Introduction To City Marketing
City marketing is regarded as the branding or promotion of a city with the intention to encourage definite activities. It is majorly used to modify the external insight of a city or place for the purpose of encourage tourism; draw the attention of immigrants etc. (Chon, Nykeil and Jascolt, 2012). The most important feature of this type of marketing is to develop new landmark or infrastructure. It is not merely destination marketing but much more than that. It highlights how a city functions modifies as per the external or socio-cultural pressure and form new forms of governance. It is very much obvious that cities take over number of attempts such as organizing numerous sports events such as Olympics; Fifa world cup etc. for enhancing such type of marketing. With the effect of the globalization, rivalry among cities now exists at regional, national as well as international level (Pullan, Bhasi and Madhu, 2011).
In the present research report comparative analysis of city marketing history and issues of Paris and Las Vegas is going to be discussed. Both theses cities are located in different countries of the world has diverse culture and heritage with different target visitors and guests. Along with this, it will lay emphasis on the tourism development and marketing of each city with the help of apt analysis and comparison. In addition to this, it will state their strengths and reasons for their similarities and differences.
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Detailed understanding of tourism development and marketing of Paris and Las Vegas
Paris is the most populous city of France and today one of the world’s leading business and cultural centres as well as tourist destination. The city has number of museums, theatres, monuments as well as architectural styles. It is an international centre of fashion and has been considered as “International Capital of Style” (Martínez-Ruiz, Martínez-Caraballo and Amatulli, 2010). The major reason behind development of tourism in Paris is due to its historical aspect as world’s most historical painters and their art galleries can be easily found here which acts as major attractors of painters across the globe. In the year 2008, the tourism in Paris decreased significantly due to the global economic crisis. In addition to this, the same problem was faced again in the year 2009, when number of tourist decreased due to the swine flu outbreak all over the country of France. But by the end of the year, the demand for travellers bounced back as the country came out of the problem of recession (Felzensztein and Deans, 2013). After that Paris is still one of the most visited places by the tourists. This is due to its beautiful architecture, romantic cafes, spectacular monuments, the old churches, art galleries, infrastructure etc. Along with this, the city is home to the association of football club as well as it even hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament which majorly draws the attention of number of tourists and sports lover from all over the world (Herstein and Berger, 2013).
Both historical aspects as well as sports association are major areas for tourism development and promoting culture in the city of Paris. It has been classified as major top tourist destination as well as manufacturing sector especially in terms of hotels as well as catering sectors. The government agencies have played a vital role in the marketing of the city as the important tourist hub which resulted in formation of public private ownership (Boyle and Proctor, 2009). They took severe steps to make this possible by focussing on infrastructure, mode of communications, cityscape and gateways and make best use of available opportunities and resources with them. With their efforts in city marketing of Paris, the city posse major rail highway and air transport hub with two international airports which proves advantageous for more and more tourist to visit the place. In addition to this with the help of proper branding, now its culture is imitated all around the world and has become one of the major tourist destinations as well as business hub by giving proper security and safety to its visitors and executives. With the help of city marketing Paris has attracted major investments in various fields such as Disneyland Paris amusement park. Due to this, many new business enterprises are entering into the city which results in generating more employment opportunities for the residents. As a result to which it has developed new culture and new iconic buildings as well as enhancing the reputation of the city. In order to attain this, the government has to lay focus on creation of buildings that can support all its functions. It has emerged as the centre of hi tech manufacturing, which can be seen in the economy of the state. It is the major centre of many of the companies such as AXA, Renault, Orange etc. (Martínez-Ruiz, Martínez-Caraballo and Amatulli, 2010).
On the other hand, Las Vegas is situated in USA and renowned resort city which is famous for gambling, shopping, fine dining and majorly for its nightlife. The city is known as the “The Entertainment Capital of the World” and is quite famous for its casino-hotels. In the present scenario the city is among top tourist destination and emerging business destination in the world. It even earned the title of Sin City due to the adult entertainment, and because of this image it became famous shooting destination for numerous films and television programs in very short span of time (Felzensztein and Deans, 2013). Rigorous tourism development has take place in the city, as a result to which it has set the record for 40 million tourist visited in the year 2012. For the purpose of marketing of city, The Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority (LVCVA) and their resort partners introduced a three year strategy plan named Destination Innovation and Leadership Plan for the purpose of recovering tourism of the city. The major element of this scheme is to improve overall experience of tourists and visitors (Zenker and Beckmann, 2013).
"What Happens Here, Stays Here” was the advertising campaign which was launched in earlier years and slowly become the important part of the brand marketing strategy. Recently it is even selected as the No.1 campaigns by the means of public voting. Another campaign “Vegas Means Business” which was introduced several years ago was promoted in order to attract executives of major corporations for the purpose of conducting their meetings and conventions in the city so that it can become famous place for business executives as well as an emerging business hub. In view of the fact that it serves them two purposes. Firstly it will help in popularity of city. Secondly, these executives can pay high amount of money for the services which can prove beneficial for the economy of Vegas (Pullan, Bhasi and Madhu, 2011). Casinos are the major source of income for the most of the population residing in the city, due to which the drives even focussed on its development. This provides assistance in generation of economy along with raising the living standard of the residents. Both these drives targeted different set of audiences. In addition to this numerous business enterprises such as Coca-Cola, Southwest Airlines as well as GEICO Insurance even launched various advertising campaigns by highlighting diverse messages with or without targeting the audiences. In the present scenario the industry of Las Vegas is in the state of recovery and our engaging local business community for conducting major conventions or special events in town as a community partnership in order to attract visitors so as to generate national and international media coverage. In view of the fact that reputation of city has enhanced as well as development of culture, creation of iconic building has taken place. Along with this, it has become a major business hub as more number of industrial houses is investing the city which is being followed by public-private partnerships. This has resulted in enhancing the number of investments made by government and other business houses in order to support growth and development of the city. This has resulted in boosting the overall economy of the city by emerging as a business hub as well as centres of many financial services organizations, as a result to which living standards of people has increased up to a great level (Tross, 2007). The tends in future city tourism will prove beneficial in attracting more visitors which will act as a motivating force for further growth and development of cities. In regard to this, Paris can adopt future trend in terms of enhancing its heritage tourism, providing export quality services at fair prices, minimal legal formalities and so on. By means of this it will be able to make some contribution towards GDP of country. On the other hand, in Las Vegas visitors can be provided with enriched experiences. For this glamping or glamorous travelling is a trend which is very popular among tourists. It is quite evident to market cities for the purpsoe of enhancing demands as a result to which higher revenues can be earned. As per the srudy, it has been revealed that demand for Paris tourism is going to rise in coming years due to world class quality treatments to its guests along with this government are providing minimal legal formalities such as institute VISA programs, improved information and so on. On the other hand, ministry at Las Vegas has joined hands with various tourism boards and initaiting low budget travel plans so that large number of visitors can come there all thriughout the year (Zenker and Beckmann, 2013).
Analysis and comparison of theories of city marketing of Paris and Las Vegas
The analysis and comparison of Paris and Las Vegas can be done on the basis of some of the theories of city marketing such as urban development, and persuasive theory. As per the theory of urban development culture of both the cities plays an important role (Pullan, Bhasi and Madhu, 2011). This particular statement proves beneficial in understanding city marketing in the context of metropolitan development. The main part of this overall analysis is to have an understanding of pattern of development of cities and urban regions of Paris and Las Vegas. The government agencies of Paris have highlighted its major aspects in order to draw the attention of large number of tourists and business houses. It has showcased the city as fashion destination by organizing number of fashion shows by famous designers from all around the world. On the other hand, in the case of Las Vegas the LVCEA has done a lot by launching numerous campaigns as well as drives so as to persuade large number of business executives to conduct meetings and conventions (Herstein and Berger, 2013).
This is due to the fact that they want to make the city as an emerging business hub. As per the research conducted it has been revealed that the city of Paris and its governing committee has made a great contribution towards maintaining its cultural as well as historical aspects in order to draw the attention of large number of tourists and investors so as to make it a great and remarkable destination as well as it enhances their reputation in global map (Martínez-Ruiz, Martínez-Caraballo and Amatulli, 2010). But on the contrary, the city of Las Vegas has take full advantage of its casinos and gambling arenas by enhancing its nightlife so that it can attract and pull large number of visitors along with shooting units from throughout the globe for enhancing their economy and reputation (Felzensztein and Deans, 2013). According to the theory of urban development Paris has presented itself as a romantic city as it posses marvellous infrastructure as well as historical monuments such as Eiffel Tower and is quite famous for its art galleries and museums. But on the other side, the officials of Vegas have taken full gain of its image of Sin City and promote it in this particular way. It has open number of clubs, discos, brothels etc. in large part of the area in order to persuade large number of tourists and travellers from America as well as from across the globe. One of the major centres of attraction of the city is its casinos and hotels along with motels which are quite reasonable and easily affordable by every single person whether visitor or executives (Chon, Nykeil and Jascolt, 2012).
By the means of selling both the cities Paris and Las Vegas improve their image by promoting or endorsing their brand image and by showcasing their famous places and business conventions with the help of TV advertisement or by opt any other source of promotion (Boyle and Proctor, 2009). On the other hand, restructuring is a course of action which provides assistance to both the cities for the purpose of enhancing their morphological framework of the place in order to live up to the projected image. In the case of Paris it has the more sophisticated infrastructure in the world which was developed with the help of government’s heavy investment along with this it posses advanced technology and various modes of transportation (Heeley, 2011). However, in the present scenario the infrastructure of city of Las Vegas is still in the stage of development as compared to Paris and still looking forward for new avenues and they are focussing on development of their existing culture. This is due to the fact that it has arid climate and it is one of the driest places in entire America which causes problem related to sound infrastructure. But, it has sound transportation system which includes domestic and international airline facility along with widespread road and rail transportation network (Boyle and Proctor, 2009). As per the Selling model approach transformation as well as reshaping has become intergaral part of global economic restructuring by means of which lot of influence on local people can be bring out. Both the cities has changed drastically and major shifts has been observed in mind set of people since past century. So as per this theory it is important for cities to market itself as modern cities so that perception of people can be changed. According to restructuring model all the available facilities can be restructured by adding up new arenas as well as by replacing existing one. With the help of this negative image of cities can be transformed into positive within set framework of time.
Reasons for similarities and differences in both the cities
Both the city has many things in common and share lot many similarities on common ground in terms of hotels, offering of services, lavish lifestyle and many more. In view of the fact that Paris and Las Vegas is major tourist destinations and carries out different and unique activities in order to draw the attention of large number of tourists towards itself. Due to this they are quite similar with each other. On the contrary, they both of them are quite dissimilar from each other in numerous aspects because of their diverse culture and taste and preference of their potential clientele (Gelders and Zuilen, 2013). Some of the dissimilarity and similarity shared by these cities are as follows:
Service: The hotels of Paris offers standard services for nig Strip hotel in which there is a porter to carry luggage and multiple checks in counters along with pool side drink service. On the other side, the mid-priced hotel of Vegas’ services are not available for 24 hours and there is no one to pick up the luggage of guests. The reason for this major difference is the culture and type of visitors visiting the place between both the cities (Felzensztein and Deans, 2013).
Casino: The casinos of Paris are not big and as lavish as as that of Vegas. But they are most fanciful with showcasing the replica of Eiffel Tower and Alexander III Bridge. This indifference among the casinos of both the city is due to the reason that casinos are the major source of income and revenue so the investment cost is quite high for the development of such gambling avenues (Lucarelli and Berg, 2011).
Entertainment: As a part of entertainment Eiffel Tower is quite famous where lots of people visit especially in the night hours as it is the romantic city. But on the contrary, night clubs, strip view balcony and other type of discos are the major source of entertainment in Las Vegas because of its image as Sin City (Pullan, Bhasi and Mad