Psychology in the Early Years and Adolescent

Introduction to Adolescent

Adolescent is termed as the developmental stage between childhood and adulthood which is characterized by changes and alteration is physical, mental, emotional, cognitive and behavioural pattern. This age can be broadly classified into three major stags. The early adolescent age can be categorized from age 10-13 years. Middle adolescence is the age between 14-16 years and the late adolescence is grouped age of adolescence creates different types of pressure which are exerted by family, peer, school and social groups. It is the most important stage in an individual's life which determines what kind of a person exists in that male or female.

This report will focus on different concepts of adolescence related to psychological problems which are linked from childhood to adulthood. It will also include different behavioural patterns associated with growing teenagers. The report will also focus on communication patterns and emotional attachment with opposite sex. It will also discuss whether digital technology advancement has changed adolescents from previous generation or not.

Attachment in Adolescence and its Problems

The attachment and behaviour in adolescent is manifested very differently and because of this reason many researchers have presented challenges in studying psychological issues related to attachment and behaviour in adolescents. Different types of attachment have been characterized in adolescents such as relationship with parents, social competence and relationshConclusionip with peers, emotional self regulation, behavioural problems and psychosocial adjustments.

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Relationship with parents

Researchers have found that with growing age children and teenagers starts detaching from their parents and develop interest and attachment with different people in outside world. The focus more on becoming self-reliant which disturbs the child-parent relationship. Many parents develop a psychology that children at this age are more vulnerable to get influenced easily and may succumb to risk factors associated with this age. The teenagers try to develop courage and intelligence to cope up with different problems without running back to their guardians or parents. Based on recent research, it has been found that individuals whom are judged by their teachers and peers are more competent in social aspect and are not dependant on parents.

Attachment and social competence in relationship with peer

Different psychological studies suggests that children who are securely attached wit peers and parents tends to be more active socially and develops more lose connections with friends. Moreover they are also found to be more stronger in their persona relationships with opposite sex. They ought to place themselves at the leadership positions which can boost their self confidence and social skills. However studies do not suggest that individuals with weaker or less attachment with peers and parents tends to be socially inactive or incompetent. Only disorganisation in psychological behaviour can be the results of less attachment in many individuals which are...

Emotional self-regulation

A different pattern of coping with problems have been noticed in in individuals who are less secured or attached with their peers. A person who is less attached to someone do not accept further attachment for handling different mental, emotional or physical difficulties. On other hand, individuals who already have preoccupied mind tends to seek attachment in order to cope with problems specially connected to emotional variables. Researchers also suggested that coping styles for different problems also varies according to gender. Both girls and boys handles the same problems differently.

Behavioural problems and psychological problems

A hypothetical study suggested that many psychological and pathological problems are the result of different types of behaviours exhibited by teenagers. In many cases parents feel that their children need special attention and care by them in order to progress well in different spheres of life. On other hand a child feels helpless and dependent due to the paranoid behaviour of their parents which results in various psychological and pathological issues. Such children are likely to experience Panic attacks, anxiety, depression and other mental issues. Many individuals who are attached to their parents tends to get detached with their caregivers and finds a more appropriate solution to cope up with problems subjected to mental, social and emotional issues.

Emotional attachment in Adolescents

Emotional attachment in adolescents is a major development that takes place during teenage years. Emotional attachment can be with parents, individuals with opposite-sex, peers and friends in a group. Some individuals develop the abilities to cope with emotional stress and problems effectively but some lack behind power and courage to handle it. It often results in feeling of anxiousness, fear, unhappiness and mental disturbances.

Typical emotional development in adolescence

Typical emotional development in adolescence brings about significant changes in lifestyles of an individual. A prominent change in physiology growth and development of secondary sexual characters and psychological patterns is noticed at puberty. Teenagers are more concerned about their freedom, self-concepts, self esteem, independency and morality. When emotional state of an individual is concerned they tends to maintain their develop emotional attachment and relationships with friends, pees and with people who shows love and affection towards them. Many teenagers are found to get attracted towards other people in context to romance and physical needs at times. This age is referred as one of the most complex age because it tends to decrease the capacity to control emotions and sentiments which finally results in developing impulsive nature towards person of same or opposite sex.

Brain development and emotionality

With growing age a significant change and development is noticed in brain which is also associated with emotionality of and individual. The brain development noticed in early and middle adolescence is different from modifications that takes place at later age of adolescence. The attainment of puberty is early in girls as compared to boys. Studies suggest that there are different implication which causes behavioural problems and emotional instability in adolescent at early or later stage of adolescence. An increased level of emotions and orientation is noticed in early stages of adolescence but this tends to change in intensify the emotional needs and reactivity. Teenagers demand more attention, love, care and affection from members of opposite sex in order to stabilize their mental emotional and physical nee. All the physic and biological changes taking place in body are responsible for developing emotions and cognition towards others. Emotional changes and cognitive behavioural patterns are the results of reproductive hormonal changes taking place in body, however, development of incognitive behaviour is concerned with age, experience and maturity rather than hormonal effect.

Problematic behaviour and emotions

Emotional difficulties is directly linked with the problems associated with behavioural patterns in teenagers. Major difficulties which are caused in adolescence are related to emotional instability in children. The concept of clinical child psychology suggests that a younger individual identifies emotional detachment as typical problem which increases pain and stress with time. Cause and source of emotional difficulties which is experienced by an adolescent can be justified with the help of different types of studies. An individual coping with emotional and behavioural problems regards himself/herself as disturbed person.

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Communication in Adolescence

With growing phase and advancement in technologies a greater impact is seen on the lifestyles of adolescents. With increasing modes of communication, adolescents have started relying on social media which enables them to communicate to their friends, relatives, family members and other individuals.

Changes in communication styles

In this growing world, nearly all the adolescents have been given the accessibility to communicate to different types of people through telephones, emails, verbal and face to face interactions but a greater impact of online communication system is seen on teenagers in today's life. Online communication system provides wide range of communicative resources but it do not give visual cues about the communication to all the individuals.

Communication and adolescent relationships

All the modes of communication in today's world helps in satisfying and maintaining interpersonal relationships with different people. A former social networking sites provide an overview of various individuals who are connected with the sits but these social media do not provide any limit to maintain relationships in the adolescents years. According to different psychological studies including teenagers it has been found that social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Orkut have decreased the intensity of face to face interactions which was more prevalent in earlier years. Researchers estimated that a human is incapable of maintaining more than 150 relations at a time but due to advancement all the social sites give access to more than 150 relationships at a time.

Maintaining a social identity

Adolescents mainly focus on maintaining band developing identities which can impress and attract different individuals using the same social networking site. Girls on one hand try to maintain and identity which can impress boys and vice versa. One of the main reasons for maintaining an identity is that all the people wants to connect to their peers, friends and relatives in a better way. According to different studies and researches it has been found that 32& of boys and 27% of girls try to maintain a fake identity on online media. Some girls and boys pretend to be younger than they really are and some individuals heighten their social status more than they actually maintain in real life.

Identity in Adolescence

A significant psychological change has been noticed in adolescents due to the acuteness of identity. With the development of capacity of thinking with time, a change in cognitive behaviour is seen in all the teenagers. They tend to experience changes in social life as they move away from their childhood and enter into ma new world.

Identity crises during adolescence

The adolescent age is marked as the age of crisis which is characterized by the loss of body, mental state, morals and beliefs which existed in childhood. An individual not only develops unreasoning thoughts and conclusion in his/her mind but also creates different perversion. These perversions are generally linked to sexual perversions in teenagers life. Although adolescence is a phase of life which demands more attention and care but it also have a crucial impact on personality and development in later stages of life. Nearly all teenagers desire to achieve solitude and seclusion from the outer world but on other hand they also desire to establish romantic relationships and friendships in order to give importance to their life.

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Identity Status

Different identity states reveal that the age of adolescence is considered to be very complex which leads to confusion, exploration and commitment to various roles in life. Many teenagers in their earlier or later stages of adolescence tends to experiment with their gender, friendships, relationships and different aspects of life in order to create a different identity. Different studies interpret that adolescence is not only the age of confusion or segmentation from childhood life but it is the age which demands decisions on alternative beliefs and occupations, exploration to new world and commitment towards different roles in life. Commitment not only refers to financial investment in a particular business but it also refers to seriousness and loyalty towards different relations such as friendships, romantic inclusion and formal relationships.

Sexual identities

The issues of sexual sexual identities have long been studied by different historians and sociologist to determine the difference between sexual identities and orientation. There is a great difference in identity and orientation in sexual context. Sexual orientation can be defined as physical, mental, sexual, attractive and romantic behaviour towards people of same or opposite sex. On other hand sexual identity is a term which is related to person's own perception,conception and thoughts about themselves or others. Sexual identity and sexual orientation also focuses on the sexual behaviour of an individual in order to determine the sexual identity. Basically sexual behaviour is concerned with different acts performed by an individual with the intension of establishing sexual contact in people with same or opposite sex.

The concept of sexual identity and behaviour in western society has changed with course of time. In earlier time, sexual activity was only regarded as a source of biological production. Later on with the advancement, it is not only regarded as key of reproduction but is is also a root to harmless pleasure in all the individuals.

Has expansion of digital technology changed adolescent different from previous generations

Extraordinary advancement in technologies have enabled individuals of all the ages to access different applications and programs but a greater impact of digital technologies have been seen on teenagers. Children in their teenage years are ready to adapt all advancement in the field of science which can enhance their identity, status, relations and friendships. The pattern of learning, reading playing , interacting and living have been drastically changed in recent years as compared to lifestyles in earlier generations. Due to the digital advancement in today's generation a difference in brain evolution mechanism is noticed in teenagers.

According to various research and studies, it has been estimated that 35% of teenagers are engaged in interacting with different digital technologies for average 9 hours a day in many countries of the world. This percentage increased from 29% in 2013 to 35% in 2015. Many teenagers are found to be using more than two digital devices at a time. The advancement in digital technologies had a major impact on modes of communication perceived by adolescents. An individual who uses social media for interaction is supposed to spend more than 11 hours a day which disturbs the overall academic career of the teenager. A greater impact of digital technologies is seen on the health of an adolescent. Although advancement in digital science have provided a unique overview of different positive adaptations on the mind of a teenager but it has also resulted in loss of neural activity with increased use of these technologies.

According to different research and surveys, more than 38% of teenagers in the age group of17 years were reported to be mentally harassed on online networking sites by individuals of same or opposite sex. This increased from 38% in 2010 to 47% in 2014. Due to the increased use of different types of messaging application such as Snapchat, dating sites and other messaging services more number of girls were found to be bullied by boys. 22% of girls and 16% of boys were cyber bullied according to surveys conducted in 2014. Digital technology has played a major role in changing the lifestyles of people in a positive way but it also have a very negative impact on lives of teenagers. The life which people of earlier generation spent was far better than the life which is spend by today's teenagers. The advancement has lead to develop more problems associated with teenagers life.


The overall study was based on psychological behaviours in adolescents in early, middle and later stages of adolescence. It also includes detailed study on types of attachments with parents, peers and friends in teenagers life. It also focused on issues of emotional instability, emotional attachment and occurrence of behavioural and developmental problems in later stage of adolescent years. More focus was laid on different ways of communications used by teenagers to communicate with different people around them. It can be through telephonic conversations, social networking sites and face to face interactions. It also included various issues related to maintaining teenagers personal as well as social identity in order to impress and attract people of same or opposite sex. Lastly, a detailed description was included on the topic of digital advancement and changed brought about on the life of teenagers in today's generation.


  • Abraham, M.M. and Kerns, K.A., 2013. Positive and negative emotions and coping as mediators of mother-child attachment and peer relationships.
  • Antunes, M.J.L. and Ahlin, E.M., 2014. Family management and youth violence: Are parents or community more salient?. Journal of Community Psychology.
  • Daughters, S.B., Gorka, S.M. and Anderson, K., 2013. Gender specific effect of psychological stress and cortisol reactivity on adolescent risk taking. Journal of abnormal child psychology.
  • Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T.L. and Valiente, C., 2016. Emotion-Related Self-Regulation, and Children’s Social, Psychological, and Academic Functioning. Child Psychology: A Handbook of Contemporary Issues.
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