the respondents to fill the questionnaire by assuring them that their identify would not be disclosed in front of the another person. Along with it, researcher does not force to the respondent to fill the questionnaire.
On the basis of the above mentioned results it has been assessed that 20 people smoke to reduce the level of their stress. Health and social care practitioner’s states that stress is one of the main cause due to this large number of adults take resort of cigarette smoking. Whereas 20 practitioners claimed that status symbol is one of the reason due to which adults or young people prefers to smoke. In the present era, young people assume that smoking represents high living standard. Is is also the main cause behind the preference of people to smoke. As per the above mentioned figures stress and status symbol account for the same percentage. Thus, it has been identified that stress and status symbol is one of the main reason due to which young people smoke. In contrary to this, 10 practitioners claimed that people who are addictive to make use of drugs are attracted to smoke. Addiction towards the drugs is also reason due to which people prefers to smoke. Thus, stress and status symbol is the main aspect due to which young people prefer to smoke.
According to the result of the survey it has been identified that cigarette smoking adversely impacts the lungs. 30 practitioners stated that lungs are highly affected when individual smoke. Inhalation of fumes closely affects the lung of the adult which may cause of blockage in arteries. It is the main reason which develop lung cancer in the human body and may cause of the early death. Cough is also the cause due to which adults are suffered from lung diseases. In contrary to this, 15 health and social care practitioner presented that cigarette smoking closely impacts the heart of adults. Young people who regularly smoke faces difficulty in breathing. Besides this, smoking also affects the blood circulation among the adults. Where as 5 practitioner presents their view that brain is highly impact when individual smoke. On the basis of this aspect it can be states that lung is the main element of the body which is highly impacted when adult smoke.
According to the above mentioned figures it has been analyzed that 35 practitioners’ presents that smoking is the main cause of cancer. As smoking consists of the inhalation of the fumes. Thus, it highly impact the throat and there by lungs of the young people. Smoking is highly associated with the throat of young people. Thus, smoking is the main reason behind the increase in the lung diseases. Practitioner are the one who deals with the problems of the patients. Thus, they stated that cigarette smoking is the cause of lung cancer. In contrary to this, 5 practitioner claimed that smoking is not the cause of cancer. There are also the the toxic elements which may cause of the cancer. Nevertheless, large number of respondents claimed that smoking is the main cause of cancer.
The above figure clearly represents that cigarette smoking closely impacts the other members of the society. On the basis of the result of survey 35 practitioner claimed that adult who smoke also affects the other members of the society. Individual who smoke also affects the other people who sit near to them. Whereas 15 practitioner states that cigarette smoking does not have high impact upon the other member of the society.
Smoking hampers health of people even if they do not inhale it; still it is dangerous for human health. In such context, 45 practitioners said that smoking hampers human body even if they do not inhale it because passive smoking is more hazardous than to active smoking. They said that the overall impacts of smoking can be seen on different parts of human body. Thus, remaining 5 said that smoking is not dangerous if it is not inhaled. Hence, it is evident that smoking is dangerous for active and passive both the smokers.
Smoking can kill the person because it includes toxic elements that harm overall human health. Hence, in such context, 10 practitioners said that there are 40-60% chances where in the patients can die if they smoke more. However, on the other hand, 20 practitioners said that there are 60-75% probabilities of death if degree of smoking enhances. Remaining 20 said that 75-90% smokers can die in early stage. Thus, from the entire discussion, it is evident that smoking is hazardous for health; hence proper promotion is required so that people can quit smoking and they can also eradicate the activity from their habitual list.
On the basis of above discussion, it is clear that youngsters smoke more because of many reasons and this smoking affects their overall health aspects. School and college going students prefer to smoke more so as to get more relaxation from the daily activities. The impacts of smoking can be chiefly seen on lungs and liver and as a result it causes throat and lung cancer. Cigarette smoking is considered as beneficial among youngsters because they get internal satisfaction after smoking. This further encourages them to take drugs as well and as a result, they get addicted towards all these aspects. On the basis of above findings, it can be said that social values and beliefs have been impacting the mindset of people and as a result, they get engaged into smoking habits. In terms of conclusion, it can be said that smoking related issues needs to be reduced so that to promote healthy society. Health standards in the society needs to be improved; thus the practitioners are required to organize numerous campaigns for making the people about these consequences. To consider social values and beliefs, the degree of smoking needs to be reduced for the overall safety of the society.
Concluding, it can be articulated that people who smoke more faces more issues related to brain and lung cancer and this also impacts the quality of life. Teenagers are getting addicted towards smoking and due to status symbol, they encourage others as well to do the same. The, chances to quit smoking can be reduced if people aware themselves about the negative impacts of smoking. Similarly, it has also been evaluated that youngsters who live away from their family gets addicted towards smoking because no one remains with them to look after their activities. Peer pressure is increasing among the youngsters and this is the reason they get more addicted towards smoking and alcoholism. Hence, as per the negative impacts of smoking, it is clear that smoking is highly hazardous activity for people; therefore they need to quit that as early as possible. In such context, it is essential for the family members to take care of the activities of their children so that they may not get involved in all such activities. Health related provisions needs to be promoted more in the society so that people can aware others as well regarding the effects of smoking.
It is also suggested to the parents to guide their children properly so that they can comprehend the negative impacts of smoking. There should be certain provision related to cigarette smoking and according to that specifications, smoking related issues can be minimized. To reduce the impacts of smoking, it is essential for the health care practitioners to organize several events and promotional campaigns so that smoking related habits can be minimized. Tobacco consumption is another aspect for smoking and that highly drives people to get into smoking. Hence, it is vital for the people to reduce the habit of smoking because that gives long term impacts to human health. Health care practitioners must have to conduct counseling session so that motive behind smoking can be identified. Proper counseling is another medium through which people can be properly guided towards negative impacts of smoking. Several changes are also required in health standards where in people's activities should be changed regarding smoking and alcoholism. The parents must develop adequate environment at home so that youngsters can properly discuss their issues prevailing in their life.
Parents also have to make sure that they are treating their children properly and they are not smoking in front of their children. Apart from these suggestion, it is also vital for the care practitioners to organize physical exercise sessions including meditation and yoga so that stress can be managed. People can get away from smoking if they are able to manage their life without stress and problems. Hence, it is suggested to the youngsters to use several substitutes so that gradually they can reduce the habit of smoking. At the same time, electronic smoking can also be adopted at the initial stage because addiction can not be removed from the habitual aspects. Thus, these particular alternatives can be adopted so that at least youngsters can try to reduce smoking.
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