Consequences Of Racial And Ethnic Inequality In Health Care Sector
Impact of health can be positive or negative. Health inequalities can be defined as the variation that exist between the status of the human being with respect to arrangement of health determinants (Laurencin, 2014). Disparities with respect to health services and resultant leads to variation in access to proper care. Racial and ethnic disparities are prone to poorer health care. With the expansion of country's population and diversification, health care system should be modify so that a base for multicultural patients care and treatment could be developed (Bailey, Moore and Joyner, 2015). Sources of racial and ethnic disparities can be number of social determinants, but the purpose of this proposal is to focus on consequences of these inequality in health sector. In a streamline, impact of earthquake and blockade in developing the worsen situations with regards to disproportionate availability of health care services to people who are racially and ethnically poor will be touched upon this paper. In the current proposal, the consequences of racial and ethnic disparities in health sector will be assessed. The proposal will be carried out by formulating aims and objectives. Following it, Literature Review will be presented with the list of references related to the key sources. Research tools will be taken for presenting methodology in which proposal will be carried out. Lastly, a time table for the proposal will be presented.
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There are different countries which are facing the problem of discrimination in aspect of health and social care settings. But, Nepal is one of the major country where racial and ethical discrimination is very crucial issue which affect the health and social care practices and daily life style of individuals. Therefore, research will focus on these issues because these problems have negative impacts at the time of meeting needs and requirements of individuals. So, for determining reasons and impacts of these problems on health and social care settings researcher will focus on different consequences of racial and ethical discrimination in Nepal (Humanitarian crisis after the Nepal earthquakes, 2015).
Racial inequality is the kind of social inequality that occurs due to experiences taking place on account of legal and nonlocal systems of discrimination. These led to creation of dominant and secondary social groups that may differ in varied levels of power as well as getting access to goods and services in the society (Sanders-Phillips, 2009). Ethnic disparity on the other hand refers to the discrimiation that arises on behalf of ethnicity. These disparities are significantly common in healthcare and are found to arise in account of varied socioeconomic conditions. Hence after the presence of these differences are counted for, race and ethnicity are still regarded as significant predictors that impact the overall quality of healthcare that has been received by the individuals (Smedley and et.al., 2015).
Experiences of racial and ethnic disparities leads to significant number of health status measures and outcomes. The factors that inclusive of this inequalities includes education, income, work status, poor housing etc. (Bailey, Moore and Joyner, 2015). Apart from these social determinants, environmental factors are also contributory. Failure of quality and services of heath and social care units may also results in disparities. Problem takes place when people are unable to access services. Moreover, receiving lower quality care also have direct impact on the health of populations. Researchers have shown there are some various causes for the disparities in accessing health care services. Racial and ethnic disparities in health care are evidenced to be increasing at both national as well as at international level (Report on Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care, 2015). Therefore, both ethnicity and race have been considered as a predictors of the quality in which health care is received.
Natural disaster such as earthquake and then blockades to that particular region is one reason that has contributed to worsen the situation. It has been shown in context of recent situation which has been seen at Nepal where after the destruction of earthquake, the economic blockade has been declared. It has been a major contribution in affecting the economy of Nepal. This has been evidenced when Nepal after becoming victim of recent earthquake in 2015, is in situation to import not only basic requirements of individuals but also medical treatment, etc from India, it was highly protested by Madheshi people. In the situation of blockade, these people had blocked the border points and have acted as a barrier in supplies. They have been reflecting the status of ethnicity and racism which takes the shape of protests and harm against each other. The consequences of this racism and ethnicity which took place in the form of blockade by Madheshi people in Nepal, later created the shortage of petroleum to medicines and other relief materials which were of high need during earthquake. These consequences have badly affected the Nepalese community (Humanitarian crisis after the Nepal earthquakes, 2015).
Different health situations in Nepal
Review of health and social care sector of Nepal has reflected that there are different public and private institutions of HSC which offer appropriate health care facilities of population of nation. But, standard of health care practices is low as compare to other nations of world. Health care practices of Nepal do not meet international standards of HSC. Including this, findings of review has also reflected that as compare to other south Asian countries prevalence of different kind of diseases is also very high in rural areas of Nepal. Major health issues of Nepal include diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders, goiter, intestinal parasites, leprosy, visceral leishmaniasis and tuberculosis (Lindsay, 2012). But, from recent years health and social care settings have been leading some improvement in maternal-child health. Government of nation is talking most appropriate steps for resolving different health issues in Nepal.
Racial and ethical differences in Nepal
Smedley and et.al, 2015 has concluded that “There are different racial and ethnic types exist in Nepal which increases discrimination in different situations” (Smedley and et.al, 2015). Hangen, 2007 has disclosed that “Major ethnic groups of Nepal include the Khas, the Kirat, and the Madhesi people who live in the Terai region of Nepal” (Hangen, 2007). These groups have developed on the basis of the different culture and values. In this groups Khas people are included in the lower cast people and most of the health and social care settings do not provide appropriate services to all groups of Nepal on the basis of their ethics and values. Lindsay, 2012 has concluded that “Damai, Sarki and Kami are some of the untouchable castes of the Khas community and due to this reason these community cannot get appropriate treatment by health care professionals” (Lindsay, 2012). Therefore, all these statements have reflected that Nepal is facing the situation of ethical differences which affect health and social care settings of this nation.
Similarly, most of the research articles have also concluded that Nepal is also facing an issue of racial inequality in different aspects and development. Smedley and et.al, 2015 has concluded that “Nepal population consists two different racial groups Mongols and Aryans” (Smedley and et.al, 2015). In these racial groups 80% population of Nepal belong to Mongol and 20% are associated with Aryans (Hangen, 2007). Therefore, these are also considered as major base for racial inequality in Nepal.
Nepal's issue on medicine and nutrition crises due to blockade
Due to the Earthquake or natural disaster, Nepal is facing the problem of economic blockade which affect the movement of goods and services from one place to another. Due to the economic blockage country was facing problem in getting medicines basic necessities for people. Along with this, government of nation was not capable to give nutritious food to all required people due to the economic blockade (Humanitarian crisis after the Nepal earthquakes, 2015).
At an international level, this is very common in UK as well, where minorities groups are unable to access the services properly. Patients are either not able to communicate to health care professionals or remain uninformed. Ethnic minority communities and linguistic groups in UK are thereby not able to achieve equitable access. In a similar fashion, when taking about national level, Asia has also been facing the same issue. Nepal, which is evidenced with recent humanitarian crisis of Earthquake in 2015, had faced pathetic situation (Burnett, 2015). There are various remote and rural areas where access and availability of health services remain challenging. Therefore, the rationale behind current proposal is to identify the consequences of racial and ethical disparities in health sector.
Research is required to be conducted in a proper form. It takes into account procedures in which direction to conduct investigation is required to be planned. Study design is made to identify the framework which is developed in order to answer the research questions. Generally, there are five types which demonstrate the study design (King and et.al., 2014). These are namely, exploratory, descriptive, experimental, case study and casual. For conducting the present study, exploratory design will be taken. In order to analyze the consequences which are rising with the increase in number of occurrences of events such as earthquake and then blockade in Nepal, there is need to assess the racial and ethnic disparities. Since, the research in this field has not been found. There is need to explore the actual reasons with which the minorities in UK and mountaineer population of Nepal are suffering the challenges (Bernstein and Wolfram-Hvass, 2015). Exploratory research is conducted by considering either new topic or taking new angle to the existing one. Hence, with respect to the assess the reasons which leads to racial and ethnic disparities. The rationale behind implementing exploratory research will be to observe the worst situations that faced by rural and remote population of Nepal after the happening of Earthquake. Research to this situation will help to explore the consequences which answer the ways by which racial and ethically different people are unable to access the health care services and treatments.
Methodology has always been considered as the most significant factor of the overall study. The collection of information is the essence of whole study (Hall, Gartner and Forlini, 2015). The rationale for conducting the study is to make the effectively assessment of content in order to arrive at the meaningful information. Data collection is a process which is all about gathering the content related to the study which the use of techniques. There are two types of data collection techniques. These are namely, primary and secondary data collection (Eastwood, 2015). These methods are used to collect the data from different ways and sources. Further, analysing the same will leads to effective generation of conclusion. With respect to the present study, information is required to be collected about impact of racial and ethnic disparities on health outcomes. Information will be required to gather from the sources which is associated with environmental disaster as an impact. For the present study, secondary data sources will be taken. It will be collected from the various online sources, books, journals, websites, online articles which will based on Nepal recent earthquake crisis, trends of racial and ethnic inequalities on health status of UK etc.
Data Analysis is considered as a process which helps in transforming collected data into meaningful information. This is a procedure by which data collected through various sources are processed. The rationale behind the same is to convert the data which will be collected from concept of ethnic and racial disparities and its consequences on human being and then to the whole nation. Generally, data analysis is made by the use of two types of techniques which are qualitative and quantitative methods (Thomas, Silverman and Nelson, 2015). The rationale behind conducting the analysis of data is to achieve the outcome of effective data which will be gathered. The core lies in working on the content being collected and analysing them so that main objective or direction for which whole study taken would be identified into meaningful information. This is most crucial step which helps in answering the formulated research questions.
In the current study, the information collected from secondary data sources will be processed and analysed with the help of both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The rationale behind the use of these two approaches are different but the outcome objectives will be same (Hickey, Reynolds and McDonald, 2015). With the aspect of evaluating the information which will be collected with respect to analysis of prevailing situation such as earthquake and blockade wilt be made through qualitative techniques. Further, the qualitative technique which will analyse the health practices disparities according to race or ethnic outcome will be assessed through thematic technique. In this, data will be presented by formulating various themes. The themes will help in revealing out the major consequences that are noticed at the remote and backwards areas of country or place where crisis took place. The rationale for formulating themes will help in evaluating various aspects in the form of effective and efficient analysis. This is to identify the key or chief findings of every research which will be undertaken.
Ethics are considered as the moral behaviour and code and conducts which are required to be taken care throughout the research study. While working on the present proposal, there is also need to keep noticing some of the ethical consideration which will help in successful accomplishment of the report (Bernstein and Wolfram-Hvass, 2015). For the current proposal, information which will be taken from different secondary sources will be gathered in efforts to completely avoid the ethical issues. Firstly, while collecting data from various online sources, there may be possibility of not getting accessibility of the related content racial and ethnic disparities on health outcome. In that case, ethical issues can be avoided by taking permission from the concerned authority (Hall, Gartner and Forlini, 2015). Secondly, the work which will be taken as a part of study should be properly cited. Use of latest information regarding consequences which are evidenced in the study of Nepal and UK should be taken. This is to closely examine the effective and reliable use of work of author and therefore work must be cited properly. Another ethical issue which have been considered is related to the approval and beneficence (Eastwood, 2015). According to this principles, the unethical practices at work can be avoided by considering the welfare of the people. Therefore, in the present proposal and study, the proper care will be taken for relating the need of study undertaken with moral obligation.
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- Financial constraints is one limitation which may be considered as one of the major barrier. With respect to carrying out the estimation of cost factor in preparation of overall budget, various problems may occur. Thirdly, paying salary is another issue which can become major aspect in the overall study.
- Time factor has been analysed as the major issue. Beside effective planning, there may be probability that things may go beyond the effective planning. This may cause delay of work and its accomplishment (Okafor, Hu and Cook, 2014). On critically examining the stated problem, if proper gap and measures will be planned at the time of research being proposed, then solution can be appropriately achieved. Time issue may be also faced with respect to limited time availability. Since, the content which is required for undertaking research may takes more time. In that case, management of time leads to biggest problem. In critically context, follow up of appropriate time management strategies is a key viable alternative. This will help in meeting the work achievement at proper time.
- Requirement of appropriate and suitable research assistants for carrying out the study is biggest need. This is essential as it helps in meeting the fulfilment of proper articulation of study which will be required to be undertaken. However, the problem is critically examined on account of unsuitable research assistants and their ineffective research which may adversely affect the study.
The purpose of presenting the study proposal has been completely achieved. In the present proposal, the outcome can be concluded. It delivers the effective outcome that shows significance of given subject content. With respect to effective subject which have been taken as a part of the study, the core lies in presenting the proposal for stating the consequences of racial and ethnic inequalities in health sector. The rising trends of various determinants such as social aspects, environmental hazards contribute in the rising disparities on health sector. This has taken a shape of people who belong to that minor or other group. They, in turn are not able to access health care services. Hence, the objective of current study is to be undertaken as per the study proposal being made. Exploratory design will be used for the study. There are presented various ethical issues which may arise and therefore must be taken effectively by the researchers in carrying out the whole study. Cost factor which has been very crucial one have been properly estimated and are presented with effective utilization.
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- Burnett, A., 2015. Racial Disparities in Sexual Dysfunction Outcomes After Prostate Cancer Treatment: Myth or Reality?.;J. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.
- Isaacs, D., 2015. Ethical issues in publishing.Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health.
- Okafor, C., Hu, X. and Cook, R., 2014. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HPV Vaccine Uptake Among a Sample of College Women.J. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.
- Bailey, E., Moore, J. and Joyner, S., 2015. A New Online Strategy in Teaching Racial and Ethnic Health and Health Disparities to Public Health Professionals.J. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.
- Bryman, A. and Bell, E., 2015.Business research methods. Oxford university press