Introduction NT moulding
NT moulding is a small firm that is producing medical equipment’s. Currently this company is focusing on its Micro-modular project. But its CEO is not receiving adequate support from its managers. This report is prepared on understanding the impact of leadership style on firm and its project. For this purpose leadership approaches are explained in this report and appropriate leadership approach is suggested for the NT mouldings. Changes are important in an organization because by bringing changes firm remove its weakness. In this report types of changes are discussed in detail. Moreover, employees’ resistance in context of company and general is also discussed in detail. Other than this, detail discussion is carried out on ethical behaviour of researchers. In this context ethical theories are explained in detail in this report. At the end of the report, impact of adopting leadership style on organization culture and employees motivation is discussed in detail. In relation to this various positive impacts of leadership style on culture and behaviour are mentioned in the report.
Types of Change
Change management is simply an approach that brings transition in individuals, organizations and teams from present situation to desired state. Type of changes in an organization is as follows.
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Structural change- Under structural change firm brings changes in its organization structure. Change in structure of the firm brings changes in chain of command, hierarchy and management system. Firms’ needs to bring these changes in such a way that is acceptable by everyone employee that is working in an organization. Implementing changes against desire of the employees may affect firm performance and efficiency level.
Strategic changes- It refers to the changes that are done by the top management on firm goals, objective, mission and vision statement. Before making any changes in all these things top management must also carry out detail discussion with its employees. They are important stakeholder of the firm and can give valuable suggestion to the top management. This will also bring solidarity in employee and management relationship.
People changes- It refers to changes in employees’ performance, skills and behaviour at an individual level. Improvement in employee performance is beneficial for both employer and employees. Therefore, management must conduct training programmes time to time within a year.
Change management refers to developing and managing changes in the business. NT moulding is currently focusing on injection moulding of medical devices in which a particular shape is given to the medical devices. Today, micro moulding has emerged as a best solution for the producer of medical devices. This technology allows doctors to perform operations by minimising aggressive procedures. When Mr Jeremy Back was CEO of NT mouldings there are lot of problems in the company like there was lack of quality compliance, errors in raw material traceability and contravention of clean room procedures. As a result firm was not able to perform its operations properly. Moreover, NT mouldings want to develop new micro- moulding technology that will replace use of metal staples and sutures (Burnes, 2003). In order to develop this technology it was imperative to comply with quality standards in facilities and to use right quality of raw material for producing drugs. In order to make improvement in all these things and developing new micro-modular technology Mr Mark Timms was hired by the NT mouldings. The model that Mr Mark Timms can follow for this purpose is Kotter 8 step change model.
Increase the urgency of change- As mentioned above that Mr Mark Timmy is hired to make changes or improvements on the factors on which company is not performing well. Error in checking quality of raw material and several other factors to large extent affects performance and efficiency level of NT moulding. Other than this he is also hired to give guidance regarding development of micro- modular technology (Edmonds, 2011). Currently doctors are using metal staples for performing operations. By using equipments that are developed by using this technology doctors can easily perform their operations. Hence in future firm profitability will increase.
Build a team dedicated to change- In order to boost development of Micro-modular technology new CEO will develop team of dedicated scientists that will enthusiastically work on NT modular project. Presence of dedicated employees in research team is imperative for NT moulding because such kind of employees enthusiastically work on research project and possibility of achievement of desired results also increases.
Create the vision for change- A vision statement will be prepared by the top managers of NT moulding and same will be communicated to the R&D team. Vision statement will indicate the expectations that top management have from its scientists (Shanley, 2007). This statement will therefore give guidance to the members of research team regarding initiation and implementation of project activities.
Communicate the need for change- Top managers will communicate need for change to the research team. Through this communication team members will came to know about changes that they needs to make on their technology development project (Belak, 2010). CEO needs to establish effective communication between him and research team. So that he get update about developments on the project on time and give further guidance to the research team members.
Empower staff with ability to change- In order to develop best technology top management will give free hands to its R&D team. Due to freedom in conducting experiments researchers will learn lot of new things. This will help researchers in developing a technology on time and as per requirement.
Create short term goals- Project will be developed in several parts and time will be determined to complete each and every activity of the project. A deadline for completion of these activities will be determined for short term. This will help in completing project on predetermine time frame.
Stay persistent- No changes will be made on determined short term goals even if it seems that it is difficult to complete activities on time. If changes will be made then researchers may take deadlines very lightly (Ho, 2011). In order to prevent this situation it will be better to avoid changes in short term goals.
Made the changes permanent- After performing all these steps changes will be made permanent for the protect that were determined and communicated by top managers to R&D cell employees.
Lewin’s change management model
This change management model was created in 1950 by Lewin. This model states that most of the people like to operate in their safety domain. He propose a model that can be use to eliminate such resistance from change.
Unfreeze- Most of the people resist any change that a firm wants to implement in its business premises. In order to remove this resistance some motivation must be given to the employee’s by the top management. This top large extent may reduce their resistance level.
Transition- After eliminating employees resistance changes are implemented by the mangers at the ground level. In order to successfully implement changes managers’ needs to give good leadership and assurance that new changes will not adversely affects employees’ interest.
Refreezes- After successful implementation of changes employees follow new guidelines or follow whatever new managers implement in the business organization.
ADKAR model of change management
This model sates that in order to remove resistance to change from employees side at the place of directly attempting to implement change at workplace firms must create awareness among employees regarding changes that managers wants to implement. After creating awareness desire must be created among employees regarding implementation of change at workplace. Along with this managers must also communicate the way in which changes will be implemented by them. On the other hand management will develop its ability to implement proposed change in an organization. After getting employees acceptance changes will be reinforce by managers in an organization. Consequently, changes will be implemented with the consent of each and every group of an organization.
Impact of Change in Leadership Style NT Mouldings
Mr Mark Timmy adopt contingency leadership style in which he instead of following particular leadership style is giving contingency leadership to the employees working under him.
Following are impact of changes in behaviour of employees at workplace:
Motivation- As mentioned above CEO is following contingency leadership style. Therefore, when any employee gives good performance on his job Mark Timmy appreciate his work. This motivates employees to work hard and achieve their goals on time.
Extra efforts- Mark Timmy give free hands to the employees that works in R&D team. As a result members of R&D team are giving their extra efforts in micro-modular project of NT moulding.
Perform task on time- Mark Timmy is continuously monitoring performance of his employees and is taking strict action against those employees that are not working well or perform their actions at a very slow pace. In order to avoid strict action from the CEO employees are performing their task on time and in efficient and effective manner.
Remain in discipline- Due to both autocratic and democratic leadership style of NT mouldings all employees are working in disciplined manner and do not waste their valuable time in talking worthless talks with each other (Leadership styles and their impact on employees productivity. 2013). This enhanced employee’s productivity and due to discipline now employees are able to give proper attention on their working activities.
Organization culture is a system in which management determines values, assumptions and beliefs that will be shared by employees with each other. These values and assumptions acts code of conduct for the employees and make them clear the behaviour that management expects from them at workplace. Big changes can be brought in an organisation by altering organization culture. If value system of an organisation is changed then big changes can be bring in an organization. Suppose, in organization there is a rule that discrimination on the basis of caste, creed and religion is prohibited. But same thing may be on paper. Due to this reason there may dissatisfaction among employees. If management change its value system and make a rule that if discrimination happens further then strict action will be taken against culprit. Then such things can be stopped in an organization and change can be implemented effectively. On the basis of this example it can be said that organisation culture and change management are closely interlinked to each other.
Mark Zukerberg is a cofounder of face book and he believes in giving congenial working environment to its employees. He gives freedom to its employees regarding project selection. Like other companies he is not imposing or assigned projects to its employees at his discretion. Mark zukerberg is following clan culture in which family environment is given to the employees and emphasis is given on consensus common sharing of goals and values. This is the reason due to which Mark zukerberg achieve lot of success in his business. Jeremy Corbyn is a political leader and he is known for giving effective leadership to his supporters. He follows democratic leadership style and carefully listens and analyse that suggestions that are given to him by those who work with him He quickly make him adaptable to change in surrounding environment. He is following adhocracies corporate culture model which states that leaders must make takes steps according to change in scenario. They must not stick to particular thing even situation is changed. If both leadership styles is analysed then it can be said that both person leadership style bring positive change in an organization culture. Mark Zukerberg by giving friendly environment motivates its employees to work hard on the project that they select themselves. On the other hand Jeremy takes his steps as per demand of situation. Therefore, he work in such a manner that does not tarnish his relationship with those who working with him. This also helps in maintaining congenial working environment at the workplace.
Reasons of Resistance from the Employees on Firm Micro-Moulding Project
Managers of NT mouldings are not relying on Mr Mark Timmy because over past few years many CEO leave their post in respective organization due to their inability to handle firm operations. Therefore, managers are not showing their confidence on Mark Timmy and they are resisting implementation of their new CEO decisions. Some of the areas where mangers are resisting are as follows.
Analysis of market place- In medical industry equipment developed by giant companies get an early acceptance. NT moulding is a small company and it is developing a Micro-moulding technology. The problem that it will face in getting clearance of moulded equipment from the recognised body of authority like USFDA etc. If product is not getting acceptance from the domestic and international authorities then entire investment of NT mouldings will be wasted and it will certainly affects firm economic health. So managers are abstaining from giving their support to the project.
Poor relationship between management and employees- In many organisations there is a poor relationship between management and employees. Due to this reason rivalry comes in existence between managers and employees. As a result, whenever, management wants to bring any change in an organisation employee’s start opposing that change. This happened due to negative image of management in the eyes of the employees. Management needs to take steps in order to make warm relationship with the employees.
Viability of project- NT moulding has a very small research team other than this it is also small in size. So it is possible that completion of project takes long duration than expected time period because getting desired result on project requires a large amount of intellectual capital in R&D team. There is a lack of intellectual capital therefore time period for project may extend. Therefore, firm may need a huge amount of capital for making investment in its project. Other than this, there is no guarantee that it will successfully complete its project. Therefore, viability of project is questioned by the managers.
Lack of reliability- Employees do not trust on managers and due to these reason employees does not rely on managers’ statement. Even managers communicate changes and make sure employees that change that they intends to implement will not negatively affect them. Then also employees do not rely on managers. Hence, management needs to take some measures that bridges gap between them and employees.
Wrong actions of managers- Many times managers take wrong actions and they implement it without discussing with employees. As a result, employees feel that they are cheated. Due to this reason they do not trust of management. Hence, managers face a lot of difficulties in implementing a change in an organisation. Thus, management at least one time must gather information about view points of employees on specific issue and then must move forward.
Process- Other than above factors managers also dissatisfied on the process that is followed to start the project. Before starting any project some preliminary preparations are done by the leaders and top management. But managers think that there is an error in project initiating and implementation process and CEO is not paying his attention on those errors. Due to these errors project will start in wrong manner and firm may need to make improvement in that aforementioned process. In other words it can be said that firm have to bear cost of making improvement in entire process. Therefore, managers are not cooperating with R&D team.
Every organization brings changes in its business and way in which it operates. With increase in size and level of operations of the business firms face lot of problems and complexities inside and outside the workplace. In order to ease these complexities and to perform operations smoothly organisation needs to bring changes in its premises. These changes may be related to the employees or an organization depends on situation. Introduction of new things like developing IT infrastructure and using software's and providing training to the employees in this regard certainly reduce complexity in the business operations. This is the reason due to which most of the firms irrespective of their size steadily bring changes in their organization.
Ethical Behaviour of R&D Team
R&D development projects act as milestones in company success because on basis of these projects firms develop new products and increase their customer base at a fast pace. Therefore, it is ethical duty of R&D team to keep project information secret and give updates regarding development in project time to time. Other than this it is also ethical responsibility of researcher’s team not to share product formulae with rival firms. In many countries it has been seen that for some monetary gain researchers sell company technology development details to the rival firms. As a result, rival firms also start its research projects on same things and due to receiving data from other company researcher they get foundation base for initiating their research project (Dalakoura, 2010). If during research if there is chance of happening of any unfortunate event then they must adopt adequate measures in order to control harmful impact of the experiment. In case study it is stated that in case of any unfavourable information employees abstain from communicating that event to CEO. This is unethical practice from business point of view. CEO has a right to know about positive and negative events happening in an organization. It is ethical responsibility of employees to communicate such issues to the managers in order to make that impact of unfortunate event will be controlled on time. Managers by making available resources and using knowledge can curb negative impact of that unfortunate event. Hence, it can be said that employees needs to stop performing such unethical practices at the workplace. In case study, it is further stated that quality maintenance rules were clearly not followed and there was error in raw material traceability. Hence, this again indicate employees involvement in unethical practices and management comes to know about these malpractices very late. Due to such unethical practices patients may face health related issues after treatment. This ultimately may lead to loss of life which may be big crime from ethics point of view. Thus, management needs to take strict action in order to make sure that such mistakes will not be committed again. In order curb such unethical practices several models or theories are prepared that determine ethical behaviour of an individual. These theories lay down ethical standards for an individual person. Some of these theories are as follows.
Utilitarian ethical theory- This theory was developed in eighteenth century by Jeremy Bentham. This theory looks behind self-interest. This theory states that an individual must not only attempt to fulfil his self-interest but he must also attempt to fulfil other needs. This theory states put a lot of emphasis on consequences that comes in existence due to performance of actions. In terms of research this theory clearly states that researchers are an integral part of an organization and receive remuneration for work they do in an organization (Carrigan and Attalla, 2001). So they must think about interests of the company for which they word and must abstain from involving in any malpractices in relation to research activities.
Virtue based ethical theory- This theory is different from other ethical theories. Like other theories it does not determine standards on the basis of which particular behaviour can be regarded ethical or unethical. This theory states that right thing must be done at right place on right time. This theory states that many time we take some actions that seems to put negative impact but same action can give lot of positive results in long term.
Leadership always play an important role in bringing and managing changes in the organization. There are lot of example in this regard like Steve jobs the co-founder of Apple. This happen because change is central activity of an organization that plays an important role in success or failure of the business. Therefore leadership plays an important role in implementing changes in an organization. Hence, there is a very high relevance of quality of leadership and management of changes in the firm. In order to identify and successfully implementing changes that put a positive impact on business some of the approaches that Mr Mark Timmy can follow are as follows.
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On the basis of above discussion it is concluded that change plays a vital role in growth of an organization. Changes in an organization bring it on track of growth. There are any challenges that organization face in bringing changes at the workplace. Bur it needs to win confidence of the employees. On the basis if above discussion it is also concluded that managers needs to take some of the steps in order make employees rely on their business. Only by doing this changes can be implemented in easy way in an organization without any resistance. On the basis of this report it is concluded that managers of NT moulding have some concerns over the project viability in long term. Therefore, they are not cooperating with Mark Timms. By doing detail discussion this conflict can be solved between managers and CEO. Mangers must always follow contingency approach for giving good leadership to their subordinates because employees are different from each other on various parameters. Therefore, particular style may be good for someone but same may be bad from other point of view. So managers must follow contingency leadership in management of an organization in order to justify with each and every employee of an organization. Further, firm must enrol loyal researchers in its most important projects so that competing company project remain secret and far from knowledge of rival firms. Leadership play a very important role in influencing changes in an organization. In order to introduce big changes in an organization it is imperative that leaders must be visionary in nature. There are many companies that in few years become leading players in relevant industry. On the other hand there are some companies that are operating in an industry for many years but no one knows their name. Every organization brings changes in its business but those firms that have visionary leadership successfully bring changes in their business practices that change shape of their business model. So leadership to large extent affects changes in an organization.
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You also may like to read:
- Dalakoura, A., 2010. Differentiating leader and leadership development: A collective framework for leadership development. Journal of Management Development.
- Edmonds, J., 2011. Managing successful change. Industrial and Commercial Training.
- Ho, M. C., 2011. Ethics management for the construction industry: A review of ethical decisionâ€making literature. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management.
- Janson, A. and McQueen, J. R., 2007. Capturing leadership tacit knowledge in conversations with leaders. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal.
- Shanley, C., 2007. Managing change through management development: an industry case study. Journal of Management Development.