It is a popular saying that you are what you eat. Your eating habits reflects on your body. Taking a healthy diet provides number of nutrients and these are available in vegetables, they are low in fat and neither have cholesterol nor calories (Bieringand et. al 2012). Eating healthy food reduces so many diseases that a person invites when they eat junk food. The diseases such as heart strokes, obesity, prevents from cancer, blood pressure remains in control, diabetes etc. the childhood obesity has been a major issue in UK these days. It has become a global issue. This needs to be controlled as soon as possible.
For this everybody has to be aware because obesity itself is a disease that invites various problems. So to get rid of it and have a healthy body is the utmost objective. The report contains the study about the perception about the eating habits of the children of UK and what are the harmful benefits that they are facing because of obesity. In this report various methods will be discussed along with the literature review and accordingly recommendations are given.
Literature Review are the text which includes the present knowledge about the findings and contribution towards the particular topic. They are the base for conducting any research in any field according to the chosen topic. They are the secondary sources and does not study any work which is first hand or originally done. Narrow scope literatures reviews are considered as the part of peer revised journals.
Literature reviews also contains the study of persons who are doing graduation or post graduation which includes their work in context to the related research topic. The thesis students have prepared in evaluation of research also plays an important role in research study.
According to Corsino and et. al., (2012) The children residing in UK has been suffering from overweight issues and obesity problems. According to Deloriand et. al., (2012) the children after 1991 are mostly overweight and after 1998 are obese. They are children who are obese from the starting and some become obese while growing up. The world health organisation has marked obesity in a serious category of disease and it is as severe as other chronic diseases and diseases occurring from drinking polluted water.
According to Mermond and et. al., (2012) The reason for obesity is unhealthy diet and the cause of this is that the parents and schools does not give attention to the health issues of children. They both have a very strong influence on the life of a child. It is their responsibility to indulge them in activities that involve physical exertion and make them habitual to exercise. They should teach them to eat healthy from the starting.
According to DeLuca and et. al., (2012) it is a psychological issue that influence the person, it also depends on superiority of children. The awareness factor of eating healthy is also a big issue. Another important factor is motivation. The obesity issues have been given priority and they must be treated asap. The influential factor here are parents and after them schools. Parent be the guiding force to the children as they can inculcate any habit in them when they are at their learning phase. Say for instance breastfeeding their children for the first six months is very essential and it also prevents them to be overweight. And it gives so many healthy advantages to a child but still some parents does not follow this advice and give their child outside food which make them ill and invite to various health related problems.
From the view point of Donnelly and et. al., (2013) the possible reasons of obesity that occur in the life of a person are parental obesity, time duration of their sleep, weight at their birth time, excess duration of viewing television, gaining weight at the time of infancy, early life size, or may be their body mass index is rebound or catch up growth etc.
BMI (kg/m2) = mass (kg) / height (m)2
According to view point of Wang, (2013) obesity occurs because of the increase in fat cells, it happens because during the period of growth their is an incremental in the number of fat cells that results in the increase of size that happens when they absorb energy. Obesity is the stage where the weight of an individual is higher than the ideal weight. The ideal weight is calculated by the measure of body mass index. It measures the relationship between the height and weight of a person. The weight of a person must be in proportion to its height. The obesity in children is often described to identify the persons who are at risk of getting obese.
The children's should be prevented then and there. It refers to excess body fat than the normal. Excess facts is This happens generally due to unhealthy practices and not doing exercise. The children who suffer from obesity often has problems related to bones, they are prone to orthopaedic issues. They suffer from type two diabetes that was initially take place in adults only but now a days it has been seen in obese children.
From the view point of Driscoll and et. al., (2012) The confidence level of obese children's are very low and they does not have a high self esteem. Most of the obese kids feel inferior. They do stress eating and have eating disorders. They are usually dissatisfied with their bodies. Because of this they face adverse situations.
Causes of obesity
There are various causes of obesity Ellsworth 2014 has find out three reasons and these are lack of exercise, overeating, hereditary.
This is the cause of obesity but it is very less in percentage. Very less people are obese because of there hereditary issues. This happens because of hormonal dis balance. It an be curd and children can make their weight in proportion to their height by following proper and healthy diet and they can control their excess weight by doing exercise.
Lack of exercise
this happens because the child is not moving his body as required to burn the calories that he has undertaken. It happens this has been the important fact6or that is increasing the obesity in children. As there is no physical activity involved in the lives of children,. These days they are occupied in the social media and in their phones an laptops. They don't play outdoor games, don't socialise as they spend their entire time on phones, laptops televisions. Involvement in physical activity helps the child to reduce the risk of obesity by 26% to 48% as identified by (Englberger and et.al., 2010). Children these days does not play with their friends, does not ride bicycles , no jumping no skipping nothing. All this has been replaced by video games, computers etc.
this is the main cause of obesity. Children are eating whatever they are getting. In this the biggest defaulter is their parents and the school. The schools are offering them food which are delicious in taste but ridiculous in nutrients content. They are providing them a with junk food and they have installed candy machines and children are eating all those junk and getting g obese. The fruits and vegetables have been replaced by pizzas and burgers. The intake of fats and calories are increasing and nutrient are not going in the bodies of children. This is very serious issue and appropriate measures must be taken in this case.
It is damaging the children and the society as a whole (Fine and et.al 2011) .The biggest problem is that children cant quit eating junk food as they don't have other choices. In school and colleges only junk food is available. So how they will control and what they will eat of they are not eating junk food. The schools should have food which contain the nutrients required for the child . Children should be motivated to make healthy choices everyday. There are some other factors that are responsible for the growing fat of children and if not stopped here it will convert into obesity.
The sedentary lifestyle is playing an important role in obesity Finlayson 2014 . Watching television for very long hours , playing video games and spending more time on television . While watching television they does not think before eating and they just eat and eat . They consume heavy food and they keep on sitting and it does not digests leading to excess weight. The factors that influence the children is advertisements on televisions. They promote junk food and targeted children only. 90% of advertisements involve children they attract them by showing attractive food and instigate them to make unhealthy choices.
These are the factors in which the child is surrounded(Fleurant and et.al., 2011). These includes home and school. And it directly influence their eating habits and their physical activities. They both play a very important role in the loves of a child and they are the force behind their motivation. Schools can encourage them to do exercises and can involve various physical activity that help them to loose calories and loss weight, they should even conduct a daily one hour session of exercise. this will bring regularity in them and they will develop a habit of exercise.
it is the first experience of nutrition an individual and if it is not proper then it may lad to various chronic disease in the child, including obesity. It affects the protein content in the child as the children who are not breast feed suffers fro lack of proteins and have hormonal dis balance and lead to obesity(Frisbee and et.al, 2010 ). The children who have been breast feeded for the period of six months they are not likely to become obese.
Energy intake must be balanced otherwise it will increase the risk of being obese .the energy that is in taking result in fat sometimes.
The other factor that instigate obesity is the family (Honikman and et.al, 2012). It has been found out that the family who is more active and do exercise regularly there children are also active and exercise. In contrary the parents who does not involve in physical activities there children are also not active in exercise. This happens because children take dietary intake from the parents and if they provide proper nutrition diet to their wards they will be healthy and will lead a fit life.
The percentage of body weight changes as the children grows. The re is difference in the BMI of girls and boys as there bodies are different . Body mass index is calculated and compared with the ideal weight that must be according to the height age and gender if the children.
There are lots of adverse causes that occur with the obesity and these relate to unbalanced blood pressure. Type two diabetes , low self confidence, depression (Johnson 2014), dissatisfaction etc. obese kids often suffer from discrimination. They are treated as objects for making fun of. They usually result in overweight adults.
It is necessary to have a check on the children and finding out the affects which are causing obesity in children. These affects must be monitored regularly and they are to be cured this includes investigation of the issues that causes obesity. It includes genetic problems, investigating their dietary plans, their activity level. In this their psychology related to their food intake is assessed. It is clear that there are various factors that contribute in the obesity of a child and it must be prevented.
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According to Kimme (2011) diet of a child plays a very crucial role in the life of a child. he has suggested a numb er of approaches to control diet and that the diet must be not more than 1200-1400 calories per day . And if this is followed than the child will not be obese. Levine and et. al., 2012 suggested that a person who is taking a balanced diet of high protein, low carbohydrates is more suitable than the diet of unbalanced low calorie diet. The intake of dietary fibre is recommended for children of the growing age. They should be allowed to have colourful diet like lots of fruits and vegetables. Once a while they must be allowed to eat whatever they want but after that proper exercise should be done and those extra calories must be burned.
Community based interventions
the role of the community in the life of a child is huge and it comprises of various factors that are related to demographic factors, geographical factors, and the socio-economic status. The community has the power to influence the people and they can do this by floating the messages for health and prosperity
(Limaye Deka and Mwaikambo 2015), they can encourage them in imparting healthy lifestyle. They play a very important role in motivating the people. They can along with parents promote the intake of nutrition and can conduct the lectures on healthy diets. This report comprises of the perception of healthy eating to reduce child obesity. The parents should take care of their child's diet and indulge them in the physical activity from the very starting so that it will be in their routine. The importance of healthy eating should be taught to them and the benefits that people get by eating healthy are:
Balanced diet provides vital nutrients, minerals and vitamins to the body. These are essential for the body to maintain cells, organs and tissues for the proper functioning of the body. If the diet is not proper than the child suffers from various problems like low on energy, tiredness, sleep disorders, not only this but it can lead to high functional disorders such as failure of vital organs, malnutritions, improper growth etc. (Lipshultzand et.al 2012). The body functions properly when it gets the proper and required nutrition . One should not eat packet foods as the nutrient value is lost in them.
The calorie proportion must be proper to maintain a healthy life . The diet depends on person to person. Metabolism of every person is different and they must take diet according to that only. The diet should include all the essential nutrients, mineral, vitamin, fats in some proportion is also necessary I the body so proper diet must be taken as this will help in reducing the excess weight and help in gaining fit body. Eating healthy also means to eat three to four times a day but in small proportion.
Children need the nutrients and vitamins in there body without that they can not be survive in the environment. These vitamins and nutrients are taken in a way of food. So there are foods which can harms the children life so they should take healthy diet the several benefits of the children healthy diet are as follows:
- Healthy smile and face: When the children is taking the healthy food then there nutrients and vitamins well give affect on there face (Kimme-Hea, 2011). That they well be getting glowing face and good smile. This is the major thin that can motivate any body and they also get motivate by there smile and face.
- Less stress: When children is taking the healthy foods then they well always manage his stress in there life. The baby well get smiling nature in his life.
- Active body: To days baby are gating fatty and by that they are not active in the day to day life so they need healthy diet to get active and reduce there weight. So they well get active in there day to day life.
- Healthy mind: If the baby well get is not getting the healthy food then it well show the impact on there mind. The children can become the dam. It is important to give them a healthy food by that they well get the sharp mind.
- Improve mood: There are two type of moods of the baby. First one is that baby how always cries they do not like any body in there life and second one enjoy there life for second one mother have to give healthy diet to them.
- Increase knowledge: The healthy food give more nutrients and vitamins to childes. If they get these there learning power well get increase and there knowledge well also increase.
- In the life of children they like food that is tasty but most of the testy food are not good for them. So mothers of them have to take of them and give healthy food to them. Mother have to take care of them and make hose made foods. Every body need the healthy foods in there life the child age and the old age (Martey and et.al., 2013). These both ages need same healthy food and safety. The healthy diet provide the energy and it well give them activeness in these in there life. In the life of chi dens they have to be active in every activity like games, study, management, etc. These need the healthy foods. Children are the age of the growing so they have need high level of vitamins and nutrients to grow.
Research Questions, Aims And Objectives
To inculcate healthy eating habits in children
- To identify the major reasons of increase in obesity problems in children
- To study about the number of teenagers who are mainly affected by the problem.
- To identify number of children's involved in physical activity
- To identify the diet plan of children.
This is one of the most critical part in the research project where the researcher required to select appropriate research methodologies. There are various approaches which can be used in a research report such as qualitative and quantitative. In the context of current study, this is a descriptive research and qualitative methods is to be used in order to analyses data and interpret them in an effective manner. Data collection methods is also significant in a research report. There are two types of data primary and secondary are to be used. In the primary data questionnaire survey approach is used and the sample size is 25 student. In the secondary data news articles, magazines, and other secondary information are using in order to solve research problems.
The research design involves the overall study that are used to integrate the different components that are used in the study in a logical way and thus ensuring the effectiveness of the research(Peykariand et.al 2013). It also contains the blueprint of the different methods of data collection, the measurement techniques and the analysis of the data.
The descriptive research design involves the individuals to know something about the groups of the people. The design mainly depicts the participants that are involved in the research in an accurate way. The descriptive research in the simple way is describing about the people who takes part in the study. The descriptive research design can be done with the help of observations that involves the method that is used for viewing and recording the habits of the participants that are involved in the research process. The case study defines the depth study of the individuals or the group of the individuals that are involved in the research (Raineand et.al 2011). The survey gives a brief about the methods that were used in the research process, brief about the process of interview and decisions with the group or individual on a specific topic. In a qualitative study findings are found while interpreting the perceptions of the children about their food and food habits. The study is conducted for understanding the relationship between healthy eating and obesity. Data is gathered from 25 children and their age was between 9-14 years. Teenagers were selected for the research as they were mostly affected by obesity. At this age children are consuming fast food in huge quantity and thus the questionnaire was filled by them to know their opinion. The questionnaire has been designed keeping in mind the sensitivity of the issue and the thought that harsh questions might hurt the sentiments of the children. They are taught that they should eat those things that they need.
The research was conducted to see how many children were suffering from the disease obesity. The research were done on the children's of the employees who were working in the organisation. The sample size of the research was 25 means the questionnaire was filled from 25 children to know about the type of food they were consuming. The sampling strategies that were used in the research are:
In random sampling technique the samples are collected on random basis and each unit of population has an equal chance of being selected. The sampling technique is a good technique to remove bias from the sampling process and thus it produces results that are used in obtaining results of the representative samples(Rawal Rawal and Pandit 2015). In random sampling the size of the group is proportional to the sample size of the data.
Stratified Random Sampling
Like the random sampling technique stratified sampling techniques are used in those situations where the data has to viewed with the help of the graphs or batch data
This sampling is used when there are different groups of people and the analyst wants to make sure that the groups are fairly dealing in the questions that are asked in the samples. In stratified sampling independent samples are taken out from each group and the size of each independent sample is proportional to the size of the group.
The systematic sampling is used in the process of sampling where the data is used in the real time basis during the process of operations. Like the sampling technique the sample size must also be selected in the systematic sampling. The data can also be used for the study of the population if the frequency is not biased(Secker,and et.al 2010) . The systematic sampling involves the systematic rules that is every forth or every fifth unit is selected for the sample and it continuous in the same way. The systematic sampling has an error that the systematic rules that are followed may match with the underlying structure and thus biasses in the samples.
Rational Sub grouping
It is the process that determines that the data should be put into meaningful groups so that the data is better understood in the research and the sources of the variances can be easily calculated(Shin Kim and Lee 2010). This sampling technique is used in the typically used in the process sampling were the data is collected in real time situation.
From all the above technique random sampling was chosen for collecting the data as random sampling helps in determining the actual results that are expected from the research. The questionnaire are filled from random respondents
The study is conducted in various ways, like pedometers, weighing scales, questionnaires etc. in this report we are considering questionnaire as a part of qualitative research. The sample that has been taken here is of 25 students that are the children of the health care employees. It was researched about the food habits of the children of the employees. The method that was used by the researcher is descriptive. In this method the detail about the sample is gathered and their behaviour is analysed. The possible remedies and recommendations are suggested. The data is collected by filing up the questionnaire by children and they are judged on various parameters relating to health issues and the factors that are responsible in their situation. The role of parents and school is very important in correcting them (Singer Bennett and Rotumah 2015). They can help them in loosing the excess weight. The support is very essential and the motivation that they can provide will boost their morale and help them achieve the target body. The questionnaire has close ended questions which helps in accessing the needs of customers and they have an option from which they can select the best alternative.
Theme:1 Student awareness about health issues
Interpretation: As per the above mentioned graph the most of the respondents approx. 22 out of 25 are agree that student are provided awareness about health issues education. On the other hand, only 3 respondents are not agree with that.
Theme:2 Major health issues faced by students
Interpretation: This question is related with the major health issues in the students where most of the respondents are feels that approx. 15 out of 25 the major health problem is related with children obesity.
Theme:3 Consumption of fast food leads to obesity in children
Interpretation: From the above graph it can be concluded that 20 respondents were in favour that consumption of fast foods leads to obesity in children in comparisons to the children who are not consuming fast foods.
Theme:4 School management organize health check ups
Interpretation: This question is related with the organizing of health care services in the school and collages. There are various government policies regarding healthcare check-ups at the school level. On the basis of response only 5 respondents said that there are few school who organizes such health care program. On the other hand, 10 respondents selected that few educational institutions are conducted monthly basis. The exact number of respondents approx. 10 answered in never.
Theme:5 Student prefer home made products
Interpretation: In this question the most of respondents is think that 20 out of 25 that home-made product is more preferable for students. There are only 5 respondents who are feels they are not consume these products in different places.
Theme:6 Children eat again after once going to sleep during the night time
Interpretation: When the question is asking to the students regarding their food habits during sleeping time. The response is shows that there are large number of students approx. 12 who eat during sleeping time on regular basis. On the other hand, only 5 respondents who never eat at sleeping time.
Theme:7 Parents show interest in the physical activity of their children
Interpretation: When the question is asked to students that the interest of their parents in their physical activities. The response was mixed which shows that there are only few number of parents who interested in their children physical activates.
Theme:8 Parents stops their child from going out to eat
Interpretation: On the basis student’s responses there are most of the response are agree that their parents stop its child from going outside for eating fast food. There are approx. 20 respondents agree and 5 are not agree with this argument.
Theme:9 Parents should provide their children with healthy substitute food rather than junk food.
Interpretation: When the question has been asked about the parent’s suggestions regarding avoid junk food and prefer health food habits. There are only 7 respondents agree that their parents give them such guidelines. On the other hand, 18 responses surprisingly show that large number of parents not provide any guidelines.
Theme:10 The families go out for dinners and lunch.
Interpretation: This question is related with the how often parents going out for dinner and lunch. On the basis of above mentioned information The responses are 15 go weekly basis, 5 monthly bases, rarely go rarely basis and no one family not chose option forth. This shows that most of the respondents are going out for dinner and lunch.
The data collection tool here is the questionnaire. Our data is collected by the answers of children and with their perception. The format of the question is selected keeping in mind the requirement of the topic and the aim of the research. This research has been conducted to know that eating healthy can reduce the obesity in children, The plan for the proposed study is that after studying the causes and impact of obesity and their intervention a plan to remove obesity will be made. The community and other people influencing the child come together and take proper measures to generate the need and awareness of healthy body. The eating healthy does reduce the excess weight.
As per the above report it has been analysed that there is fault of both parents and schools in the obesity of children. Parents themselves are not aware of the health of their children. The parents should inculcate their children in the physical activities and they should motivate them in doing various activities that help them burn calories(Sunand et.al 2015.). The above report is based on the existing literature in various ways. The hypothesis stares that eating healthy does not affect obesity has been proved wrong and we accept the report. As per this report children has been seen not aware about the health problems and issues.
Strengths and limitations
this report and the questionnaire is relevant and trustworthy and it has been depicted by the responses of students has matched with their condition of obesity(Wang2013). And the factors that were responsible for the situation is assessed.
As per the above report it has been concluded that the findings of the study showed that the diet of a person is very important and proper exercise is essential to get the perfect health. It has been proven that the healthy diet is required for reducing obesity. The methods that can help to reduce child obesity are Encourage healthy habits among the children this small step can improve the healthy to much greater extent. Encourage children to consume healthy food because these food helps the body to become strong and they will be physically fit and active for their regular activities.
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