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Human Resource Management for Service Industry

INTRODUCTION

To strategically manage people in organisation human resources team suggest management for the establishment of people's work for business resources. Human resource management team ensures employment law in organisation and provides effective management of work in business organisation.(Collings,Wood and Szamosi, 2018.) In this present report chosen organisation is British Airways. This present report will cover role and purpose of human resource management in British Airways and also creation of human resource plan with analysis of supply and demand of the industry with proper justification of role of staff and hours of work required to deliver new flight. This report will also cover current state of employment in industry and employment law which affect management of industry. After that in this report job description and job specification for cabin crew will analyse and also comparison for selection process in British airways and Transport for London will be explained. Further more in this report an explanation will give on different types of training and its difference with development, role and needs of training and role of training and development in organisation to achieve effective work.

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TASK 1

1.1Role and purpose of human resource management in British Airway

The human resource management is responsible for employee payments, reward system for all the employees to contribute to organization's strategic plans and several other things . Human resource management plays a vital role in growth of an organization. British airways have always been a successful industry and for its success Human resource management plays a vital role. Human resource management in British airways works with heart and soul for companies objectives to be achieved. There are various concepts of human resource planning which are to be considered for smooth running of an organization.

Planning and forecasting plays a vital role in human resource planning. The basic purpose of HRM is to have an accurate estimation of number of employees required which matches skill set to obtain organizational objectives.(Gutierrez-Gutierrez and et.al., 2018.) Human resource in British airways rearranged its services so that it can work as a bridge between its employees and customers. Manpower requirement has to be forecasted and for that several forecasting techniques has to be used like forecast, trend analysis and several mathematical models etc. British Airways uses Michigan Model for forecasting purpose.

Recruitment Process is basically a series of steps which has to be successfully cleared using some strategies before going to next steps. Diversity and inclusiveness of new staff is seen as a key aspect of recruitment strategy.

Contracts of employment is a necessary relationship between employee and employer which is the main aspect for their relationship. Employment contract is a written binding contract between employee and employer, and if drafted properly can protect companies financial and intellectual resources.(Hodges, 2018.) British Airways have Strong binding contract for all its employees and customers.

Employee Monitoring, it's basically the use of various methods of workplace surveillance to gather information about each and every employee to understand its behaviour, characteristics and to see whether that employee is faithful towards their work or not. British airways uses surveillance cameras to keep surveillance on all employees.

Training and development is a key human resource function or we can say that it is an integral part of human resource development activity. Many organization like British airways have a mandatory training program of 1 month after joining. British airways focuses on training every employee their duties and work which is to be done. This training not only includes knowledge of their work but also includes change of attitude with a resultant improvement in their behaviour and develop professionalism. Development helps employee to grow and also create opportunities for their growth.

Budget monitoring is very important part in an organization but HR department has limited involvement in budgeting procedure. But they need to monitor that all the programs are financed so that they can perform their task and complete their responsibility effectively.(Papa and et.al., 2018. ) HR department uses two methods (incremental method and zero based method)to monitor weather budgets are allotted perfectly to all the programs. 

There are two broad approaches to HRM like hard and soft HRM :

Hard: treats employees simply as a resource like machinery and building while

Soft : treats employee as the most important resource in business and as a resource to gain advantage. However, they are only theoretical things in reality in an organization like British Airways HR consist of both Soft and Hard HR.

1.2 creation of HR plan based on supply and demand, and observation of staff role and numbers of working hours.

Human resource planning used in British airways to identify current and future needs of the organisation to achieve organisational objectives of the organisation.(Christoph Wahl, 2011.) Human resource team of organisation plan for their future needs that would be regarding supplies, equipment, building and financial capacity of the organisation to achieve future goals. Therefore, human resource planning used to identify organisation staff needs, availability of forecasting for personnel, and also to determine what additions and replacements needs in organisation to develop effective performance in organisation. Human resource team have to perform three types of development in the organisation that is job analysis, forecasting demand and supply and legal restraints of the company.

Human resource plan based on demand and supply.

As discussed above human resource planning established in the organisation to achieve organisation objectively effectively. British Airways also developed human resource management team to assess overall demand and supply performance workforce in the organisation. According to current market situations of the airways company skills and knowledgable workforce is increasing rapidly and this function leads to increase demands of company for which they have to provide effective management which assess overall performance of the company. To increase supply and demand in organisation, first and foremost role of human resource managers is to analyse factors which provide high demand and supply to the organisation. British airways human resource team analyse internal and external factor of the company so that to deliver new flight service to Maderia. Management teams will find what factor affect this service and what planning is to be made for succession of landing new flight in Maderia.

When British airways human resource considers these factor they will able to develop effective plan and create favourable results for the company. In all these planning organisation structure plays an important role to ensure that internal factors and appropriate to achieve effective planning of the organisation. It is necessary for human resource team to carry out effective organisation structure so that staff members will work with motivation to achieve that goals.

Role of staff and their working hours justification to deliver new flight

It is necessary for the British airways human resource teams to carry out skilled employees to achieve organisational objective. If company has staff which is well educated and have knowledge to provide effective work performance, and this leads to provide customer satisfaction in the business. Airways companies needs to develop better Cabin Crew members so that they will provide better guidance to customers which helps in building goodwill of the company and which also helps in attracting loyalty from customers.

Working hours of the employees in British airways is needs to be in favours of the cabin crew that will travel in new flight to deliver service in Maderia so that they become motivated to work and will prove better guidance to customers. Company has to appoint maximum number of staff which required in providing this new flight service to customers.

TASK 2

2.1 Current state of employment relations in British Airlines company.

Another role of human resource management of British Airways company is to develop better employee relationship in organisation and their main aim is to develop and maintain healthy relationship between employer and employees at work place which encourage them to work and also motivates them to work. This also helps in developing employee morale and their work performance. Problem faced by employee of the British Airways are resolved by developing this employee and employer relationship in the organisation.(Mauro and et.al., 2018.) To develop effective relationship, human resources' management has to establish good communication with employees so that they do not face any difficulty in doing work in organisation. Good employee relationship in company only will develop when organisation culture of doing work is positive which involve greater employee participation in achieving future goals of the organisation. This positive culture in organisation will not create any conflicts between employees of organisation so that they work with full motivation. Proper disciplinary procedure is to be provided by human resource managers of the company so that effective work process runs in company and any misconduct will not happen in organisation. Sometimes conditions are also arisen in company when employees are not doing favourable work to achieve organisation objectives and in that case human resource team of the company will have to motivate and have to provide better work environment and security in doing work in business organisation.

Employment law in British Airways for employees are as follows

Employment law is given by government to protect employee rights in workplace and this will affect management of human resource in organisation. Under this employment relation act 2008 provided by government which aim is to protect democratic rights of worker, to provide simplification in procedure for registration of employee in organisation, to resolve any dispute arises and also to develop productive employment in the organisation. British Airways company has to develop this law and this is necessary for them to develop this law to manage overall performance of the company in market. Moreover, this act also define what criteria are to applied for the employees, this relates to contract of employees, minimum age for employment, payment to be provided and employee working hours in the organisation.

Contract of employment is another which provides legal rights for employment regarding termination, retirement, and other policies. Developing this contract of employment it means company is providing rights for employment that human resource department will only terminate employee when legal reason is provided for the termination. Paternal law is another right which is provided by government to employee regarding granting of leave when a child is born or adopted. In this act maternity leave, adoption leave is takes into consideration by employees of the organisation. Employee retirement act is highlights age in which employee retire and may work in certain conditions. This employment law in British Airways provides help to huma resource management to provide motivation among employees by ensuring their rights and to provide security on workplace of the organisation.

2.2 description of employment act which affect management of human resource within British Airways.

Employment relation act in British Airways determines regulation of work routine ans which also provides better employee-employer relationship in an organisation. Employment law provides human resource management to establish better rules and regulations in the organisation. This law ensures human rights which provides security and protection to employees in their work place. There are many acts which provided for the benefits of employees and which every firm have to strictly establish that law in their organisation to maintain positive work environment.

Act which affect management of British Airways is firstly employment relation act 2008 which introduces to focus on areas which involves democratic rights of the workers, to provide simplification for the procedure of registration, to promote collecting bargaining, and to resolve disputes and conflicts which arises between employee and to develop productive employment relation in the organisation. British Airways has to apply this law and it is the duty of human resource managers to manage rules and regulations according to this law which help in improving overall performance of the organisation.(Berk and et.al., 2018.) British airways operates on higher basis and due to which they have to apply employment regulation act so that it helps in achieving overall growth of the company. Employment also ensure work limits of the employee in organisation. This act provide guidance to both employee and employer regarding minimum age of the employee to work in organisation, their pay remuneration which is to be provided, and working hours in which they work in organisation. These all factors provides human rights to employee which encourage them to work hard for the company.

Another law which affect management of human resource is contract of employment which require to be there in organisation so that employee takes this consideration for resignation, termination, retirement and for other policies. This employment ensures that a company only terminate their employee if valid reason is provided by organisation for termination and if they terminate employee for personal reason then this will against law and employee may claim compensate for that. Another law which is given by government in favour of employee is Parental law under which an employee may grant for leave if any child id born or adopted. This law ensures staff safeguard interest of the employees which are working in organisation.

Another law which affect management of the human resource is law which is associated with retirement policy of the company, this law ensures age limit of employee in which they retire from job and may continue in some conditions. Therefore, this law provides protection and rights to employees in every form so that effective work carried out from them to achieve organisational objectives.(Hebson and Rubery, 2018.) Employment law presence in British Airways ensures that management has to alter its policies to provide employee satisfaction which helps them to achieve future goals.

TASK 3

3.1 Job Description and Personal Specification for CABIN CREW Members of British Airways.

Jon description and personal specifications of Cabin crew of British Airways are as follows.

Name of organisation- British Airways

Name of department- Cabin crew department

Job title- Cabin crew executive

summary of Job-

In British Airways role of Cabin crew is to provide proper guidance regarding customer's journey in the flights. There duty is to assure that each and every customer reach flight and have taken their seats. They also have to provide food products and other services to customers in the organisation. They help customer for having pleasant experience before their flight took off.

Key responsibilities of Cabin Crew-

  • To attend brief of pre-flight, so that it helps them to assigned their position of work in upcoming flight.
  • Another role is to provide services to customers regarding flight details, schedule, and to find number of patients which going through a specific disease to provide them special requirements such as wheelchair for person who is disabled and to provide requirements to diabetic patients.(Airline cabin crew: job description,)
  • To carry duties which require in flight, such duties can be like to ensure that aircraft is properly cleaned, information under seat pockets are up to date, checking of safety equipments that whether they are properly working or not and about meals, drinks available in flight or not.
  • To guide customer who are going to be travel in that aircraft and also to welcome them.
  • Another duty is to ensure that whether luggage of the customer are properly stored or not and to check security of the luggage while storing them.
  • Also, to check whether all seat belts are working properly and it is to be done prior to take off.
  • To provide proper guidance regarding customer's question and to make announcement on behalf of pilot to customers of the aircraft.

Reporting relationship

In British Airways role of cabin crew is to directly report to the seniors managers of the aircraft. They also have to report to senior managers of the British Airways. They hired as cabin crew members of the aircraft under which they have to perform their specific duties and responsibilities.

Personal profile

Cabin crew members before appointment has to pass certain qualification in British Airways.

  • Good communication skill
  • best in proving interpersonal skills
  • They have to develop ability to remain clam during emergencies and to keep customer also clam in difficulty.
  • They have become diplomat and have tact to handle situations.
  • Another skill is to greet passengers during they board and exit from aircraft.

Dimensions or content factors

Candidate which has potential to work would be first employed in British Airways by passing certain test of the company.(Olson and et.al., 2018.) Their role is to provide service and to guide customer regarding travelling so they assigned to work under the aircraft.

Development of job description

This job description made by the human resource department of British Airways. This report includes rules and regulation which are to be followed in organisation before appointing and member for Cabin crew. Specific job summary and tools provided by human resource department which have to be clear by person who wants to work British Airways.

39

3.2 comparison of selection process between British Airways and Transport for London

Selection process is the process of packing the right candidate with prerequisite qualification and capabilities to fill the job in the organization. British Airways implements the below maintained process in order to select right candidate in firm.

Selection process of British Airways

  • invite application
  • receiving application
  • screening application
  • preliminary interview
  • written test /employment test
  • personal interview
  • checking reference
  • Physical test
  • final selection

Invite application- The organization and outside the organization are called for applying the post. In this describe the term of knowledge, experience and specialization and other. It attracts large number of application from various areas in British Airways.

Receiving application- After invite application organization revived details of interesting candidate. In British airways generally consists the information about the qualification age and experience of the candidate on the basis of which the interviewer get the idea about candidate.

Screening application- That candidate who qualify the criteria of the job specification. In British airways That application will be shortlisted And that candidate will invite for preliminary interview.

Preliminary interview- In British airways this will be conduct to check the candidate qualification language and skill. It will be done over the telephone to avoid sifting.

Written test/ employment test- The British airways take a test of candidate to check the candidate qualify the job or not. These test are intelligence tests, aptitude tests, trade test, interest test, personality test etc.

Personal interview- Personal interview most widely used selection technique by the British airways. It is a conversation with a purpose between an interviewer and a job applicant.

Checking reference- After the personal interview and before selection the organization check the selecting employ the prospective employee generally look the referees given candidate.(Barrow, and Lyon, 2018.)

Physical test- The British airways generally prefer medical examination to b incurred of the person to avoid time and expenditure spend on the medically fit or unfit person,

final selection- All these steps clear the candidate than candidate will select by the British airways. Initially the candidate is appointed on the job. 

Selection process of transport for London.

  • Job description
  • conduct interview
  • select suitable candidate
  • offer the job

Job description- In the job description the transport for London that organization will describe the post description like candidate skill, qualification, experience, etc. that is the initial process of selecting candidate.

Conduct interview- Interesting candidate join the interview. The transport for London will give a complete picture of there job profile. The interview helps the candidate in deciding the candidate can related himself to the organization.(Brown and et.al., 2018.)

Select suitable candidate- After the interview the transport for London organization will select the perfect candidate for the post. The managers express their intention to offer jobs to candidates.

Offer the job- After the candidate accept the job, then the organization offered the candidate appointment letter. In the latter the organization describe about salary, joining date, working hours, location, benefits (leave, retirement, death) etc.

Task 4

4.1 Contribution of Training and Development Activities for Effective Performance in British Airways

Training and development activities of the British Airways plays an important role to improve skill from employees and this would consider as asset of the company because it provides effectiveness of working in organisation.(Training and Development,2018.) Training and development provides to employees of the organisation just to achieve overall performance of the business.

Different types of training

Different types of training provided by British Airways for their employee to set effective work performance in the company. This training session is almost of two-and-a-half moths. As this company does their operation on large scale, candidates are allowed to work under only one aircraft. To learn everything regarding aircraft and to use of safety equipments these training is provided to members of British Airways. Three types of service includes.

  • Services such as grooming, finesse, procedure of service etc. this training is provided so that cabin crew is all aware of their role and responsibilities which they have to perform when they are appointed in industry.
  • Use of safety measures- this training provided to candidate which are selected for job role. Aim of this training is provide members about detail guideline of using safety measures in aircraft that will have to clarify with customers also,
  • Using of first aid which sometimes cabin crew members face on board such as asthma, motion weakness etc.(Abdelhakim and et.al., 2018.)

Difference between training and development

One of the major difference between training and development is training includes learning process which shows skills to required for person who appointed to perform job role and to develop skills which required to perform that job role. Whereas development is a continuous process which is a learning process on self-level.

Benefit and effectiveness of training

Training is the process by which person's inner skills get improved. Continuous training always benefit organisation as well as to employee both. Training is a process to encourage employee of the organisation to work hard for the achievement of organisational objectives. Training in organisation always proves better for organisation.

Role and need for training

Training is the process which allow employees to strengthen their skills and responsibilities which are required to be improve in organisation. It is a program which develop both employee and organisation and have similar knowledge to achieve organisational objectives.(Robson, and Sebba, 2018.) This process helps company to stand strongly in front of their competitors and to make strong image of company among peoples.

Overall contribution of training and development

Market trends of British Airways are changing increasingly day by day and for that company has to provide regular training to achieve targeted organisational objectives. This helps company to remain competitive among all other companies. Training and development activities in organisation helps to survive in market. Activities of training and development in organisation implement aspect like personal development, regarding health and safety and to improve personal and organisational productivity. Training and development contribution for British Airways are-

To enhance employee productivity in their job role which is allocated to them this process considered to be very important. This helps managers to work with responsibilities which helps organisation to earn effective performance for them.

Continuous training and development programs helps to achieve better organisational performance which leads to earn company's profitability and lower cost of the organisation.

This development also enhance team work of the organisation which improve quality of service which is provided by organisation to achieve targeted future goals.(Dipboye, 2018.)

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Conclusion

From the above study it can be calculated that human resource management of the service industry plays an important role to main positive organisational culture and to get effective work performance from the employees of the organisation. In this report chosen organisation for analysis of performance of human resource management is British Airways. This report is divided into four tasks and each tasks have particular questions in this report. In this report, purpose and role of human resource management in British Airways is explained and HR plan is created with reference to demand and supply of the company and justification of number of staffs, their working hours in British Airways is studied. After that in this report current state of employment act in British Airways and description of employment role which affect management of human resources in British Airways is discussed in this report. Furthermore, in this report job description and personal specification of Cabin Crew members of British Airways and comparison of selection process between companied is discussed in this report. Furthermore, in this report contribution of training and development activities for effective performance in British Airways is explained in this report. 

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Reference

  • Abdelhakim and et.al., 2018. Evaluating cabin crew food safety training using the Kirkpatrick model: an airlines’ perspective.British Food Journal.120(7). pp.1574-1589.
  • Barrow, C. and Lyon, A., 2018.Modern Employment Law. Routledge.
  • Berk, L and et.al., 2018. Prescriptive analytics for human resource planning in the professional services industry.European Journal of Operational Research.272(2). pp.636-641.
  • Brown, E and et.al., 2018. Employment Law and Policy. InLaw and Public Policy(pp. 323-351). Routledge.
  • Collings, D.G., Wood, G.T. and Szamosi, L.T., 2018. Human resource management: A critical approach. InHuman Resource Management(pp. 1-23). Routledge.
  • De Mauro and et.al., 2018. Human resources for Big Data professions: A systematic classification of job roles and required skill sets.Information Processing & Management.54(5). pp.807-817.
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