This assessment will provide certain questions which are like:
- What are the geographical areas and the socio-economic conditions on tourism and their destinations.
- What are the impact for tourism on society and also on the natural world.
The term heritage and tourism plays a significant role in every country's economic growth and development. Hoverer, these two are interconnected with each other yet each of them has its own roles and features which makes them differ from each other. The concept heritage is defined as a peculiar or specific feature of any particular region and place which makes those geographical location more attractive and demanding among population. Some of the example are building of historic, architectural monuments, divers culture and so on. On the other hand, the aspect of tourism refers to an activity or process of an individuals to travel and staying in different places with an aim of recreation, relaxation, pleasure while utilising the commercial provisions of services (Biehl, and et. al., 2015). However, managing a proper balance between heritage and tourism help nation to protect the environment, generate vibrant communities and also can attain sustaining local economies in an effective manner. Hence, this report is categorised into two section i.e. essay and report format. In essay section, it comprise the information related to the role of museums and cultural attraction for tourism. Moreover, in second section, it involve heritage interpretation as a part of tourism experience for the growth of nation economy in an improved way.
ASSESSMENT – 1 : Essay
Role of museums and cultural attractions for tourism
The word museum is defined as institution which cares or conserves towards a collection of different artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, cultural or scientific importance with an aim of enriching living standard of particular community. Howver, the terem museeum has classical origin as it has been transformed from mouseion ( greek word – that means seat of the Muses ) to museum (Latin translation). Apart from this, the aspect of museum has very long and effective history going back to 3rd century B.C. When the first well known museum was established in the University of Alexandria in Egypt. However, as the time passes museum culture has increased at rapid rate which in result that in today it has become uncommon fact to find in any country which does not have museum irrespective of size (Dragouni, M. and Fouseki, K., 2018
Dormaels, 2016). Due to this, it has been signified that the concept of museum become a global aspect which help 20thg century to sustain and survive in an aggressive or competitive manner. Along with this, as the competition rises, it directly impact over the role of museum in order to gain competitive advantage in an innovative or creative style.
To begin with, the traditional role of museum was fully supported or grounded on the purpose of rendering education and enjoyment to community or society. Along with this, in order to achieve the same, museum used to gather different objects, materials related to cultural, religious and historical importance. Moreover, they preserve the same and take an initiative to research deeper so that they can present them it to public with an intent of educating as well as providing pleasure in an impressive or attractive way. Furthermore, the early museums were viewed as elitist or imperious, uninspiring and aloof or reserved in nature. This is because, they only used to encourage or promote educated personnel to visit certain museum for refreshing their mindset and also ton acquire relevant information about histories (Nagaoka, 2015). Due to such practices, general public were excluded and it directly influence its demand among population. However, in order to overcome such issues or challenges within museum was carried out by current role of museums. Furthermore, modern museums are wholly focussed or centred to create awarenesses among people in terms of conserve and protect the valuable assets as well as cultural heritage across the globe in an attractive or creative manner. Therefore, by considering these various roles museum are considered as one of the important factor for enhancing the productivity or demand of heritage and tourism within country.
Additionally, In tourism industry, cultural heritage is considered as one of the key factor as it impose great influence over economic development of UK. At the same time, museum plays a huge role in the field of arts, leisure and tourism. However, museums are defined as a non-profit making and permanent institutions which are established or developed with the interest of public in order to invite all potential visitors, foster in depth understanding, promote enjoyment and sharing relevant or authentic cultural and natural heritage. However, museum contains various roles such as acquiring, research, preserving, interpreting and exhibiting the tangible as well as intangible evidence or information of society and nature to community (Chami, 2018). Apart from this, museum promotes tourism and its role in tourism and national growth cannot be overemphasized as museum and its collections are and still remain a sense of systematic or organised tourism and sustainable development. IN addition to this, cultural tourism is termed as a subset of tourism in which it mainly emphasise over travelling in regions, culture or country. Moreover, it also contribute to know how a person in a particular geographical regions survives , their art, history, religions and architecture. Furthermore, it is very essential to prevent cultural attraction and museums for maintaining the brand image of museum from generation to generations in an effective manner. The primal reason behind protecting museums is that it help a specified country to manage its tourism sector in a sustainable nature and also lead them to enrich its economic state in an attractive mode (Cannas, R., 2016).
Furthermore, there are various kinds of heritage tourisms such as literally tourism which facilitates travelling or information about writer's birthplace whereas legacy tourism that centring over ancestors histories who put their best contribution with an intent of changing country and their arts are also kept in museums for giving relevant mysteries about past experiences. Finally, the third type of heritage tourism are industrial tourism which involves those industrials sites that are unused due to the effect of severe disaster or misshapen within or among nations. Hence, as per recent studies and research, it has signified that the role of museums plays a significant in UK tourism as they are able to capture the attention of wide or millions range of visitors from international and domestic towards the country (Xie, 2015). Moreover, one of the significant aspect which enrich the brand value of UK tourism among competitors is that they displays the best nation's history and also culture. Along with this, UK tourism captivate or capture possible visitors through objects which give history or data about world and also deliver a sense of place in an effective way. Some of the statistical explanation has been discussed below:
- UK tourism is viewed as the fifth largest sector within the world. This is because, as per the research, it has been evaluated that UK is attracting enormous range of travellers or visitors across the overseas i.e. around 32 million each and every year.
- In the year of 2007, UK tourism was ascertained as £114 billion that help nation to generate 2.65 million jobs among community and also empower them to improve its GDP ratio by 8.2% in efficient mode.
- Moreover, in 2009, the contribution of UK tourism was worth of £115.4 billion and GDP rate was increased by 8.9%. Along with this, it directly or indirectly influenced job opportunity in every twelve personnel that enrich the living standard of community or society in an attractive or impressive manner.
- However, with such development inside tourism in UK enable them to enhance the economy growth and also lead them to place their brand in an aggressive or competitive position among competitors in this competitive industry without nay hindrances.
Therefore, in order to maintain or sustain this brand value within competing marketplace for longer period of time, it is a responsibility of county to make an effort to evaluate the market trend or demand. Due to this, it help them to investigate or understand the public taste or preference and also motive them to take corrective course of action in order to gain competitive advantage among competitors in an trenchant and prompt mode (Veldpaus, 2014). In addition to this, as we are approaching towards millennium customers or visitors, therefore existing museums should adopt effective leadership for promoting the heritage of nation in an effective way. This is because, it enable them to maintain a proper balance between museum and cultural attraction in an improved manner without nay complications.
ASSESSMENT – 2 : Report
Heritage interpretation as part of the tourism experience
Heritage interpretation is regarded as a systematic process or procedure of communication which is designed to render or reveal the meaning or relationships of cultural and natural heritage with the involvement of different objects, artefacts, landscapes and sites. IN other words, it is also termed as an organised approach to non- formal learning specialised in communicating relevant or significant ideas or views about place to people on leisure. However, effective or clear interaction help potential visitors to obtain or acquire relevant information regarding certain history or monuments without any obstacles (Fernandez, 2015). Moreover, transparent communication enable each individual to overcome the issues of misconception, misunderstanding, confusion or ambiguities and many more in an impressive manner. IN addition to this, heritage interpretation also relate to those aspect in which it highlights the developing a positive link between visitors as well as what they can adopt from various heritage sites like nature reserve, historic site and a museum. Additionally, heritage interpretation plays a vital role in the enrichment of country's economy as it empower them to impose positive response among visitors, enhance values, help them to sustain beliefs or cultures and many more. Thus, it is viewed as a part or element of tourism experience as it motivate traveller to visit those places again and it enlarge the economic condition in an impressive or competent manner. Hence, in context of this report, it comprises a group of student visit to British Museum, Tate Modern, and Science Museum. However, during their travelling they experienced different kinds of heritage interpretation that help them to obtain enormous knowledge or information about these pilgrimages in a better mode. Each of these location has its own unique features or function that captured the attention of visitors in attractive manner. In addition to this, they have come across with various forms of interaction for each heritage sites which is explained below in detail:
Human based approach: This formulation is relate with those aspect in which the interpretation of particular or specific monuments or artefacts are carried out with the help of human being. As, they provide accurate information as well as render proper guidance or direction to travellers in regard of reaching to each destination and obtaining certain information about those sites in an amended way. However, a couple of pupils were decided to visit Science Museum as it is considered as one of the major tourist attraction place as they are capable of capturing the attention of 3 million visitors on annual basis. It is commenced in the year of 1857 and located at Exhibition Road, London (Poulios, 2014). Along with this, Science Museum render enormous services such as library, café, IMAX 3D theatre and Wellcome Wing and many more and each of them are properly arranged and organised in order to give improved level of satisfaction. Hence, throughout the visit to Science Museum was governed or managed through human based approach who was explaining about various arts or cultures to students in an understandable manner. Additionally, the entry or admission fees was free to students rather they arrange for some donation collection that they provide to poor people of community or society in context to enriching each individual living standard in an attractive mode. With the help of human based interaction or approach pupil was able to clarify their enquiries or doubts in an effective manner as each of them were having face to face conversation with guide. Apart from this, as per the student’s experience, it has been evaluated that human based approach was less time consuming method. This is because, there was no delay from the side of guide in rendering information to pupils related to various artefacts of Science Museum (Viljoen and Henama, 2017). Along with this, this heritage interpretation approach enable students to bring high level of collaboration and cooperation among team members and also empower each pupils to interact with each other by sharing their own views or ideas about particular art or objects. However, being a productive approach also faced difficulty of managing entire group of students in an amended manner because lots of visitors visit Science museum a day. Therefore, proper coordination between team leaders and guide help students to overcome such complexities in upcoming visit in an improved or amended mode without nay hindrances.
Technical based approach: In this component, it is link with those aspect in which heritage communication take place by the utilisation of advanced or digital technology. Hence, these innovative tools explore the knowledge or information of each travellers and also assist them to obtain increased level of satisfaction or motivation in an efficacious way. Hence, during the students visit to British Museum, they gone through this approach i.e. technology based approach (Rico, 2016). Along with this, British Museum is founded in the year of 1753 and it located in Greet Russell Street, London. It is a public institution which is established with an aim of giving human history, art and culture that summarises the whole picture of UK growth and development from ages to ages. Moreover, British Museum facilitate the privilege of audio guide in which each visitors can obtain relevant information and also can choose their own languages that provide them improved level of satisfaction and encouragement. However, during of pupils visit to British Museum, each of them were provided with audio guide which aid them to know about each objects which was kept inside the museum. Moreover, before providing audio guide, at the entrance of museum, guide gave a piece of personal identification to pupils. In this process, staff took a digital copy of student’s identification which was prevented or secured by password encryption and it was get deleted automatically once pupils were return to guide. On the other hand, if any personnel forgets to return back the audio guide, museum uses that individuals’ personal data in order to investigate the missing property. Along with this, British Museum also gave students a service of gallery introduction in which more than 60 galleries were downloaded in the phone or mobile devices, laptops and other electronic gadgets. However, in this audio tracks information was recorded by British Museum curators which made students visit more useful and productive. Moreover, this innovative technology render information through different forms such as audio, video, text and images. With the implication of such tool by British Museum assist every travellers to obtain accurate or reliable information in an impressive manner. This is because, there was less possibility of arising confusions, ambiguities, misunderstanding as audio guide was played a significant in directing or guiding pupils footsteps in a proper way. However, it can be signified that technology based approach was effective and efficient in nature in terms of heritage interpretation of British Museum for students visit.
Hybrid approach: This approach is regarded as a combination of human and technology with a purpose of giving high level of satisfaction and motivation to arriving customers or travellers in an impressive way (Svels, 2015). Hence, this kind of method has been utilised during the visit of students to Tate Modern recently. Moreover, Tate Modern is a modern art gallery in London as it is established n the year of 2000. Additionally, Tate Modern is also known as Britain national gallery which encompasses international modern art and contemporary art. Moreover, like other museums, Tate Modern also did not charged any kind of entry fees but it is collected on major temporary exhibition (Hasbollah, 2015). However, Tate Modern make use of hybrid approach to create its heritage interpretation more productive and useful. Hence, as per the pupils review, they shared that in Tate Modern after the entrance, its guide displays a video on LED in which students obtained relevant information about every gallery or services in a better way. After the face to face interpretation, every students were acquired with digital audio guide that enable them to learn or observe different objects in a Tate Modern. Hence, with adoption of such approach of heritage interpretation aid Tate Modern to acquire improved level of satisfaction from students and also lead each students to maintain or manage their team properly or organised way.
Henceforth, the above explained approaches of heritage interpretation contains a crucial role in the growth or development of tourism industry. However, each of these approached were independent in nature in regard of implementing innovative tools or techniques that assist them to capture the attention of large number of travellers towards each heritage sites. Therefore, among three, hybrid approach has be viewed as more suitable approach for various heritage interpretation because it takes into consideration of both groups i.e. human and technology basis. Furthermore, it motive every travellers to acquire valuable or relevant information about particular heritage that directly impact on country’s economic states and also an enrichment of standard of living of community or society.
It has been summarised from the above explained report that in this present time of global changes, culture is regarded as one of the important pillar of sustainability, intercultural understanding over nation's economy enhancement. However, cultural heritage and its knowledge is regarded as one of the main element that drive country towards enriching its socio- economic and cultural development. Moreover, management which is supported on territorial planning and policies enable nation to enlarge its overall market share or size in an impressive manner. In addition to this, maintenance of museum help specified heritage and tourism to improve the living standard of community or society in an improved and amended way.
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Dragouni, M. and Fouseki, K., 2018. Drivers of community participation in heritage tourism planning: an empirical investigation. Journal of Heritage Tourism. 13(3). pp.237-256.
Dormaels, M., 2016. Participatory management of an urban world heritage site: The Table de Concertation du Vieux-Québec. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development. 6(1). pp.14-33.
Nagaoka, M., 2015. Buffering Borobudur for socio-economic development: an approach away from European values-based heritage management. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development. 5(2). pp.130-150.
Chami, M. F., 2018. Community Involvement and Sustainable Tourism Development in Heritage Management: Amboni Limestone Caves, Tanzania. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism, and Leisure. 7(2). pp.1-13.
Cannas, R., 2016. The Sustainable Tourism Management of Cultural Heritage: the Case of the Rosas Mine in Sardinia. Almatourism-Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development. 7(14). pp.38-59.