Healthcare refers to a multifaceted activity that requires professionals to work in collaboration for well-being of patients. Organisations which deal in healthcare sectors have complex structure that includes activities of heterogeneous group of people (Brooks and Thistlethwaite, 2012.). It includes nurses, doctors, paramedical and administrative staff etc. whose main role is to provide best medical treatment and services to patients. The present report is going to make a discussion on how to manage an inter-professional team in HSC. It highlights principals, ability to manage service objectives and promote collaboration in team-work.
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1.1 Inter-professional working promotes positive outcomes for individuals
Inter-professional working is formed when many professionals belonging to different specialities in an organisation work together, for achievement of a common goal. In health and social care sectors, working in partnership help in sharing particular skills, knowledge, experience and perceptive, for improving service outcomes (Clancy, Gressnes and Svensson, 2013). In this regard, for promoting positive outcomes for health promoters, management needs to ensure that all work should be done in legal manner, by concerning acts (Data Protection, Human Rights, Disability Discrimination, Equality & Diversity, etc.). Along with this, build trust and respect, monitor and review working relationship, resolve conflicts and reduce lack of communication, etc. help in promoting collaboration under individuals at HSC.
1.2 Complexities of working in inter-professional teams
Working in inter-professional team, an associated person under health and social care faces various difficulties and complexities. It includes casual, social or reflexive hermeneutic complexity, where professionals encapsulate the active way to make sense of experience, through developing relations, cognitive and conceptual schema. These complexities can be explained through given figure:-
1.3 How Inter-professional teamwork is influenced by
a) legislative frameworks
Through various legislative amendments, health professional regulatory system is initiated. It gives support to inter-professional collaboration where, professionals can share controlled acts, incorporate the same into quality assurance programs and more (Riesen and et. al., 2012). The main purpose of these legislatives are to determine strategies, activities and plan within health professionals to incorporate partnership. Legislation provides a number of regulatory tools that assists in availing a desired outcome. Accountability of professionals is assured in under legislative frameworks.
Regulation is considered as one of the factor that influence the way healthcare professionals work in collaboration. It sets a standard for protecting the public, registrants, education and training, managing register and more (Urban and et. al, 2012). Through these aspects including learning, regulatory bodies can build a team by creating shared values and aligned approaches for safety as well.
c) Government Initiatives
To build a reliable and efficient health service where patients can feel more relax and have access to get best medical treatment, government has made various laws. It includes Mental Capacity Act, Data Protection Act, Disability Discrimination Act, Health and Social Care Act, etc. These laws influence inter-professional workers to work in team for well-being and safety of patients. Some initiatives by the government of UK such as Digital health, aims to provide real time information and higher synchronised treatment.
d) Professional code of ethics
Ethical norms and code of ethics provide guidelines and set principles for inter-professional team to work in collaboration, under health and social care, i.e. well-being of patient is paramount. It shows the way how to address patient concerns, understand norms of other disciplines, set communication and take responsibility to work in team.
e) Service Objectives
Objectives and common goals drive collaboration among inter-professional team to give best healthcare services. By establishing protocols and governance arrangements, services objectives create clarity among team-members related to their roles and responsibilities.
2.1 Team objectives contribute to service objectives
Team objectives entails a list of goals for inter-professional workers to work in team and achieve a common goal (Thistlethwaite, 2012) . For example:- Smart objective for reducing time from 16 hours to 2 hours, to address patients' concern under health and social care is- 'Speeding up cycle time of processes'.
2.2 Plans to meet service objectives
To meet mentioned service objectives, duty holders of health and social care sector, should develop collaboration among staff members of different departments. For this purpose, management can use Tuckman model to develop an effective inter-professional team (Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing,2019).
Set roles and responsibilities to each team-member by making proper interaction with them.
Provide guidance, positive feedback and manage conflicts.
Encourage communication, develop ideas for acceptance of roles and responsibilities by inter-professional team workers, under health and social care.
Encourage flexibility and delegation among workers to give best health care services for safety of patients.
Therefore, after building a perfect team, management of healthcare sector can give instruction to each team-member about how to conduct their assign roles and responsibilities, in order to give timely information to patients. A proper training is also provided to each member (Information provider, Consultant, Decision maker and Knowledge Recipient), for responding people's query within two hours.
2.3 Roles and responsibilities to meet service objectives
To boost morale and increase motivation of inter-professional team workers, it is essential by duty holder of healthcare sectors, to allocate roles and responsibilities in appropriate manner (McLean, 2012). Here, major roles for addressing patient concern and resolve their queries are, roles and responsibilities are allocated accordingly to- Information provider (who gives information to patients or their relatives ones); Consultant (satisfy queries of users); Decision maker (take decision as per queries and consultant's view); Knowledge Recipient (transfer information to healthcare departments).
3.1 Governance arrangements within inter-professional working including:
For establishing governance arrangement under inter-professional team, it is essential to include accountability, effective communication and provide supervision. Here, accountability can be described as an approach for building responsibilities within team-members, which relies on civic engagement. This will bring own perceptive under professionals to work in collaboration for well-being of patients.
b) Lines of communication
In order to make governance arrangement, it is essential to develop effective communication within inter-professional team (Morrison and Arthur, 2013). This would can encompass by using proper language to provide information to other workers, to negotiate, suggest and make clarification. For this purpose, email is used to give timely information to group of person.
c) Professional supervision
It refers to a positive process which gives opportunity to health promoters to work under guidance of experienced professionals, on a specific task. This would help in identifying solutions, improving practices as well as enhancing understanding of professional and clinical issues.
d) Continuing professional development
Governance arrangement include equal policies and procedures which promote opportunities to workers to work in partnership. This would help them in developing and enhancing knowledge and skills for professional development as well.
3.2 Protocols within inter-professional working arrangements including:
a) Confidentiality and information sharing
Sharing of information within health and social care is generally guided by Caldicott principles, which are mentioned under Data Protection Act 1998. As per this act, it is essential to set protocols for protecting confidentiality of patients' record, in appropriate manner. Furthermore, any personal information of patient or any associated worker under healthcare sector, should not be disclosed without their permission (Cheminais, 2014).
b) Record keeping
Effective and proper record keeping is an essential part under healthcare sector. Here, duty holders who work in collaboration are needed to communicate on daily basis. Through daily logs, emails and other ways of communication, health professionals can ensure about good and consistent care as well as give support to staff to work together.
Protocols for collaborative working and sharing of information between professionals for protecting patients, children and vulnerable adults, include resources like: Care Act 2014; Keeping children safe in Education 2015, Working together to safeguard children 2015 and Centre for Excellence on information sharing (Currie and White, 2012). These sites provide resources for collaborative working for well-being of patients.
d) Concerns and complaints
It is mandatory for all health professionals to provide information to state regulatory organisations about serious cases of patients. It includes complaints related to injury by weapon, physical, domestic or sexual abuse and more. For this purpose, holistic assessment and training is needed to be provided to each workers for identifying maltreatment.
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3.3 Support to enhance inter-professional working
For enhancing inter-professional working, duty holders of healthcare sectors are needed to promote- ongoing shared review; continuity of care by recognised case manager; evidences which shows system at time of discrepancy and crises etc.
3.4 Understanding distinctive roles within team
The major and distinctive roles within an inter-professional team can be classified as- , Deputy manager, Registered manager, Senior and Care staff as well as other workers (Riesen, and et. al., 2012).
3.5 Communication within professional team
An ongoing communication strategy like face-to-face conversation, open door policy, two-way conversation and more, help in developing collaboration among workers.
3.6 Work with team to resolve dilemmas
For resolving dilemmas, it is essential for duty holders under healthcare sectors to clarify roles and responsibilities, in appropriate manner. By taking feedback from each staff member, who work in collaboration, management can identify problems that create conflicts (McLean, 2012). This would help in developing strategies like open door policy, where each worker is allowed to share problems and give ideas for collaboration.
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4.1 Plans for individuals based on formal assessment
Formal assessment includes process of performance review, by carrying out following steps:
- Identify service objectives and common goals
- Examine position description on individual basis
- Set work-related goals that integrate with position description and service objectives on individual manner
4.2 Work with team to identify lead practitioners for implementation of individuals' plans
To work with team, it is essential for professionals to have reflective and person centred approach, excellent communication skills, commitment to share views for personal care and more. This would help in implementing plans on individual basis.
4.3 Roles and responsibilities of professionals in implementing plans
Professionals should have abilities to promote healthcare facilities, accept responsibilities for patients' care, duty of care and a legal liabilities etc., to implement individual plans.
4.4 Information pertinent for implementation of plans
For implementation of individual plans, professionals should have knowledge about code of ethics, own roles and responsibilities, social accountability, duties of implementing and reviewing plans (Cheminais, 2014). They should also analyse how to manage ethical dilemmas as well as conflicts and others, while working with others. Therefore, through e-mail approach, duty holder can analyse if same information is conveyed to everyone or not.
4.5 Process to review individuals' plans
For monitoring and reviewing individual's plan, duty holder of healthcare sectors are needed to make a review checklist, in following manner:-
- Have service objectives been accomplished?
- Have mentioned goals changed?
- Are more strategies required for accomplishment?
- Should new objectives be developed?
5.1 Monitor effectiveness of inter-professional team by working with others against service objectives
Quality of healthcare services is mainly depended on the way different professionals work together. Here, effectiveness of teamwork can be monitored by analysing how effectively services have been delivered (Riesen and et. al., 2012). Instead of meeting service objectives, duty care needs to take personalise feedback of each team-member to identify how they effectively doing their responsibilities.
5.2 Work with others to identify:
a) Areas of best practice
To manage ethical dilemmas and resolve conflicts when making, implementing and reviewing care plans. Duty holders need to collate review information as well as revise care plans, within predictable timescales. Along with this, they must ensure that review meetings should be arranged properly, for promoting inter-professional collaboration. Here, areas that performed well are coordination which is made among group of people, belongs to different department of healthcare sectors.
b) Areas of improvement
Duty holders under healthcare sectors need to ensure that specific plan should be accessed under confidentiality agreements such as communication (Lindsay and et. al.., 2016). It should be made as per legal and service objectives requirements.
5.3 An action plan to improve inter-professional team work
For improving inter-professional team work, factors which need to be taken in account are- whether business has entire resources (staff members, equipment and finance) to promote health facilities. Contribute to review and monitor plans on daily basis, by making discussion with team-members, to promote collaboration among them.
Through this essay it has concluded that for delivering best services within healthcare sectors, it is essential for management to develop collaboration among workers. By engaging staff members into inter-professional team, they can provide better and timely services to patients, for their well-beings.
You may also like to read:
Books and journal
- Brooks, V. and Thistlethwaite, J., 2012. Working and learning across professional boundaries. British Journal of Educational Studies. 60(4). pp.403-420.
- Cheminais, R., 2014. Every Child Matters: A practical guide for teachers. David Fulton Publishers.
- Clancy, A., Gressnes, T. and Svensson, T., 2013. Public health nursing and interprofessional collaboration in N orwegian municipalities: a questionnaire study. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences.27(3). pp.659-668.
- Currie, G. and White, L., 2012. Inter-professional barriers and knowledge brokering in an organizational context: the case of healthcare. Organization Studies. 33(10). pp.1333-1361.
- Lindsay, S. and et. al.., 2016. Implementation of an interâ€agency transition model for youth with spina bifida. Child: care, health and development. 42(2). pp.203-212.
- McLean, S., 2012. Barriers to collaboration on behalf of children with challenging behaviours: a large qualitative study of five constituent groups. Child & Family Social Work. 17(4). pp.478-486.
- Morrison, M. and Arthur, L., 2013. Leadership for inter-service practice: Collaborative leadership lost in translation? An exploration. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 41(2). pp.179-198.
- Riesen, E., and et. al., 2012. Improving interprofessional competence in undergraduate students using a novel blended learning approach. Journal of interprofessional care. 26(4). pp.312-318.
- Thistlethwaite, J., 2012. Interprofessional education: a review of context, learning and the research agenda. Medical education.46(1). pp.58-70.
- Urban, M., and et. al, 2012. Towards competent systems in early childhood education and care. Implications for policy and practice. European Journal of Education. 47(4). pp.508-526.