Learning and communication are the two most important factors which are included during time of education and training. There are many theories and principles that are involved in the process of learning, communication, training and if there is any area of specialisation then as well. So, in this current assignment, we would be understanding various aspects, theories and principles that of communication or education. It would also be included their implementation and which theory among all specified would be most suitable in procedures of growth and learning area. These theories are having different effects on the education and training of any individual who is working in the field of education sector. This assignment is divided into 5 different parts and would also be covering presentation section that is explaining the application of models of communication in this field.
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TASK 1: LEARNING PREFERENCE
1.1 Analysing the principles, models and theories of learning
Learning could be defined as the procedure of acquisition of all new and innovative ideas or knowledge that is building up a person into grown and intelligent human being. This would be related to anything like that of a process or about plants and animals as well as machines or just to cook or drive a car (Theories of learning, 2018). All these steps or elements are to be included within the part of learning as this is that integral part of individual which is stopped only at the death of that person. As this could be defined to a never ending and prolonged process as the humans keep on learning things that are new to them he could be keep on growing and doing better into their life. Everything during the whole course of humans life would be having its own process some things are easy to learn like that of burning of gas stove while the others take time like that of working in particular company. Thus, the ongoing interaction of individuals with that of others in their life whether it is human or animal they just teach us many things that are both good and bad.
The learning theories or principles are the basic frameworks which are guiding and enabling students to learn, absorb and retains that knowledge for a longer duration of time. As there is no specified place or duration of learning that could be defined to teach and allow them to learn about anything or any activity (Illeris, 2018). Rather, humans are very much essential to grab the knowledge and learning of events as well as other things at any place or in any situation of their life. There are certain things or factors that influence the learning and teaching procedures like environment in which they are living, emotional and cognitive one. So, over a period, there are some theories or principles as well as models which are evolved and they are having their own effect. Theories of learning would be divided into three models which are cognitivist, humanist and behaviourist.
It is that approach to learning which is mainly based on human psychology or mind set on an individual person. This is a systematic way to understand and learn about the behaviour of human and that of animals in which it is assumed that complete behaviour would be reflect of certain stimuli. This theory was evolved during the time of 20th Century under the influence of Ivan Pavlov and BF. Skinner who said that human behaviour which is indulged in learning and teaching procedures would not be studied in any experimental laboratory rather they need some time to study them on open ground basis. This school model would be in combination of some other important elements like that of methodologies, philosophy and psychology.
In this theory, it was studied that black box of human mind must be open to take up any challenges or new ideas. They should be like information processor. This theory of cognitivist replaced behaviourist theory in the year 1960 which focuses on the inner human mind comprising of valuable and important thinking of how to learn. It was also included under this theory that human is a rational been whose active participation and involvement are the two most important thing of their learning process (Jarvis, 2018). All the changes which are occurring with the results of active learning and teaching are not the indication that there are some changes which are taking place into the black box of human mind as well. The main contributors of this model of learning were Marriner David Merill, Roger Schank and Charles Reigeluth.
This theory viewed that everything which person is learning is all due to his own potential or fulfilment of personal activity. As they only learn things which are important for them only and not because of learning that as part of their daily course. Humanist was emerged during time of 1960 focusing on freedom, dignity and potential of human as they were only behaving in way which they are finding right or useful for them. As one of the main contributor was Abram Maslow so this theory would be including the study that of goal, motivation and self-development plan.
1.2 Way in which theories, models and principles would be applied to teaching, learning and assessment
All the learning and teaching perspective would be helping individuals to gain understanding and knowledge of things that they are performing and doing. Each of the theory which are included in above part that are having their own way to apply them in the teaching and learning. At the time of education purpose, behaviourism is having its focus on how would external change in behaviour of person is enabling them to shape their overall personality. If the reinforcement is implemented on humans then only, it is shaping behaviour of person as per the views of Skinners. Likewise, in a classroom, all the desired behaviour of students are rewarded by teacher while on the other hand, if that is undesired then that should be punished by them. So, allowing students to work with teachers in putting up their excellence in academics and other curriculum as well.
Thus, teacher being in dominance within classroom and students need to follow what they are instructing or guiding them taking full control over them. The students are doing what they have been taught by their teacher whether good or bad so they are reflection of their teacher in outside world (Engeström, 2018). On the other hand, teachers are also motivating their students to do good and equally behave with the people whom they are interacting on daily basis. This was implemented in the humanist view of learning which says that if teacher is making their students self-motivated which would be helping them to grow and develop and this is the main essence of this theory.
1.3 Analysing models of learning preferences
Learning preference is the way and in what method does the individual want to learn or which style of learning would be preferably suiting them. Every human is having his own way to learn and then grow in their own style and so, they must be left free in choosing their method. No two persons could be allowed or made to learn in the same way as both could be having their own skills, level of understanding or knowledge which is surely different from other one. This is build up since the time of childhood as that is the most important phrase of human learning when they set up pattern of learning and growing experience. It is important for the teacher who is going to teach their students to know that which would be more suitable and for whom. Every person is having his own set of skills and knowledge which they apply in certain ways to solve any issue of problem (Learning preferences, 2018). This becomes more vital that they are identifying that which learning procedures would be preferred by them and on what bases that becomes clear that they are choosing it.
So, there are also number of models that are developed by many people which are of learning preference like that of:
This model stands for visual, aural, read or write and kinaesthetic which is having various free online quiz and then their results would be displayed to them. VARK would be helping them to analyse and find their ways to learn by which they would be learning in more fast and effective way out.
It is important to identify way that would be applicable for each one of them like whether they could learn from visual or reading procedure. So, for this, person will be analysing or identifying that which process is good and proper for them.
1.4 Explaining the way learning preferences enable inclusive learning and teaching
Inclusive learning and teaching would be identifying and enabling that all students should be taught in their own way which may by or may be not inclusive for the other one. It recognises that all the students that are there are entailed to have their different ways of learning which must be respected by the side of teacher or tutor irrespective of their family background or any other basis (Learning preferences, 2018). Thus, this would be driven by the learning preference which students or other people are having and affecting inclusive learning and teaching of humans. This is very much important in way as they are designing and delivering the way in which learning and teaching methods would be allowed to their students in their full potential.
It is necessary that they are meeting the need of individual persons and their learning needs thus all strategies which are made by their teachers. For this they would be taking help of initial assessment plan so that their learners and their aspiration with that of learning goal of person. So, it is the duty of that person or student that they let know their teachers what are the things which are making them learn and grab things more easily and fast. Students must be discussing with their teachers what their feeling about their strengths are and weakness and what are they doing to make that difficult thing easy. This becomes the social and ethical responsibility of teachers that they are having positive impact on their students or the one who are supposed to learn from them. If person knows about which is that particular way under which he could easily learn and gain knowledge about the thing only then he would be able to invite their teacher to work upon on their inclusive learning and education purpose. Learning preference is enabling the individual in learn in the correct way that is helpful for them and could be resulting in more good and effective conclusion of their part.
Teachers learning that what their students are wanting and how could they help them is the most correct way of teaching as well as learning. This is regarded to as the main essence of inclusive teaching that is mostly promoting learning and educating people in way that they want and that which is best suited for them as well. As there is diversity of students who are there under on teacher having their own way to learn and understand things making that particular event or element clear to them (Jarvis, 2018). This is important that they are analysing the correct need and want of learning within their students and then implementing them on that only who is meant for this.
TASK 3: ASSESSMENT
3.1 Analysing theories, principles and models of assessment
Assessment would be introduced to as the procedure which is enabling the person to measure the extent to which they would be learning and grabbing things both inside and outside of classrooms. There are certain things which are included within this procedures like that of skills and knowledge would be measured on this purpose. They are serving various purpose like that of attainment of jobs and course under various effects as having opportunities to adjust their training and teaching experience.
Assessment method vary from person to person and that are based on the way people are taking teaching and learning process includes initial diagnostic, formative, summative, norm and criterion referencing (Principles of assessment, 2018). This procedure would be particularly starting at the time of individual is working in their job or their careers are starting. So principles and theories of assessment would be including that of:
Reliability- this means that the assessment which is done should be wholly reliable on person whose assessment is been done. They must be acting as independent individuals while following the part they should not be relaying on anyone peoples other than themselves while making judgement on themselves. Which would be meaning that they are making or doing their self-assessment or judging themselves only to make sure that where they are lacking and in which part they are very good (Illeris, 2018). This data or information of self-assessment would be very much reliable as it is done by person themselves. If the person need to fulfil the terms of reliability then they should be having full and explicit knowledge and then this would be important for them to access that properly.
Validity- as the above part of reliability is important this would also be necessary that data that is been there is valid as well so that person would be able to analyse and evaluate the information which would be used in their assessment task. This is very much seen into British higher education terms that things are vital to have access to basic knowledge and there is no such need to have objectives of analysis and that of evaluation.
Relevance- in the academic references it is always seen the value of having knowledge or learning a thing rather than doing it in practical terms. These are the reason as to why self-assessment task is very much important in developing the task rather than just learning it how to do. It is important of the students that they are both assessing their tasks and skill and then implement that skill or knowledge to develop more real purpose.
3.2 Explaining the manner in which principles of assessment can be applied in assessing learning
After they have assessed what are the principles of assessment it is important for them to look for various ways in which they could be taken into consideration like how could they apply it in practical life (Rowley, Fook and Glazzard, 2018). Mainly it is vital that all principles and theories are been implemented within the classrooms where audience or students are learning the most through knowledge of their teachers and their own understanding. This become important that they are learning how to grab more and more knowledge or what is the particular way out to learn. In the starting of the learning process it is important that they could be able to learn how to extract knowledge from all things rather than keeping track of what is wrong and what is right.
For students it becomes necessary that they are learning from each and everything and then understanding strategies of how to implement that. Then the second step would b that of what is right and what is wrong amongst the learning this would be building up knowledge of things surrounding themselves. So there is no set manner as to how the principles of reliability or validity in assessment is helping them or not. Yet we could apply the following steps in practice of principles of assessment which must be unique for every individual.
Learning to learn- this would be including only learning rather than making or judging what is wrong and right between them. This learning is most important process in anyone's life that is making them realise that how much importance is acquiring of knowledge in every sphere of life.
Building assessment capabilities- then this would b looked over certain things which is telling that students should be building up their capabilities of how to assess themselves into their doing of what is right and what is wrong (Cincera, Biberhofer and Rieckmann, 2018). At the time when students are been involved into their self-assessment then they would be developing better understanding of themselves and how much capable they are in identification of their strengths and weaknesses as well.
Engagement and motivation- this is another important element which is involving their self-engagement and then their motivation which is leading to how students could b able to learn in their own way out which is both easy and interesting. This would be enhancing their active participation and capability to learn by themselves through motivation.
Content knowledge- this must be looked up by the end of teachers who are deciding that how their students would be able to learn or what are the way in which they would be finding education relevant and important. Knowledge of content what are coming into curriculum of students with the help of which they would be learning and scoring good scores in examination is also important.
Planning and communication- this would be included to plan out how and what would be done as by this it becomes easy for teacher to make their students understand and learn things in more suitable manner. Then after this planning communicating learning goal, strategies and assessment criteria should be important as without this it is impossible for students and teachers to build up good and favourable relationship.
Feedback- for this also it is important for teachers and students to implement what are actual changes which were made and how this is different from the actual goal set at the beginning (Broadhead, 2018). Feedback is based on the self-assessment and meeting goals of their planning whether students are been able to learn what they are to include within.
TASK 4: CURRICULUM
4.1 Analysing theories and models of curriculum and development
Curriculum theories would be meaning that academic discipline which is mainly focusing on how to examine and shape educational curriculum or what it is to be included into books of students. This would be regarded to as very narrow path of students learning as this is only based on what is called curriculum limited that classroom only. There are various techniques or approach which are to be included within this theory of curriculum namely educational, psychological, sociological and philosophical. As per Carroll, (2018) it was included that this mainly revolve around building up of conceptual systems which would be identified to as fundamental unit of that particular course of study. The main thing which is included within this is based on what is theoretical knowledge that is important for only into terms of theory and it could be not related to what is called practical.
There are various theories and models that are related to curriculum and development which would be included so that they are having particular efforts of understanding and implementation of theoretical knowledge.
Social efficiency theory
This is mainly based on identification of proficiency of students and then teaching or educating them further. The main aim of theorist under social efficiency theory would be teacher having knowledge of what is the ability or intelligence quotient which is also regarded to as IQ test is conducted. After this type of test teacher would be knowing that what is the level of their students and their IQ level then only they would be educated or curriculum knowledge is been given to them. Through this type of IQ test students of under age are to be taught about how to educate them or build them up for the adult level or world so that they could be competitive (Kostiainen, Kainulainen and Mäkinen, 2018). So building them up for their future and professional goal is main aim or prospect of social efficiency theory.
As per this theory students are not been tested on bases of their IQ level like it is done in above social efficiency theory. But rather teachers are to take the emotional and behavioural aspect and qualities of their students and then develop them as according. Both these qualities of students would be judging them so that teachers could make out that which student is to be treated in what manner. As there is different and various ways to deal every person or to allow them to learn on bases of their knowledge and understanding so that this becomes easy for teacher to handle them.
This would be based on learning and understanding of each student that how they are analysing or watching their world or surrounding place (Brookhart, 2018). This particular theory of progressive reform was built by John Dewey in late 1870 this is also a reason as to this theory is also called to as John Dewey's theory. Thus, the curriculum which student is learning and understanding should be on based on what he or she is wanting this means that this must be child driven. Under this theory Dewey included that curriculum should be based on experience and learning of child focusing that on their past so that teachers are able to build up their future.
Models of Curriculum development
There are many models of curriculum that are used so that teacher are having more insights of their students learning and development phrase.
Tyler Curriculum model
Under this type of model there need to answer 4 simple and important questions like that of:
- What is the purpose of education into school that they are seeking to attain?
- What should be the experience in terms of education that need to be attained by the above purpose?
- How these are experience effectively arranged or organised?
- How it is to be determined that whether the above stated purpose are attained or not?
All these question are totally based on 1st one which is setting of the purpose of education that are given to students. Schools which are operational into society and are giving education to their students need to set out their purpose of existence that why are they working and which type of knowledge would they be departing. Then only the other questions like that of are they achieved or not and are they manageable or not would be determined but this is only after they are deciding their purpose.
The main strength of this Tyler model is setting up of the purpose of education that what is the reason as to why students need ot get training and education with the model providing blueprint or layout for development of curriculum (Giroux, 2018). Whereas the demerit of the same model could be that of Tyler not able to explain that from where do this objective of curriculum should be coming.
Lewis curriculum model
In order to develop the curriculum for students Lewis in his model adopted the administrative prospect this is the reason as to why it is called line staff. The administrator is that person who is expert into their working of directing and managing students and their education. It is seen that all goal and objectives of education is mainly influenced by external factors which are legal influence, data of research and state guidelines and the curriculum base like that of society and knowledge. Under this Curriculum design would be including decisions which is made by group which is having capabilities and knowledge that of student population. While curriculum implementation is involving decision which is related to instruction how to do or perform strategies and planning out steps accordingly.
Hilda Taba Curriculum model
This is based on the lesson plan stating that there are various material that is to be used like that of learning objectives, methods, evaluation and learning itself. Curriculum should also be based on what is called the recognition of need and development of students or that of individual (Cushion, 2018). In Hilda Taba model it is required to first find out what is data all about and then performing actual theory in real sense till the time of execution of plan. There are certain steps that are included within this model like that of diagnostic need, objectives formulate, curriculum content selection, organising content, choosing to learn experience and organising learning experience.
KTSP curriculum model
The model was made on the bases of educational learning at school level like what is potential of each school that at district level or that at regional level. There is potential of each level of school or that of students which is characteristic as socio-cultural community and that of learners. Main purpose of KTSP is defined to as generally improvement of educational quality so that students are becoming self-reliant and taking initiative in their own empowerment.
4.2 Explaining ways in which models and theories of curriculum can be applied into developing curricula in area of specialisation
All these models and theories of curriculum which are been stated above would not be just taken into theoretical way or learning but could also be included in practical life of students, teachers and schools. While it becomes necessary that which type of theory or model could be laid down or what they need to use and ask for (MODEL’S OF CURRICULUM, 2018). In this way thy would be setting out purpose of education that why it is important to get information and learn about things then teachers need to build up understanding and knowledge students past which would be helping to shape their future. Thus, this includes clear process of curriculum so that this is helpful for students and teachers in gaining knowledge and then evaluating what is important and what is certainly not. This seems to be important in finding out way in which models and theories of curriculum could be applied while developing area of specialisation like at the time of becoming teacher.
Program educational philosophy- this would be fixing the purpose of educational plan and including that why it is necessary to deal or include any new program. Analysing that whether it would be included as need of society as whole or not under this it would also be telling that whether program is needed for college or that particular school or not. At the much older age in school they would be finding many types of support from their institute like that of market survey or analysing of financial need which is helping students in learning process.
Curriculum models- after setting out of educational philosophy it is important to analysis that what could be curriculum models which is best suited at this stage. Thus, the adopted model would be helping teachers are students to take into consideration what is called to as assessment approaches (Zundans-Fraser, Hill and Bain, 2018). This curriculum model would also be defined to as Product or Process model under which one is based on planning and intentions and another one is based on activities and effects.
Program aims and outcome- this is aimed at building more development into graduate attributes which is based on what is unique into any graduates. This means that there is need to have qualities, skills and understanding that could be developed into university or the school in which they are studying. Program outcome is based on what is specified into context of typical learner and level of qualification that they are having that is interchangeable as well. But as it is not important to develop before thinking that how much student would be able to do at the end of the program.
Program organisation and structure- after they have stated their aims to meet outcomes it would be necessary that they are doing the organising and structuring part as well. This becomes important to set out the planning so that they are having coherent and transparent assisting. There are certain things which need to be focused upon like that of scope, sequence, integration, balance, continuity and articulation which need to be focused upon before starting to plan out things in proper manner.
Program teaching, learning and assessment strategies- in this one there is need to emphasis more on how the program educational philosophy is to be reviewed (Cooper, 2018). This would be making out what it was set up in the above part of program valuing active learning which is very much important.
Module design- this is the set of overall program design which is showing the usefulness and accessibility of resources that are to be used within this.
TASK 5: REFLECTION AND EVALUATION
5.1 Analysing theories and models of reflection and evaluation
Reflecting would be defined to as that mental process of an individual under which they are utilizing and analysing what they have learnt in their whole process in their own wording and language. This could be included into any field like that of health and social care, teaching, management studies and technology as well (House and Daniel, 2018). There are various models and theories of reflection that are to be used while they are making or evaluating their experience of what they have learnt by doing a particular task.
Kolb reflective theory and model
This is the basic of all theories of reflection which is covering what tutor has learnt through their experience and then modification of all collected information is also necessary in their knowledge. This theory was developed by David Kolb in the year 1984 which is including his own experience there included 2 level which is divided into 4 stage of cycle. In this model, he stated that there is always need to acquire knowledge and learning by creating transformation of experience which would be required at all levels.
Concrete Experience- This would be including whole new idea of creating experience which was not there before. The first step of doing and having any experience which is involving what they are done over certain time period encountered by them (Arnold, Confrey and Pfannkuch, 2018). Writing it down about what person has experienced is an important task as this would be telling experience of that person.
Reflective observation- In this step, tutor or writer would be analysing and judging what they have written or experienced during and after that particular event (Kolb – Learning Styles, 2018). Then there would be including learning or discussing about their experience which is rather called common sense reflection. It becomes vital to note down whatever we have experienced that too in a systematic manner so that it is easier to evaluate and judge as well.
Abstract conceptualisation- If they are writing the reflection in above part then person would be generating or formulating new idea of how the same thing or task would be done in future context. Thus, it is helping us to regenerate the old idea by modifying it in a better and innovative sense. The best way to do this could be use of Personal Development Plan (PDP) which is containing all necessary things and points which are to be included within (Cincera, Biberhofer and Rieckmann, 2018).
Active experimentation- After they have built up a new idea in an innovative sense, it becomes easy for them to implement that thought in their real application. This is known as active experimentation which is applying all ideas into world around them so that they could analysis what is the results of their new idea.
One another model or theory of reflective writing could be learned as Gibbs Reflective Cycle which is the best model as this is including many factors. The model was developed by Graham Gibbs in the year 1988 and this is helping people to learn about their experience and noting down what went well and what not (Jose, Patrick and Moseley, 2017). Gibbs model is a 5 steps process involving all important elements of person and their experience:
Descriptive- This step is including describing or telling about whole process of experience of that event. Like when and what happened, why and who else was there, what actually happened, what did you and other people do and what was the result. Thus, this whole step would be telling about the overall happening of event and involvement of other people within.
Feeling- The next step would be including all about your and other peoples feeling including before, during and after the happening of the event. It is required that whatever they are mentioning into this particular task are all true and honestly they are talking about their and others feeling.
Evaluation- This part is a very important one which is telling what were the negative and positive feeling or happening of that event. This would be including factors like that of what was positive about that situation, what was negative, what went well and what not and also about the contribution that others and that person made into whole event.
Conclusion- This is the overall thinking and summary of the feeling and event which took place thus including what could be changed to better results from the said event. This will also be involving that if they are facing the same event before or whether they would be doing the same thing which they have done during happening or not. Furthermore, it would be including that what are the skills that they developed during the learning of the situation and how better they could have handled the current situation.
Action- The last step which is involving all possible actions and reaction which would be summarised into different ways. Like they would be coming for new plan for the same event which would be better than the before one (Kolb – Learning Styles, 2018). But for this they need to identify specified area of improvement or modification so that they could apply for the change.
5.2 Explaining ways in which theories and models can be applied to review own practice
Both the model and theory of reflection need to be applied into practical life sense including there are certain changes and designing is to be done according to person themselves. Like it was said that both these models could be applied in any of the field including that of teaching, health and social care and management as well. So I would be applying the model into my own learning process which is included as what I have learnt from this whole unit of Theories. As in the starting of this assignment I have stated that there would be including various theories, models and principles of learning, assessment, curriculum and development and that of reflection as well.
It was easy to study all the models and theories and then putting same into practice which would be telling us that how it could be applied into real sense.
Description- This would unit and assessment was all about various models, theories and principles of learning, education, and training. So I have learnt and gained knowledge about all the theories of learning that of education and models of reflection. It has become clear in these terms to analyse that if I would be opting educational field as my career and then it would be easy for me to understand all my students and how to know about their emotions, feelings and their intelligence quotation (IQ level) (Arnold, Confrey and Pfannkuch, 2018).
Feelings- At the starting of this assessment, I was feeling that it would not be easy for me to understand or point out what would be the theories and models of learning or that of reflection. I also felt that the structure of it was not clear in my mind from which I could be facing some issues. In this, there was also some contribution of one of my colleagues who was given with the work by me of preparing presentation of application of theories, principles and models of communication in education and training. He has done his work with full dedication and shared his feelings and experience with me as well.
Evaluation- During the whole assessment, there were both positive and negative things that were involved into. I have come to know about all the theories and models of learning, training, communication and reflection through my researching procedure on these topics. All of them would be helping me in my teaching career in a better manner so that I would be able to gain knowledge about my students and their thinking as well.
Conclusion- It was concluded that if I would be given with further opportunities to study about theoretical aspect of communication, training, reflection and learning then I could perform better than what I have done in this assessment.
Action- In this part, I should be making out plan of what is to be done and how this is to be done. Planning is very much important so that it will become easy for me to analyse that what and how could be done in better way out.
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At the end, it can be concluded from the above report that all theories and principles of learning, communication and training which were included in this are important for the growth of teaching career. In the part of education and training, there is required to have knowledge about all students and what could be better for their learning. It is important that teacher is identifying what their students are demanding and which theory or model is the best suited on their part. At the end, it was noticed that theories and models of reflection are all same like that of Gibbs and Kolb and both of them are telling about experience of writer or tutor that what he had studied and how they have ended up with them all.
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