Introduction to Public Health
The major role of any government of the country is to maintain public health. This study is designed to provide broad knowledge regarding different approaches and strategies used by the UK government and NHS to determine, control and monitor the frequency of disease in society. There are ranges of diseases which can be deadly for the society such as HIV and breast cancer. Government requires controlling these diseases effectively. The current report provides knowledge regarding implications of illness in the public for to provide of health and social care services. Through this study, learner will understand and get knowledge regarding factors which can manipulate health and wellbeing of people living in London.
Approaches And Strategies Used To Measure, Monitor And Control The Incidence Of Disease In Communities
There are various organizations working in the world such as planet fitness organization (WHO), Department of Health (DH) and other local system which play very significant role in identifying levels of health and diseases in the population. Role of these institutions can be explained as follows.
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Role of WHO: World health organization is the top authority for health within the United Nation system which directing and coordinating the nation health. It is an accountable institute to offer guidance on worldwide health matters, shaping the health research agenda, policy making, setting norms and standards, providing technical support to all countries and assessing and monitoring health trends. It plays key job in setting rules and standards and promoting and monitoring their execution. This organization provides statistical data of world regarding health trends. Following chart represents 10 leading causes of death (Ahgren, 2010).
Role of DH: It is the government department of the UK which helps public to live better for longer. It leads and shapes the health and care sector of UK. It provides funds to the society for health services. DH is a ministerial section which is maintained by 23 agencies and public organization. It is accountable for developing nationwide policies and legislation, providing the long term idea and aim to meet current and future challenges of health and care services. It plays a very crucial role in modernism and development by supporting research and technology to promote the health services within society.
Role of Local authorities: The health and social Act 2012 is a very critical step of UK government towards the establishment of a new community health system. It gives responsibility for health defense to the secretary of state and health enhancement to upper tier and unitary local authorities. The secretary of state can hand over some health guard operations to local authorities. This new Act of the UK government plays a very significant role in management and control of health care activities of the nation (Betts, 2013). It includes data on public health funding such as how local authorities have been spending their funds and on accountability arrangements.
Epidemiology of HIV in the UK: HIV is the short form of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It attacks the immune system of human body. Generally the immune system produces white blood cells which protect the body from viruses and bacteria. HIV is the virus which decreases these white blood cells and also decreases antibodies from human body. It is the cause of AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome). Around 94,400 individuals were livelihood with HIV in the UK at the end of Year 2012, from which 22 % are not conscious of their illness. There were 6,360 new diagnoses of HIV in year 2012 which are contributing to a cumulative total of 128,805 cases reported by the end of 2012. In 2012, 27798 cases of AIDS were reported and 21,117 people living with HIV have died. The above chart shows the trends in UK HIV and AIDS and death in various years (Boorman, 2010).
Epidemiology of breast cancer in the UK: Breast cancer forms in the cells of the breasts. It is the most ordinary cancer diagnosed in women in the UK. It occurs in women as well as in men but it is far more common in women. It is rare in men. In year 2011, there were 50,285 new cases of breast cancer in the UK, 99% in women and 1% in men. It represents that there are 155 new breast cancer cases for every 100000 females in the UK. Following table represents breast cancer diagnoses by gender.
The major objective of NHS is to get better the health results for people in England. It believes in innovative approach. NHS supports and empowers clinical leaders at every level of the NHS through clinical commissioning groups (CCGs), networks and senates, in NHS England itself and in providers. It will help the public sector hospitals and other institutes for making genuinely financial decision, spend the taxpayer's money cleverly and provide high quality services. Following figure shows the health and care system of NHS (Dawson and Silva, 2009).
Investigate The Implications Of Illness And Disease In Communities For The Provision Of Health And Social Care Services
Department of health (DH) is the government agency of the UK which helps people to live a longer and healthy life. It is responsible for providing better services to the public. The major work of the DH is health policy making, controlling all hospitals of UK etc. Followings are the present major precedence of UK for prevention and manage of diseases and risk factors.
- Avoiding public from dying prematurely by improving mortality rates for the big killer diseases such as HIV and breast cancer. They improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment.
- UK government is concerned about improving the standard of care throughout the system so that quality of care is considered as important task. They provide better training, tougher inspections and more attention paid to what patients say.
- They want to improve treatment and care of people with dementia, to be among the best in Europe through better research, early diagnosis and better support.
- Government desires to bring new technology to NHS to help people, especially those who have deadly diseases.
There are the major strategies or policies developed by the UK for prevention and control of HIV and breast cancer. These include giving all children a healthy start in life, reducing drugs misuse and dependence, helping more people to survive cancer. From 1 October 2015, UK government will start public health services for babies and children up to 5 year old. These services include the family nurse partnership program and health visiting. It will increase the awareness regarding HIV and breast cancer at first or starting level. To control the drugs misuse and dependence, they have developed policy to control and manage it effectively. To reduce cancer, they have created special cancer policy for the people of the country (Great Britain, 2012).
Breast cancer is the most common and dangerous disease in the UK. Every year, about 48000 women get breast cancer in Britain. This disease has lifetime risk which means a new born child can be suffered from this disease during their life. In Europe, highest rates for breast cancer are in Belgium and lowest in Bosnia Herzegovina. UK breast cancer incidence rates are estimated to be the 6th highest in Europe which is very dangerous for the people of country. This disease is growing with very high rate which is not good for e women as well as other gender groups of the nation.
This disease can be very dangerous in near future for the community. UK government should make some strategies to reduce this kind of disease at the starting level. They can make policies for child to find out this cancer at the first stage. People, especially women need best health care services to support them. Government agencies and NHS should adopt and develop new and innovative services to reduce current level of breast cancer cases. At this stage if government does not take any action, it will be very deadly for the future of the nation as well as individuals. People who are suffering from this disease need special health services because it will reduce the rate of growth of this disease which is very high currently (Heginbotham, 2012).
Different life styles can have influence health of human. Regular exercise, eating a healthy food, not drinking too much alcohol and not smoking can help individual stay well and enjoy a long life. Various researches have represented that the longer settlers live in the UK, higher are the rates of high heart diseases, diabetes and blood pressure. The major reason behind occurrence of these kinds of diseases is smoking, drugs, drinking, high calorie, low nutrient diets and sedentary lifestyles etc. In present era, people of the UK are depending on fast food restaurants which are providing easy access to poor food choices. It is very clear that individual which has poor lifestyle choices have chronic diseases and hence healthcare cost for them will be increased.
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Smoking is the most common and easiest example of how our habits can affect our genes. The carcinogens in cigarette smoke directly affect the molecules in our bodies and it is the main cause of cancer. It will increase cost of the health services for human. Choice regarding foods also affects the health of the people. A person who eats raw fruits and vegetables has lower risk of diseases. But in the UK, life of the individuals is very busy and they depend on the restaurants and hotels for food. In this condition, they spend more money on their health and care services (Manthorpe and et.al. 2009).
Today's young generation takes drugs and drinks alcohols which affect their health negatively. There are various people who are health conscious and hence they regularly exercise. This kind of activity will reduce risk of the diseases as well as reduce the need of the health and social care services. If person and society are not aware about their health, they cannot reduce the expenditures on hospital services. In the current busy life of UK, they cannot take fresh food of their home and they depend on the fast food joints and hotel which will change their need of the health and social care services because these kind of food will increase calories in human body which will also increase various diseases.
Understand The Factors Influencing Health And Well being Of People Living In London
Following are the major health and wellbeing priorities for people