Strategic Human resource management is a part of human resource that manage long term business achievements with the help of strategic manner. His approach is focus on doing something in a strategic form. In this approach mostly using fundamental concept of action plans for goal accomplishment.(Cooke and Saini,2015. )) This approach is fully integrated with other organisational functions and it involved in making strategic decision. Marks & Spencer is one of leading retail industry in UK. It offer wide range of clothing outlets for men, women, and kids . Marks & Spencer has online stores also, which would be help to increase in profit margin. Company provide some rewards , compensation to their employees for performance enhancement or employee engagement. It would be help in create competitive advantage in marketplace. In this report describe various type of strategic HRM models and theories which are help to create better workforce environment. (Cascio, 2015).
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LO1 Strategic HRM policies are design for employee engagement and competitive advantage of the organisation
Employee engagement and competitive advantage is part of the strategic management policies where company provide so many activities for retaining employees in an organisation. Employees are the main resources in enterprise for delivering services. Strategic HR planning is directly link between management that will provide strategic implication for employee engagement. There are some many HR policies which are relates to employee engagement and help to create competitive advantage.(Knies, and et.al., 2015.)
- Compensation and benefits: In an organisation management provide compensations and other benefits time to time. It will be help to retaining employees and increase their performance level. It would be create competitive advantage in current market. Compensation is a way to employee motivate automatically in monetary term, and do more hard work in their. Provide timely compensations is likely to stay with organisation.
- Developing HR policies: Policies and procedure are some time create problems in an organisation so in that case management develop some policies with the consultant of existing employees. It would be create a healthy environment and participative relationship with employees . Change in policies and practices will be helpful to more employment and with the help of new creativity in HR policies will be help to increase competitive advantage in workforce.Knies, E. and et.al., 2015.
- Employment legislation and standards: In an organisation so many legal compliances between employment. Which would be followed by the strictly. High strictness is create unhealthy workforce environment. In that situation company have to provide some liberalisation and minimum legislation to ensure a safe and equitable work environment. It helps to increase employee confidence and employee have to do better performance in the company(Cascio, 2015).
- Conflict resolution: conflicts is a one big issues in any organisation. Some times conflicts is a healthy for organisation. It would be create healthy competition between employees for task accomplishment. Moreover, there are some big issues arising in enterprises. companies having a conflicts resolution policies to resolve their difficulty. Problem solving techniques are provide reducing in conflicts and it helpful for the retaining employment.(Beer, 2015.)
- employee recognition: In an organisation provide proper employee recognition programs it would be help to retaining employment. on the basis of their better performing the company create a competitive advantage.
- Performance management: Performance management is on going process in an organisation, motivates employees to do their best performance. Motivations, compensations, rewards and some other benefits are help to increase in performance level. enhancement in performance is create a competitive advantage in market place.
LO2 critically review and analysis the Strategic HRM model and theories
Guest model of HRM was design for the six important elements of the organisation which affect the whole functions of human resource. Guest model focus on the individual needs rather than combined manpower which modify organisation to acquire power and flexibility.(Beer, 2015.).
HRM strategy:In this point management setting long term goals for future upcoming needs and requirements.
HRM practices: management will consider more focus on HRM policies and practices in a organisation. Proper planning of policies will be helpful in create healthy workforce environment. In this point management properly making policies and effectively formulated in management. Recruitment, selection, training, appraisals so many HR policies under the HRM practices. Management effectively followed the all activities and increase in their workforce environment. (Cascio, 2015).)
HR outcomes:Management will be focus on employee commitment and quality of work. Management provide some flexibility in their organisation which would be help to stress free environment. In this point management review on implementation of formalised strategies and check quality performance standards to actual performance.
Behavioural Outcomes:In this point management will focus on motivation techniques in the company. Motivation help to increase their performance and motivates employees doing well.
Performance outcomes: Management will check performance measurement on the basis on their respected field. Management used to monitor an employee's performance over the year.
Financial outcomes:Proper HR strategy is determine the organisation financial performance. Effective planning of strategic decision making programs will be helpful for better financial outcomes. Better performance is increase productivity in an organisation and profit ratio.
There are various theories has applied in human resource management. Maslow need theory is based on employee expectation and needs. This is the motivation theory of HRM. In this theory there are various stages to determine in various level of human life cycle. In this approach employee will focus on their hierarchy of individual needs(Beer, 2015.).
There are various stages of Maslow hierarchy model:
Physiological need: in this need employee want food , water, rest and shelter. This is the basis need of any employee which can be necessity of human life cycle.
Safety Need: in this stage employee wants some security and safety provision in an organisation.
Social needs: In this point employee expect healthy relationship with subordinates and top management. This stage will help to increase confidence in employee and increase moral for better performance. Human beings want to some love affection and some belongingness in workplace.( Cooke and Saini,2015. )
Esteem needs: in this stage employee want to self motivated from their work. Employee expect some achievements on the basis of his performance and also in this stage employee want to respect from other employees. Because all human have to feel respected in their respected workplace. Esteem represent the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People often engage in a profession to gain some recognition.(Kaufman, 2015.)
Self actualization: Self actualization is a way to process of evaluating yourself. In this stage need refer to person self actualisation where employee describe their own accomplishment and achievement in their whole period of working time.(Zikic, 2015.) In this stage employee get turn for this job to another job, because in this job they established all records and goal accomplishment of workforce. Maslow believed to understand this level of need is only achieve those person who fulfilling the all previous needs( Cooke and Saini,2015. )).
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LO3 Critically evaluation of the impact that a strategic approach to people mangement can have in contemporary organisation's
As per the above discussion it has been ascertained that Marks & Spencer performance are largely depends upon the effective practices and approaches of the human resource management. With the help of effective HR practices and approaches , cited firm can effectively conduct the people management in the organisation. People management in a process under which management of an organisation manage and monitor the activities and performance of employees (Hofstetter and Harpaz,2015). Employees plays a very crucial role in the order to smooth functioning and attainment of determined objective within a specific period of time. Company have to effectively manage and motivate employees in order to gain an effective outcomes. The management of cited firm effectively understand and organise people engagement programs so as they can motivate and inspire for igher productivity.
As it has discussed that Marks &Spencer is the famous retail firm which dealing with customer commodity. Its success are largely depends upon the performance of human resources. If its employees are able to deliver high standard contribution then it become easy to attain success of firm. In this manner, company have to understand the theories and approaches of human resources management and applied in the organisation so as its employees can effectively manage and motivated (Hoque 2013). Cited firm has used the various motivation concept in order to manage and motivate employees. With the help of maslows motivation theory, company is successfully meet the needs and requirement of employees and satisfy them in respect of their working policies, practices, salary and environment. As per the maslow motivation theory, company has effectively satisfied five basic needs of employees that is physiological, safety need, esteem need, self actualisation and love belonging need. Company has successfully deliver the facilities of effective working environment so as their physiological needs can satisfy. It provided effective working environment, effective working policies and practices etc so as it successful deliver their basis needs. In the context of self actualisation and esteem need company provided monetary and non monetary rewards through which employees has successfully motivated and inspired. With the help of these approaches, employees has effectively motivated and encourage for high productivity and performance. With the help of these guest model of HRM cited firm has successfully implement and applied an impressive strategies and policies for people management (Hutchinson and Purcell, 2010). Company has taken participation of employees in the decision making process as they can motivate for higher performance. With the help of this strategy, company provided effective motivation to workforce. Following are some positive implication of adoption of the HRM theories and practices in the Marks& Spencer-
- Improve the performance of employees- With the help of various HRM practices and theories, company has effectively improved the performance of employees. Employees are motivated by the motivation techniques and inspire for higher performance and productivity. They have motivated for higher level performance and productivity. This will assist in improving the entire goodwill of organisation and improve the brand image in the market.
- Increase the quality of performance- With the help of human resources approaches and theories, cited firm has successfully implement the people management programs and improve their performance and quality of business activities (Hoque, 2013)This will aid in increase the profitability and market share of company because as employees performance quality increase then it will aid in increase the product and services quality. This will delivery high level of customer satisfaction and meet their expectations.
- Health relationship at workplace- While in the organisation, management effectively management the people management programs and also manage their performance then it directly positively influence the relationship between various functional department. With the help of various approaches and theories of HRM in the cited organisation, company has successfully maintain the effective relationship between the workforce (Jayawardena and et.al., 2013). There relationship between the various functional department and improve and they started work with collaborate manner. They has shared their suggestion, views, complaints and issue with each other and cooperate in each other work. This will assist in improving the entire business environment and atmosphere at workplace.
- Low employees turn over- With the help of various approaches and theories of human resource management, cited firm has successfully fulfil the needs and requirement of employees. Company has provided various arrangement and facilities for employees motivation like effective salary packages, fringe benefits, working practices, compensation, bonus, flexible working practices etc (Kim, and et.al., 2016). These all assist I increasing the level of motivation in the employees so as the employees turn over level has decreased in the Mark &Spencer.
- Collaboration working-With the help of various approaches and theories of human resources management in the cited firm , there has started collaborate working in the organisation. People are motivate and inspire for work together. They started working in a team and share their views, suggestion, conflicts, idea and opinion with each other. This will assist in improving the working environment in the organisation as well as quality of activities. (Kakuma and et.al., 2011) This assisted in improving the entire process of business, quality and productivity of customer services, product and services of company. This will assist in increasing the profitability and market share.
As per the above discussion it has been ascertained that there are various HRM approaches and theories has been applied in the company through which various positive implication upon the performance of employees, quality of product and services, level of profitability and productivity and so on. So it can be said that the theories and approaches of HRM assist in increasing the entire performance and quality of business.
Human resource's management is a process under which management recruit, monitor, evaluate, motivate employees for attainment of determined objective of organisation. It is very important aspect in order to attain the business success because the entire success are largely depends upon the employees so effective management of employees is very important. From this project report it has been ascertained that there are various kinds of effective function of HR department in the Marks and Spenser like training and development, people engagement, motivation, conflicts resolution etc. With the aid of various theories and approaches HRM department can effectively manage the human resources. With the help of various theories and approaches, comp;any can improve the quality of employees performance, profitability of business and develop an effective and healthy working environment at workplace.,
Journals and Books
- Hofstetter, H. and Harpaz, I., 2015. Declared versus actual organizational culture as indicated by an organization's performance appraisal. The International Journal of Human Resource Management.26(4). pp.445-466.
- Hoque, K., 2013. Human resource management in the hotel industry: Strategy, innovation and performance. Routledge.
- Hutchinson, S. and Purcell, J., 2010. Managing ward managers for roles in HRM in the NHS: overworked and underâ€resourced. Human Resource Management Journal. 20(4). pp. 357-374.
- Jayawardena, C. and et.al., 2013. Trends in the international hotel industry.Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes.5(2). pp.151-163.Hoque, K., 2013. Human resource management in the hotel industry: Strategy, innovation and performance. Routledge.
- Jenter, D. and Kanaan, F., 2015.Jenter, D. and Kanaan, F., 2015. CEO turnover and relative performance evaluation. The Journal of Finance.70(5). pp.2155-2184.
- Kakuma, R. and et.al., 2011. Human resources for mental health care: current situation and strategies for action. The Lancet. 378(9803). pp. 1654-1663.
- Kim, R. G., and et.al., 2016. Wireless NoC for VFI-Enabled Multicore Chip Design: Performance Evaluation and Design Trade-offs. IEEE Transactions on Computers.65(4). pp.1323-1336.
- Koh, H.K. and Sebelius, K.G., 2010. Promoting prevention through the affordable care act. New England Journal of Medicine. 363(14). pp. 1296-1299.
- Ledford, G. E., Benson, G. and Lawler, E. E., 2016. Aligning Research and the Current Practice of Performance Management. Industrial and Organizational Psychology.9(02). pp.253-260.
- Lewis, R. and et.al., 2010. Using a competency-based approach to identify the management behaviours required to manage workplace stress in nursing: A critical incident study. International Journal of Nursing Studies.47(3). pp. 307-313.