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Biological Evolution of Ocean

INTRODUCTION

Biological evolution can be described as the genetic change in population that inherited in generation. It includes the characters which are transferred to one generation to another and data transmitted is encoded by genetic material (DNA). Evolution can be divided into two sections such as micro and macro evolution as well (Chandra, 2015). Factors that are considered as career of trait are known as genes or more specifically called as alleles. Evolution is a kind of scientific theory which was proposed by Charles Darwin. It provided several explanations and predictions for naturally occurring phenomenon based on observations or experimentations. Biological evolution in ocean refers to genetic change into marine animals. This assignment will discuss about geological origin of marine life and importance of evaluating evidences. It includes classification to marine conservation process and projects. There are various types of marine strategies discussed in the report which are relevant to maintain viability.

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TASK 1

Historical and geological origins of marine life

Marine geology deals with study of history and structure of ocean including various marine living beings who are surviving this habitat in different geological areas. In involve several process such as geophysical, geochemical, sediment-al and palaeontological investigations on ocean floor and coastal zone (Wallis, 2014).

There are various kinds of components which has an essential role in origin of marine life. It includes several factors such as microscopic life, plants & algae, invertebrates, fungi, vertebrates etc. These components have different types of sub factors. Microscopic life includes certain microbes who are surviving in marine habitat and responsible for driving changes in global system. These microbial living beings are necessary to the phenomenon of photosynthesis which occurs in oceans (Herrera, 2018). They are also helpful in many other procedures like cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, nutrients and other trace elements. Plants and algae are essential in marine habitat as they provides hiding place to larval forms of larger forms of larger fishes and foraging area of invertebrates. Invertebrates are considered as those marine animals which are usually covers greater portion of sea and they includes Cnidaria such as jellyfish and sea anemones like Ctenophora, sea worms that involves several creatures like phyla Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, Annelida, Sipuncula, Echiura, Chaetognatha, etc. (Olah, Mathew and Prakash, 2016).

Now, discussing about fungi in marine habitat, the it is observed that there are overall 15000 species of fungi are analysed in this environment these are generally parasitic on mariner algae or animals or they can be considered as saprobes fort algae, corals, sea grasses, wood, protozoan cysts etc. At last, vertebrates that includes fish, reptiles, birds and mammals (Saitta and Saija, 2014).

Importance of evaluating evidence

There are various type of evidences that are utilised by scientists for studying about evolution and evaluate their importance as well. These factors re essential because they provide evidence of past related living creatures. Some of them are given below:

Fossil records: It can be described as information which are gained through studying fossil fuels. In some cases hard parts of organism are preserved (McCauley and et.al, 2018). Fossil records provide information regarding progressive changes in animals. These fossils record provide detail about age to strata in which they occur. These records show history of life over a period of time.

Panspermia theory: It is another kind of evidence of origin of life that states that seeds of life exists in entire universe and it can be propagated from one location to another easily. These seed give birth to life on earth (Graham and et.al, 2017). This theory is all about origin of life which suggests that life is presented on planet and it is moved to earth. This model explains that 7.5% rocks reach to Earth from Mars. They travel between 100 years to 16000 years. Once seeds arrive ion Earth from the space safely then they become protein and then turn eventually into life. They grow in the warm ocean and get developed.

Chemical theories: There are several theories that describe about origin of life through chemical components (Breviglieri and Romero, 2017). Life arisen is the natural process in which one organic component arises from non-living element and turn into living thing. This model states that accumulation of organize molecules occur which gives birth to life. These molecules are such as amino acid, nucleotides etc.

Biochemical and molecular biology progressions: This concept describes extraordinary machinery process in which molecular proceeds from DNA to protein through RNA. It works as intermediary (Turney and Buddle, 2018). RNA is the medium that stores genetic information and chemical components in primitive cells that assist in giving birth to living thing. Biochemical evidence are in the form of molecules. These molecules are different in fungus and bacteria but sometimes, they look like same (Hussey and et.al, 2014).

Miller and Urey experiment: Describes origin of life in marine. This experiment has provided evidences about life. This explained that organic molecules are essential for origin of life. In 1953 Miller a Urey have tested Oparin and Haldane's ideas. They have built a close system which contains heated pool of water and mixture of gases. They have sent sparks of electricity for fulfilling requirement of energy for chemical reactions (Cooper, 2017). This experiment has found that with this procedure many organic molecules such as amino acid, sugar formed. But this experiment was unable to produce DNA and other complex molecules. From this experiment it is found that some life building blocks can be formed on earth and it can give birth to the life.

Hydrothermal vents: It related to species discovery is another kind of evidence that describe about origin of life. These hydrothermal vents have many components that can live in own vent ecosystem (McKinley and et.al, 2018). These vents can supply gaseous components like CO2, nitrogen etc. that are helpful in forming molecules. Life arose in warn water within rocky structures which is known as hydrothermal vents.

The way marine life forms replicate and their classification

The transaction from non-living to living things is the gradual process that describes combination of molecular, biochemistry that supports in giving rise to life. Original of marine life is much more based on liquids, carbohydrates, carbon, amino acid, etc. (Panspermia Theory,2018). Experiment of Miller and Urey explains that there are several essential components such as amino acids, protein that exist in all living organisms. These components can easily be synthesized from inorganic components under specific conditions. This supports in replication of life on earth. There are several external sources such as energy, light, radiation etc. that supports in self replication.

There are several organisms that exist in marine environment. These are classified as below:

  • Bacteria: These are such organism that contains single cell and can be reproduce by splitting into two. Bacteria live in marine water, they provide nutrients for the phytoplankton (Hypothesis about the origins oflife,2017).
  • Protozoans: They are also single celled organism but these are larger than bacteria.
  • Chromists: They are small size organisms that use different kinds of chlorophyll.
  • Fungi: there are limited number of fungi live in marine water, these organisms are unable to make their own food.
  • Plants: They are multi cellular organism, they are capable for photosynthesis. This process help them in producing food. In this photosynthesis process plants use sunlight in order to produce food (Marine food webs, 2017). There are several kinds of plants that present in marine environment such as ell grass, mangroves etc.
  • Animals: they are multicellular organism, Jellyfish, sea spider, bryozoans, fish etc. live in marine water and they have to be depended on other for food.

Relevance of classification to marine conservation processes and projects

Marine conservation can be defined as protection and preservation of marine ecosystem in ocean. Many time due to human activities marine ecosystem gets damaged, through marine conservation process vulnerable species are being preserved (Migration and Movement Patterns (marine mammals),2017). Marine conservation process has high relevance with the project.

Cell structure and function of marine animals help them in protecting themselves from changing ecosystem conditions. Self-replication mechanism aids in adapting in new environment and fulfilling needs of survival. As each animals come under specific kingdom, phylum, subphylum, class, order, suborder, family, genus, species. These grouping makes them able to protect themselves from changing environmental situations (Chandra, 2015).

Marine food webs, and their role in sustaining marine life forms

Food web is the complex network through which one marine animal gets food from others. Marine food web includes sponges, corals, fishes, whales, seals, seabirds etc. These all marine animals have feeding relationship with each other. This food web show inter connection between producers, consumers and decomposers (Wallis, 2014). Marine food web describes that all living organisms are depended upon each other for their survival. This interrelationship develops a food chain. Phytoplankton are considered as primary producers that suspended into water. They use nutrients through photosynthesis process. Phytoplankton biomass works as primary food for the other marine species such as zooplankton etc.

Trophic levels

Food web organism are divided into trophic levels. First level is made up iof producer, 2ndlevel is made up of consumers. Food web has basic trophic level across the world. Species those come under this level are different in each are (Olah, Mathew and Prakash, 2016).

Primary producers

They are the most important part of marine food web, they produce their food by own. They are also known as autotrophics. These producers take support of sun energy and convert it into food energy through photosynthesis. Phytoplankto are primary producer of food in marine environment. Other producers are such as seaweeds, seagrasses, etc.

Consumers

They are also known as heterotrophic, these are such species those which are unable to make their own food (McKinley and et.al, 2018). They absorb dissolved organic material in water. These consumers are of two types: herbivores and carnivores. Zooplankton is the herbivores consumer, they consumer phytoplankton. They are further eaten by carnivorous of 1stlevel such as Juvenile stage animals such as fish, jellyfish etc. At the top level predators are existed such as shark, dolphins (Saitta and Saija, 2014). Albatross is considered as essential predator which exist at the top of marine food web. Human being are also at top level in the food chain because they also eat these animals.

Decomposers

Decomposers are presented at trophic level. This includes bacteria etc. Decomposers support to producers in releases nutrients.

Primary producers are such as plants, algae, phytoplankton etc. Primary consumers are such as oysters, Copepods, shrimp etc. Secondary consumers eat primary consumers these are such as lobster, humpback, etc. (Cooper, 2017). Tertiary consumers are such species those eat secondary consumers such as shark, dolphin. Apex predator are such marine animals that at exist at top of food chain such as shark etc. Decomposers are organisms that break down dead plants and release it into energy and nutrients.

Role of marine food web

Marine food web plays significant role in the marine ecosystem. This helps each level of species in getting adequate amount of food (McKinley and et.al, 2018). By this way, species those which are unable to make their food can get eating material easily by eating other creatures. This also helps in maintaining balance in marine environment. By this way issue of increasing specific number of species will not take place and each involved species will be able to fulfil its responsibility towards marine ecosystem.

Importance of marine food webs in conservation processes

Food web system in marine environment is considered as powerful element in order to manage complex ecosystem (Herrera, 2018). All species have their own importance in this food chain system. There is interrelationship between producers, consumers, predators etc. By going through this food web procedure information about vulnerable species can be gathered. This assist in implementing effective strategies so that these creatures can be protected for longer duration and balance can be maintain in marine ecosystem. There are many aquatic animals those who are eaten by big animals such as dolphin or shark. In such condition number of small species those which produce food or nutrition can get reduced (Hussey and et.al, 2014). Thus, large species do not get adequate amount of food which impact on their living. This food web system assists in managing ecosystem and conservation of marine species.

TASK 2

Marine adaptation strategies related to maintenance of viability

Change in climate situations, human activities impact on overall marine ecosystem to great extent. All these things are threatened to the ocean and marine communities. There are several adaption strategies that can support in maintaining viability (Migration and Movement Patterns (marine mammals),2017). These are explained as below:

Migration

It is one of the best marine adaptation strategy in which species those which are at high risk can be migrant to other oceans. If number of sharks have been increased then migration will help in conservation of marine species and will support in maintaining viability. The most effective strategy to protect people is that to move these animals from one location to other where they can live easily for longer duration (Hypotheses about the origins oflife,2017). In this migration process energy allocation is being done in order to support movement so that they can meet with their reproductive needs. There are many marine mammals those which live in these water for feeding, breeding etc. But due to climate change and human activities they get failed to fulfil their desires. In such condition they have to move towards other water where they can resolve all these things and can easily fulfil their desires. For example Whales is the species those which adopt this adaptation strategy, these whales spend their most of the time on productive feeding grounds in summers and then they migrate to calving grounds in winters. Because warm water helps them in breeding (Panspermia Theory,2018). This migration allows species in energy allocation and storing of foods in different seasons. That helps them in reproduction time.

Locomotion

It is another kind of marine adaptation strategy that is applied by variety of animals to move from one place to another. They can swim, jump, hope etc. For example marine animals highly depended upon their environment thus, they move in other location through various modes such as sailing (Jellyfish), kiting (Spiders) etc. Locomotion is effective strategy that assist in survival of marine species (McKinley and et.al, 2018). Aquatic environment gets changed in every season, in such condition it becomes essential for the species that to adapt changes. Aquatic mobility is main requirement of these animals. For that they use their locomotory structure or organs in order to adapt changes. To match with environmental demands various marine habitats such as sea turtles etc. adopt locomotion patterns (Turney and Buddle, 2018).

Diet and foraging

Body size of marine mammals is different from others. Phytoplankton and zooplankton have large size which affect their productivity. Diet of marine species are adapt changes and capture their pray. But due to changes in demographic factor their diet and foraging behaviour gets changed (McCauley and et.al, 2018). Changes in diet schedule and foraging features can support these mammals in adopting changes and easily living under the water.

Respiration

Aquatic respiration is considered as the process of obtaining oxygen in the water by aquatic mammals. For that mammals reduced drag and modify appendages for maximal propulsion. Many marine animals have gills that support them in respiration (Herrera, 2018). These gills provide support to fishes in obtaining oxygen and blood supply.

Osmoregulation and thermoregulation

Marine animals can take support of osmoregulation in order to maintain water balance in their body. They reduce cutaneous and respiratory evaporative water loss so that they can drink sea water and can maintain balance. Aquatic mammals excrete nitrogenous wastes. Terrestrial animals adopt new strategy in which they reduce permeability of skin by adding layers of liquid (Breviglieri and Romero, 2017). These strategies help them in living in marine water for longer duration and accepting adaptation.

Reproduction (oviparity, ovoviviparity, viviparity)

Oviparous animals are such creatures in which reproduction held through eggs. Female hold eggs in their body and after incubation they give birth to new life. Viviparous animals are such mammals in which embryos gets developed in womb of mother and after particular time children takes birth (Hussey and et.al, 2014). Ovoviviparous animals develops eggs in female body. This internal reproduction system protect animals and they get adapted in the new environment. Fishes are viviparous animals in which internal fertilization system occur. This is adaptation strategy that protect new species, they get food from mother's body and they get adapted in the new environment.

Evolution of adaptive strategies in development within a range of marine species

All these adaption strategies are effective enough because this develops Sensory system adaptations system of all aquatic mammals (Chandra, 2015). By this, they can sense changes and can move to other location. This supports them in living longer life in marine water. This sensory adaption allows animals in detecting changes in the environment and receiving stimulation in order to survive in new environment.

Secondary adaptation includes structural, behaviour, psychological adaptation. Whenever changes occur in marine ecosystem then aquatic mammals can make changes in their feeding, locomotion, osmoregulation system to get adapt in new environment (Hypotheses about the origins oflife,2017). This protect them from changing atmosphere and they can survive in this water for longer duration.

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CONCLUSION

From the above study, it can be concluded that marine food web plays a significant role in maintaining balance in marine ecosystem as each animal is dependent on others for food. There are producers, consumers and decomposers; they all fulfil the needs of each other. Each aquatic species have specific characteristics such as locomotion structure, respiration system, etc. that assist in surviving in dynamic environment. Migration allows species in energy allocation and storing of foods in different seasons.

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REFERENCES

  • Breviglieri, C. P. B. and Romero, G. Q., 2017. Terrestrial vertebrate predators drive the structure and functioning of aquatic food webs. Ecology.
  • Chandra, W. N., 2015. Vindication Of Cosmic Biology: Tribute To Sir Fred Hoyle (1915-2001). World Scientific.
  • Cooper, C. E., 2017. Endocrinology of osmoregulation and thermoregulation of Australian desert tetrapods: A historical perspective. General and comparative endocrinology.244. pp.186-200.
  • Graham, N. A. and et.al., 2017. Human disruption of coral reef trophic structure. Current Biology.27(2). pp.231-236.
  • Herrera, A. S., 2018. The Origin of Life According to Melanin. MOJ Cell Sci Rep.5(1). pp.00105.
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