Introduction to Research Methodology
Research methodology is the systematic way to search for information and provide solution to present business problem. It is the way to understand problem and collect data as well as analyze the same so as to drawing valid conclusion (Howell, 2013). It consists of publication research, interviews and survey that enable scholars to fulfill objectives of present research report. Research methodology is the blueprint of that depicts all activities and work to be done which facilitate scholar for conducting research in proper manner. In order to accomplish aim of present report as impact of organizational culture on services of Marriot hotel, appropriate tools and techniques are applied (Research Methodology, 2014). The study laid emphasis on providing description about research philosophy, design, approach and methods of data collection (Bruce, 2009). With the help of research methodology study is conducted by ensuring about validity as well as reliability of the sources as well as data used that facilitate to reduce gap between actual and expected result.
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Aims and objectives
"To identify impact of organizational culture on service of Marriot hotel".
In order to accomplish aim of report following objectives are framed-
To understand the concept of organizational culture
To evaluate the relationship between organization culture and employee engagement at Marriot hotel
To identify the ways in which organization culture effect quality of serves at Marriot hotel
To recommend way in which Marriot hotel can strengthen its organizational culture
Research philosophy is imperative component of research methodology that assists scholars to collect data by having deep insight about the topic (Franklin, 2012). It develops understanding and knowledge for the present topic as impact of organizational culture of service of Marriot hotel. It also facilitates to gather necessary information and provides detail information related to present business problem so as to provide solution for the same. Generally there are three types of research philosophies are being used by investigators such as positivism, interpretivism and realism. Here, positivism focuses on the actual facts and figures available for the same areas so as to draw valid conclusion and accomplish aim of the study (Bhattacharyya, 2009). Positivism also depicts reality that enables investigators to ensure about validity and reliability so as to recommend in the direction of impact of organizational culture of services of Marriot hotel. On the other hand, realism philosophy is based on individual knowledge and understanding of researchers. For the present study as impact of organizational culture of service of Marriot hotel, interpretivism philosophy is used that help scholars to explore idea on the impact of organizational culture. It proves to be effective in order to gather good amount of data and provide solution to present problem. With the help of interpretivisim, investigator interacts with environment and makes appropriate recommendation for organizational culture and its impact on services of Marriot hotel (Bhattacharyya, 2009).
Research design plays significant role that assist scholars to find out the best solution for the problem. It is the blueprint for the present dissertation as impact of organizational culture on services of Marriot hotel. It is systematic plan that proves to be effective for studying and evaluating research problem by the help of appropriate tools and techniques. It assists researchers to collect data in an appropriate manner and interpreting the same so as to drawing valid conclusion. Essentially, there are three types of research designs are used such as descriptive, exploratory and causal that facilitates to cater requirement in different research topics. Research is very helpful to select tools used for data collection and its application for the analysis of the same so as to ensure reliability and validity (Saunders, 2003). Here, causal research is applied to know the cause and effect relationship exist among two variables so that solution can be found for the business problem. Descriptive research design is applied for the present study as impact of organizational culture of services of Marriot hotel. It is imperative to explore idea about the individual unit of population which is associated with study. It assists investigators to study about the characteristics of population and other relevant detail about the same so as to drawing valid conclusion for the study (Mok, Sparks and Kadampully, 2013). It proves to be effective for studying population and collecting data from them so as to accomplish objectives of present study.
Research approach is the prominent aspect for the detail study of report in an effective way which assist investigator to accomplish aim of the same. Generally there are two types of approaches are employed which are deductive and inductive (Deduction & Induction, 2008). These are imperative to give provide amount of information in the direction of aim of study (Johnson and Christensen, 2008). Here, deductive approach at first focus on general content relevant of topic and then move towards specific information (Bruno, 2013). It assist scholar to find the possible solution for the problem and recommend in the same direction. In order to accomplish aim of present study as impact of organizational culture on servicers of Marriot hotel, inductive approach has been used. In this, scholars collect specific information for the topic and then accordingly move towards general content. With the help of inductive approach, researchers collect information from individual unit of population by observation. After analyzing the specific data, general pattern of organization culture has been studied (Dey, 2002). This approach does not involve formulation of hypothesis and is the best suited for present study so as to achieve objectives of the same. It is also imperative to draw valid conclusion by the help of gathering specific as well as general information on the topic that leads to conduct study successfully.
Data Collection methods
Data collection is the most important element of research methodology by which researchers get specific as well as general information related to topic and find solution for the research questions. There are several methods used in order to collect data from the individual unit of population which facilitate to accomplish aim of report. For the present study as impact of organizational culture of service of Marriot hotel, both primary as well as secondary data have been used. Here, primary method focuses on collection of raw and fresh data which insight new ideas and actual information for the study (Fiegen, 2010). In this, data are collected at first hand by the help of direct or indirect interaction with respondents as employees of Marriot hotel. In order to collect data at first hand, several methods are used such as interview, survey and observation. It facilitates to collect sufficient information and help investigators to draw valid conclusion (Data Collection Methods, 2014). For the present report, survey method has been used. Here, questionnaire is used for collection of data so as to provide appropriate information for the topic. It will include open as well as close ended question that facilitate to have detail information related to Further, secondary data are also taken which consist of journals, book and online sites. With the help of these data, researchers get detail about the impact of organizational culture of service of Marriot hotel and help to accomplish aim of study (Lewis, Pun and Lalla, 2004). Secondary information is used in writing literature review so as to get specific as well as general information of topic. Hence, both primary are well as secondary data contribute towards achieving objectives of study.
It is the most significant part of research methodology which assists researchers to collect data in an effective and fulfill their research aim. Sampling is the process to select individual unit of population in order to define respondents. There are two types of sampling methods are used such as probability as well as non-probability (Ihantola and Kihn, 2011). Here, simple random sampling has been used which lies under probability sampling. In this, all employees of population have equal changes to get selected in the sampling. It removes chances of biasness and gives opportunity to employees to express their ideas related to organizational culture. Here, all employees as well as mangers of Marriot hotel comes in the population and individual unit of employees are refer as sample. It provides opportunity for researchers to directly contact with respondents and collect necessary information. It proves to be effective to get accurate detail regarding Marriot hotel.
Further, sampling size is the selecting particular number of people from the individual unit that serve as final respondents. Owing to this, 30 employees are selected who are associated with study by giving their feedback on the questionnaire. It facilitates to gather accurate first hand information that helps to complete dissertation in an effective way. It assists, investigators to accomplish aim of the study and recommend for the same which facilitate to improve quality of services of Marriot hotel (Grafton, Lillis and Mahama, 2011).
Data analysis is the process of analyzing and interpreting collected data that leads to provide solution for the present business problem. It is done in such manner by which collected information are used in order to accomplish aim and objectives of research topic. Data analysis can be done in two ways qualitative as well as quantitative and for the present study, qualitative techniques have been used. It helps to interpret information collected on impact of organizational culture on Marriot hotel (Modell and Humphrey, 2008). It is based on thematic analysis wherein researchers generalize the all specific facts and figures derived from respondents. Here, themes have been formed for each question by which aim and objectives of research problem can be met. All the decisions are taken on the basis of themes formed by which investigators interpret the collected data and recommend in the direction of research problem. The qualitative techniques prove to be effective because theoretical aspects are considered which facilitate to provide solution for the business problem and improve quality of services of Marriot hotel (Vaivio, 2008).
Validity and Reliability
Validity and reliability are the two main component of research methodology which facilitates to conduct study in appropriate way. These lay focus on application of appropriate tools and techniques by which researchers can complete study in an effective manner. Here, validity refers to degree to use tools and techniques in order to achieve objectives of research problem. In the same direction, researcher focused on validity by ensuring about collecting accurate data that are the best suited to purpose of study (Bruce, 2009). Here, they also ensure about authentication of data which are used at the second hand. For the present study as impact of organizational culture on services of Marriot hotel, data have been collected in valid form and they proved to be effective cater requirement of present study. Further, both primary as well as secondary data are used in an effective way that is helpful to accomplish aim of firm.
On the other hand, reliability refers to bringing the same result from the study which exists or done previously in the same area. For the present report as impact of organizational culture on services of Marriot hotel, reliability is ensured by selecting authenticate sources of data collection and avoiding biasness of authors (Franklin, 2012). Hence, both reliability as well as validity is ensure in the present study which leads to accomplish aim of the same by exploring ideas in the same direction.
It is the most prominent aspect of research methodology by which completion of dissertation takes place in an effective way that facilitates to achieve objectives of the same (Bhattacharyya, 2009). For the present topic as impact of organizational culture on services of Marriot hotel following ethical aspects are considered that help to draw valid conclusion from the study.
Taking prior approval-Under this, employees who are selected in the sampling are asked in advance so as to ensure their engagement at their own will. For the existing study, not even a single employee is forced to get involved in the study and give reply to questionnaire. Here, researchers have taken prior approval from participants and ensure their active participation in the direction of accomplishing aim of study.
Restricted access-In order to complete the present dissertation as impact of organization culture of services of Marriot hotel in ethical manner, scholars have taken permission for the restricted access of some of sites (Mok, Sparks and Kadampully, 2013). It facilitates to get specific information in detail and alternative solution of the problem. It ensures ethical consideration so as to complete to report in an effective way. However, some of the areas were still restricted by which scholars were not able to collect enough information.
Confidentiality- In order to ensure safety of respondents their information is used in an ethical way so as to secure their personal information. It assists scholars to get accurate information and accomplish research aim of the present study (Johnson and Christensen, 2008). It proves to be effective in order to cater requirement of people who do research on the same topic in future.
Citing work of scholars-The present report as impact of organizational culture on services of Marriot hotel, ensure proper cited work that serve as evidence work done in ethical form (Bruno, 2013). Here, all data collected from secondary sources is properly referenced which shows that content is not copied and objectives of present study are met in an effective way. Hence, aforementioned ethical aspects are considered by scholars they contribute towards completion of dissertation in an effective way.
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Research limitations are faced by investigators that created barrier in the completion of dissertation on right time. For the present topic as impact of organizational culture of services of Marriot hotel, following
limitations have been faced-
Biasness of researchers- Under this, some respondents have provided biased information due to their personal benefit which reduces accuracy of the result. It leads to create problem to find solution of the businessproblem (Dey, 2002). Further, respondents may not provide right information due to their busy schedule; in this case, researchers fill the questionnaire at their own which affect reliability as well as validity of collected information. However, maximum care has taken in order to reduce biasness of researchers.
Insufficient secondary information- Under this, scholars find problem for collecting enough data from secondary sources and there is possibility that they may miss out some facts which are the most relevant to the study (Lewis, Pun and Lalla, 2004). Further, most common problem is related to restricted access in which investigators were not allowed to use some of the data.
Time consuming-It is another research limitation because investigators are allotted very less time to conduct study. There are several work need to be done such as collection of information, analysis, referring several books, journal. Along with that, survey is done for collecting primary data that consume high time. Due to this limitation, scholars face problem to complete report in an effective and they some of the important part of the study is missed out (Fiegen, 2010). For the present report as impact of organizational culture and its impact on services of Marriot hotel, less time was allotted so it was not possible to collect more relevant data in the direction of accomplishing aim of study in an effective way.
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- Fiegen, M. A., 2010. Systematic review of research methods: the case of business instruction. Reference Services Review.
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