Physical Development of Children


The children development plays a deep and crucial role in effectiveness of the society. For the well being of the children their proper development is very necessary. It will help in the good growth and development of the action that will support the proper monitoring the health and other growth factors for the children. Various physical, mental and psychological measures are been taken in consideration by the firm. That will help in good rise in the knowledge about the growth needs of a growing child (Becker And et.al., 2014.). This report will cover the different stages of physical development of a kid from birth to 7 years of age i.e. early year, and how the children's physically grow. The holistic learning and development approaches of physical growth. Various theories are been discussed for the development of the children's. Various frameworks will be evaluated based on the theories of EYFS stage and various criteria are been analysed that will help in proper development and physical growth of the children's in a better way.

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1. Identifies the physical development of children from birth to 7 years of age.

There are various stages of the child development that will involves the various forms of physical changes that are been considered by the children's. Some major changes are:



Physical development

0- 6 months

  • Their limbs and body size grows.
  • Their reflexes and response to stimuli develops.
  • The coordination between the various organs evolves to perform certain basic activities (Ferro and Boyle, 2015).
  • The motor skills develop and they able to speak few words, handle objects etc. and crawl on their limbs.
  • Able to recognize voices and people by hearing and looking.

6- 9 months

  • Able to speak words and sentences.
  • Shows interest in people and objects.
  • Crawl and stand by themselves
  • Walk with a support. Able to sit without a support.

9 – 12 months

  • Able to learn from surrounding.
  • Hearing improves and give response to calls.
  • Shows interest in environment.
  • Able to walk without support. Able to make sound and speak small words. React on being called upon and other stimuli.

1 – 2 years

  • As mobility increase, they try to explore new environments.
  • Teeth begin to appear. Able to eat solid food (Lai and et.al., 2014).
  • Physical abilities and self control improves. Able to take the decision and conveys their requirements.
  • Able to climb stairs, dance and play outdoor games. The physical growth and activities increases.

2-3 years

  • Gross motor skills develop and able to speak basic sentences and responses to sound.
  • Able to take small stem and walks to short distances.
  • Vocabulary and language learning improves.
  • May shows the symptoms of problems in speaking, if any persist. Thus, such issues can be handled or mitigated using the proper speech therapy.

3 -4 years

  • Gross and fine motor skill continues to develop.
  • Able to speak complex sentences and react to the pictures sound, making them ready to start learning.
  • Begin to follow the self help and can be encouraged for self dressing, eating and toilet practices.
  • Begin to ask questions and shows curiosity. Able to run, climb and jump. It is the best period to explain the safe and danger limit.
  • Begin to make the community interaction and feel independent to meet people. They can be encouraged to make the healthy choices of food and exercises to increase their physical activities.

5-7 years

  • Able to make groups and perform in a team (Ferro and Boyle, 2015).
  • Able to perform the basic physical activities by themselves but need special care and attention at this early stage.
  • The learning and understanding capacity of the kids increases. They are able to speak complex sentences and are able to read and write. Literacy and numerical skills improves rapidly in this stage.
  • Shows interest in wide range of material, people and places. They are able to communicate with adults in a better way to gain the knowledge, guidance and information.
  • Develop a sense of self identity and identify others. Able to recognise the social customs and the skills to interact with others.
  • Loves to the part of an activity and get encouraged. Literacy and numerical skills continue to develop. Learns to use various equipments, tools and technologies.

2. Explain how children's physical skills develop?

The children's physical skill development is very necessary in order to promote their growth and well-being. The proper parenting or care measures that are been the major factor that will support a good physical development of a child. The parents and the care takers have to look after the better handling of the need and requirements of children and will take effective steps to fulfil them. Various age based physical and skills development measures are been taken in consideration that will help in good assessment of the different needs of a child (Becker And et.al., 2014.).

The major criteria for the physical development is gross and fine motor skills, which are either develop by reflexes or are been thought by parents. Other than this, the movement or motion and coordination of various limbs or organs to perform a task showcases the extent of physical development. Some major fine and gross motor skills shown by a child of 3-4 years of age are:

Gross motor skills:

  • Walking with agility, without support and keeping a good balance when standing.
  • Running easily and with comfort to a shorter distance in one direction and around obstructions. Also, been able to turn while walking or running.
  • Able to catch and throw a large object like a ball or balloon
  • Is able to hop or jump at one place and from a low hight.
  • Can perform the basic physical activities and exercises that will help in involving the coordination of limbs.
  • Able to bounce and catch a large ball or other object. Able to hold the smaller objects.
  • Kick a stationary ball and pedal or steer a tricycle without support.

Fine Motor skills:

  • Involves the activities on daily basis like brushing teeth, wearing clothes ad use the comb.
  • Able to use the utensils and spoons and develop good eating habits (Sudfeld and wt.al., 2015.).
  • Able to use small objects like pen, child scissors, eraser etc.
  • Able to solve small puzzles and can colour an image.
  • Can imitate and draw shapes like circle, square, etc. Able to read, write and recite smaller words or sentences.
  • Stake the objects or building blocks without letting them to fall.
  • Able to pick up and grasp hold the smaller things from ground or low size table.

The parents have to look after the child's physical growth and development that will help the firm to handle the physical growth and develop the proper growth plan or process that will help the children's to grow and develop. They can take various measures which will support a good providing of development environment. Some effective measures and practices are:

  • Provide them with proper encouragement to participate and go for physical activities like running climbing etc. This will help in good development of their large muscles or limbs and support their good growth and development (Lissauer and Carroll, 2017).
  • Taking adequate sleep and rest in order to provide a better rest to muscles and ensures a proper physical development of children's.
  • Consulting a paediatrician in case the child shows symptoms of inability to perform certain physical tasks like running, jumping of speaking. The rectification of the problem at early stage will help in improving the motor skills of a child.
  • Enabling the child to use his toys and other equipments to increase its physical activities.
  • Setting a simple obstacle course or activity to improve the coordination of limbs and other organs.
  • Using small scissor, Lego blocks and other smaller objects like dice and buttons to improve child's fine and gross motor skills (Owen and et.al., 2014).
  • Being in touch with the play schools instructor, teacher at kindergarten and care takers to identify any problem or issues related to coordination, motor skills and physical development of the child.

Other than this, the proper health and safety measures of the children's are to be followed by the parents and care takers to nullify the effect of different issues faced by a child by taking some measures and activities which are been followed to avoid the negative impact on the physical development. Few of the conditions when the effective measures are required to be taken in order to ensure the good physical development of the child are:

  • Child feels awkward and clumsy on dropping or falling and bumping the things over.
  • Having the trouble to perform the daily chores like combing hairs, using buttons, zippers and tying shoelaces.
  • Unable to use smaller objects like Lego blocks and puzzles, scissors (Bloemen and et.al., 2015).
  • Inability to catch the moving object like thrown ball or unable to identify the colours.
  • Unable to understand the basic instruction and maintaining the coordination and perform basic literary activities like writing and colouring.
  • Having an awkward grasp over the colour or pencil that causes the bad handwriting and inability to draw objects properly.

3. Explain how promoting physical development will benefit children's holistic learning and development.

The physical development of a child is very important and beneficial for the promoting and carrying out of the holistic learning and development (Pratt and et.al., 2015). The holistic learning or education is the practice that is based on the finding the each individual's identity, meaning and purpose of life and develop a good communication and interaction with the community and natural world. The holistic approach helps in developing a good liking of an individual towards the learning process. It is a form of alternative education.

The physical development plays an important role in the imparting of the holistic learning and development. It helps in promoting a child's learning capacity. The holistic approach along with the good physical development will help in gaining good opportunities. Other than this, it will help in identifying the children's with learning issues (Tremblay And et.al., 2016). It will help in providing that child with special care and attention in order to make learning easy and interesting for him. It will also help in developing suitable measures to develop and promote a good learning for special kids. The assessment of physical growth for holistic learning is been performed under 5 categories:

  • Emotional development: As the children's grows and able to dress by themselves, it gives them a feeling of self esteem and confidence and get less frustrated.
  • Cognitive development: Children have to touch, feel, see and hear in order to learn new things and activities. This will help them to build good memories and ideas, based on the experimental learning.
  • Communication and learning: Children are required to be communicated in order to access their demands and needs and thus help in good rise in the customer satisfaction level in order to improve their physical development (Schmidt and et.al., 2015.).
  • Social development: This will help in ability to move and touch the things in order to enable to join the children's to interact with others that will help in good development in physical and cognitive skills of the individuals.

Some example of physical development on holistic learning are:

  • The holistic learning program will help in identifying the children's with learning issues like Dyslexia, down syndrome and autism and develop special plan for their education.
  • The good physical development will help the child to fulfil the activities in a holistic curriculum, improving his skills.

4. Explain theoretical perspectives in relation to physical development.

Various theories are been taken in consideration by the parents, care takers and teachers in order to improve the physical development of a child in its Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS). These theories and the learning process will help in improving the quality of the services and the programmes that are been followed within an organisation to improve the quality of services and care measures (Van Hoorn and et.al., 2014). Various scholars and researchers have postulated significant theories that helps in arising of proper knowledge and insightful practices that will help in good rise in the physical development of a child in a setting. Other than this it will help in developing effective learning processes for the children's with specific educational and developmental needs. Some major theories that are been taken in consideration are as follows:

Piaget theory of Physical development:

Jean Piaget was a Swiss biologist and Psychologist, who proposed the famous high influence model for the development of children's and their learning practices. His ideas are based on the cognitive assessment of the children's requirement that will help in better development of plans using the mental mapping and networked concepts related to understanding and responding to physical experiences of a child towards his environment. The cognitive structure of physical development will help in rise in the complexity and sophistication of the processes that will be followed by the inmate reflexes and implementing the more complex mental activities to improve physical, mental, social and psychological well being of the children's in an environmental setting (Peirson and et.al., 2015). For the current scenario, covering the age group 0 – 7 years old the first two primary stages will be taken in consideration which are as follows:

  • Sensorimotor Stage (0- 2 years): It involves the concept that the child develops the perception based upon his or her interaction with the people in the environment of existence. It will help in building of the set of concepts based on analysis of conditions in reality and child being unaware about the physical objects that are out of his/ her sight.
  • Pre operational stage (2- 7 years): In this stage the child is unable to conceptualize the requirements and need concrete physical sources and support for the development.

Erikson Psychosocial development:

It is based on the psychoanalysis of the children and their parents and care takers that will help in good rise in the psychological and physical development of the child that will help in good rise in the operation's and programmes that will help in good assessment of the actions it involves the eight stage analysis that will help the better rise in the conscience and knowledge that will help in good management of the actions and needs of children's (Hess and et.al., 2015). The stages involve the following factors for age 0 – 7 years:

  • Trust vs Mistrust: It is the first stage of theory that will help in the good rise in the ideas of the development of a child. In the infant stage the child shows the trust on others as he/ she is dependent on others. If the care takers and providers fails to provide the proper adequate care and love the development of the child will be affected and will lead to development of mistrust.
  • Autonomy vs shame and doubt: The second stage covers is associated with a person early years and gives the individual a sense of personal control. In the initial stage the children's are independent to do as per their wish but later on, giving of instruction and controlling their actions will fill them with same ad doubt that will impact their physical and psychological development.
  • Initiative vs guilt: It occurs during the preschools years and EYFS level of children's. During this stage the individual child tries to apply power or control over the operations and thus will help in good rise in the capability to perform the tasks or activities. Being successful to it will help in development of self esteem and confidence level. However, failing to it will cause a sense of guilt and lack of initiation to perform a task (Bartlett and et.al., 2016.).

Vygotsky's Social Developmental Emphasis:

It is based on the physical and psychological development of the child in the very early and initial stage. According to his findings and research, children's tend to talk loud during the problem solving and try to learn a new mental or physical task. This covers the curiosity and tendency of a child to learn and reciprocate the new things and ideas, which he/ she has learned. They are driven by the internal zeal for learning and are motivated by the guidance from the external dialogues. By the end of EYFS, the child is capable enough to showcase his/ her skills and gain knowledge, through various mental and physical operations. Their perception is based on the thoughts of the adults they interact.

According to Vygotsky, there is a zone of proximal development that will help in effective development and growth based on activities and interaction with adults and other peers. This help in good development and rise in the compatibility of a child to perform specific tasks and have a good physical development.

Gardner's theory:

Gardner theory is the multiple intelligence theory of development of child. This theory helps in solving the problem and adopt the new situations for developing the child. In this theory 8 intelligence are included (McCoy And et.al., 2016.). Verbal linguistic theory is the theory of child development. It helps in making a better rate of communication between two persons. It may involves any sort communication as lives, funny etc. all exhibit linguistic intelligence is involved in this form of communication. So this can help in providing a better range of development to the child. Another example of these considered as logical mathematical intelligence related to the sciences and mathematics intelligence. Another examples of these considered as visual spatial intelligence makes visual information for the child like graphs, charts and books for better communication. Another examples of these considered as inter personal intelligence makes the relationship between the child and their parents (Hills, Dengel and Lubans, 2015). Another example of these considered as naturalistic intelligence is to allow the environments like gardens, flowers etc. Another example's of considered as musical rhythmic intelligence allows understanding and better communication. Another example of this can be considered as bodily kinaesthetic. This also helps in providing a better rate of development of the child.

5. Analysis of theoretical perspectives

There are various theoretical perspectives that are associated with the physical development that throws an impact on the whole processing of the development of an individual. The impact of these theories informing current frameworks are discussed as under :

  • Erikson's psychological developmental theory involves some factors that throws a huge impact on the person. Some of the well known example of the factors can be considered as the social interaction and all other factors that can help in the overall development of the child. Such as social interaction is one of the essential features because the child should be active enough to deal with the others and can also actively participate with others (Goswami, 2015). It is because socialisation is considered as an essential factor for the development of the person. So, the current requirement is that the person should be enough socially active so that they can also become able enough to interact with others.
  • Piaget theory is considered as one of the essential theory considering aspects that can actually help in providing an efficient rate of development to the child. The four development stages of the theory covers every single aspect that is required for providing an appropriate rate of development to the child. Interaction with others can help the child in getting aware of some reality measures, then they overcome various physical experiences. Also, then the child will try to solve their problems as well. At the last stage, the conceptual learning of the child starts developing. Si, the ability of the child to solve the issues and the complications can actually help in bringing effective changes of the child so that they can become able enough to cope with different measures of life positively.
  • Vygotsky's theory plays a very important role in focusing on the language and basic general interaction, talking etc. socially of the child. So, by means of this theory, a sort of guidance is being provided to the child because at this time, the child is in the stage of proximal development. Therefore, monitoring the activities of the child and ensuring the fact that they can stay in their limits, thus promoting the healthier and happier environment around them. Thus, it can be ensured that this also brings major positive changes in the development of the child.
  • Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence is also considered as another factor that can help in throwing a positive impact on the overall process of child development. It says that when the children will experience different things from various stages of life. So, the theory helps in providing the ability to learn from different experiences of life. Thus, this can also be considered effective enough in the whole process of development of child. Therefore, while dealing with different capabilities, it can also help in increasing the confidence level of the children as well (Doebel and Zelazo, 2015). It can be termed beneficial enough because this is obvious that the child will undergo various phases of life. Thus, there are possibilities that the child may experience positive as well a negative experiences. Therefore, it is important that they can teach something from the past experiences of their life. So, the forte of this theory is that the child can be able to realise what they have done in the past and what of that have thrown a positive or negative impact on the same. This will also help in providing a better sort of care to the children, thus promoting a healthier development.

6. Answering the following questions

Are you a good role model for the children and how you can demonstrate it?

Yes, I am a good role model for the children because along with managing my daily chores, I ensure the fact of providing the children proper amount of time so that I can have a better communication with them. It is important because when I will sit with them, then only we can be able to have a sort of interaction. Then, there is a possibility that they might also share their ideas and issues with me. So, even though I am going through a busy schedule, then also I make sure to give the children a proper amount of time so that the bond between us can stay maintained (Lerner, Johnson and Buckingham, 2015.). So, I try to manage giving them time along with my basic chores. So, this can be considered that I am a better role model for the kids. I had an important project to submit but the next day, the children had test. So, I gave them all the time in teaching them the course and then in spite of sleeping, I was making my project. So, I think I try to cope with every single issue or complication and also, deal with them in a way that it cannot throw an impact on the development process of the child.

Are you aware of the children's stage of development and how to plan for their needs?

Yes, I am aware enough of the stages of development of children and I have also followed the same. I have already investigated about all these factors and also, I will ensure to provide the children the same at their different stages of development. It is very important. I have consulted various infant doctors that have provided me an efficient plan for structuring the factors required while the development of the child (Thornberry, 2018). Also, as per different stages of the development, I have decided to involve every single necessity of the child so that they can also be able to have an efficient and appropriate lifestyle along with a healthy development. So, on the basis of each stage, I have planned a set of activities etc. that I will involve when the child will be in that particular stage. By this way, it will help in making a proper management and a balance between different operations so that this can be able to throw a positive impact on the whole processing of providing development to the child.

Do you provide a wide variety of resources and activities?

Yes, I provided every single requirement, whether in terms of resource or product etc. It is because at every stage whatever was required by them, I tried to provide them every single factor. Also, I encouraged their participation in every task or activity in which they were interested in. It is because making the children to participate in different factors is very important because this helps in a better rate of socialising of the child. Also, it however directly or indirectly, increases the confidence rate of the child as well to a huge extent. There are enormous number of activities in which the child can be made involved into and this throws a very positive impact on the lifestyle and development of the child. Also, an active participation of the child helps in making the development of the child efficient enough because it promotes the socialisation so that the person can become even able enough to interact with the others.

Why it is important to promote physical development?

Physical development is a process that gets started in the infancy and continues till late adolescence. There is a huge importance of physical development because it helps in keeping a balance in the functioning of the operations and processes of the body (Terrie, 2018. ). There are enormous skills that can be involved in the physical development of the child and some well known and common examples include brushing teeth, combing hair, playing mind games along with some outdoor activities, exercises etc. These are very important, so in the initial phases of development only, the child is being taught about the same. Like brushing of teeth and combing of hair are considered as important activities that needs to be done because combing of hair is also considered as an exercise. It is very important for the child to get developed physically because it helps in promoting the growth of the body as it is required for maintaining the balance between different operations and processes of the body. Activities like exercises etc. can be involved in order to make sure that the person can be able to actively participate in different activities because such activities etc. helps in a regular movement of the muscles etc. which is important for an efficient growth of the body muscles etc. Therefore, it can be considered that it is very important to promote physical development so that the processing of the person and bodily functions can be done in a very effective manner. Also, this will help in increasing the confidence rate of the child as well so that the child can become understandable enough to make decisions and also to analyse the difference between the negative and the positive.

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On the basis of the analysis performed, this can be said that the physical development of the children is very necessary as it will help in good rise in the capability and effectiveness of a child. Proper measures and theories are to be followed that will help in suitable rise in the effective of the operations and programmes for development of a child. Signs of physical development on various stages since birth to 7 years of age will help in good development of a strategic plan that will support a good rise in the development program. Besides this, different theories and their implications are been analysed to find out the problems of the physical development and their appropriate solution. Besides this, an assessment of the personal for the role in the development process is evaluated.

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  • Bartlett, S. and et.al., 2016.Cities for children: children's rights, poverty and urban management. Routledge.
  • Becker, D.R. And et.al., 2014. Physical activity, self-regulation, and early academic achievement in preschool children.Early Education & Development,25(1), pp.56-70.
  • Bloemen, M.A and et.al., 2015. Factors associated with physical activity in children and adolescents with a physical disability: a systematic review.Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology,57(2), pp.137-148.
  • Doebel,and Zelazo, 2015. A meta-analysis of the Dimensional Change Card Sort: Implications for developmental theories and the measurement of executive function in children.Developmental Review,38, pp.241-268.
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