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Introduction To Food Safety
Food Safety is a scientific process of storage and preparation of foods in order to prevent food borne illness. In hospitality industry, it is the responsibility of managers and kitchen staff to provide healthy food to their clients within stipulated time (Aung, and Chang, 2014). In addition, report emphasizes on the implementation of hygiene systems and processes that are needed to produce and deliver safe food within hospitality industry. In order to overcome food positioning and other food safety related issues, manager ensures that food offered by company is safe to eat. As per the given case concerned, four star hotel in the City Centre has been taken because there during a wedding reception, a food poisoning incident had occurred due to food positioning. By conducting this research, investigator will be able to investigate the matter and write a complete report which is based on the following tasks.
The controls required to prevent physical and chemical contamination of food
Physical contamination: Food becomes contaminated due to mix of any object with food at any stage of food preparation. Broken metal or glass, hair animal body part etc. can make food unclean (Burger, 2014).
Prevention of physical contamination: By storing food in safe place and maintaining proper hygiene during preparation of food, physical contamination of food can be reduced. By encouraging kitchen staff to wash their hands before cutting the eatable items and also before serving food, impact of pathogen which is introduced into food transfers can be reduced. From the raw food products (i.e., meat and poultry), kitchen tools and surfaces, food may become contaminated. For example, when these tools and raw material will be used in kitchen then Microbes will be transferred from one food to another. In addition, harmful bacteria can be transferred from one person, object or place to another. By developing proper warehouse and storing foods at appropriate storage, negative impact of food on the health of people can be overcome (Jenson, Vanderlinde, Langbridg and Sumner, 2014).
Methods of control: X-Ray Machines and other tools can be used to detect any metal part within body of fish and other food items so that manager can easily identify or detect them. In addition, with help of inspection of the raw food and using metal detector, physical contamination of food can be reduced (Håstein, Hjeltnes, Lillehaug and Berntssen, 2014).
Chemical contamination: In order to preserve the eat able items secure and usable for the long time, chemicals are used. Food becomes contaminated in the presence of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can affect the health of people negatively. Meat and poultry may become contaminated and it can affect people which take food services in hospitality industry (Havinga, 2015). If fresh fruits and vegetables are not washed properly with water then they can be contaminated due to presence of chemicals. Due to various reasons chemical contamination spreads such as raw food, storage equipment’s and pesticides etc.
Prevention of chemical contamination: By applying various techniques such as stay away the cleaning material from the food and not using the strong smell perfumes near the storage of foods etc., it can be prevented. By using less chemicals within various food items such as fish, oysters, crabs and fruits that are used in hospitality industry, negative effect can be reduced (Farber, Crichton and Snyder, 2014).
Methods of control: A proper care and storage practices are required in terms of avoiding avoid chemical contamination. Through a variety of mechanisms, food can save from contaminated such as adequate hand washing, maintained storage and cooking temperature and pest control should be performed by specialized persons (Griffith, 2010).
Biological contamination: it is occurred when microorganisms, such as salmonella, clostridia, listeria, viruses and fungi enter food from a variety of sources. Different sources of biological contamination may be poor hygiene, refuse and pests.
Prevention of biological contamination: By considering some strategies including never store food in metallic containers, refrigerators should have open shelves and foods should be covered to prevent cross-contamination, negative impact of biological contamination on human life can be prevented. Food poisoning can be reduced through using an approved sanitizing agent such as bleach and make sure that hands are properly washed before handling any food (Kang, Liu and Tsai, 2014).
Methods of controls: it is required for reducing biological contamination from food is that refrigeration must be stored below 40 degrees and it must be cleaned and sanitized regularly. To remove particles of food, wash surfaces with clean, hot, soapy water. After purchasing food, take it immediately home and store it in the proper containers to remove microorganism (Aung and Chang, 2014).
Comparison of the characteristics of food poisoning and food born infections
Food poisoning: Food poisoning is raised due to various reasons which include nausea, vomiting, water diarrhoea, fever and abdominal pain along with cramps etc. Unhygienic foods and excess use of beverages are the major causes of food borne infections. For such kind of disease, bacteria, parasites, viruses or chemicals are responsible (Kumar and Shariff, 2011).
Causes: Without doing hand-wash before and after drinking or eating the food, food poisoning can be occurred. Apart from this, not clean equipment’s properly, not washing or cleaning the food items and store food in metallic containers are the major causes of food poisoning.
Symptoms and duration: After eating the food or drinking beverages within 2-6 hours, symptoms of food poisoning is occurred. Main symptoms of food poisoning are cramps, fever and chills, headache and weakness (Koutsoumanis, 2012).
Food born infection: It is raised due to presence of bacteria’s or viruses in food and beverages. When any person is consumed this kind of contaminated food then food-borne diseases are raised.
Causes: Due to consumption of the contamination food or beverages and making in the contact with animals, this is occurred. Besides that, spreading of viruses through person to person and different types of bacteria’s and viruses are also responsible for this kind of infection (Lo, 2015).
Symptoms and duration: Through food or beverages, Infectious diseases spread and create negative affect in the life of people.
Comparison between the characteristics of food poisoning and food borne infections
On the basis of the agents of food-borne and food-poisoning disease and sources of contamination and duration, critical comparisons between these two terms can be done. Comparison between the characteristics of food poisoning and food borne infections can be described as followed.
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Food poisoning infections agents, source and duration
- Campylobacter infection- It is raised from sea food and meats and symptoms are shown in 0.5 to 6 hours (Uyttendaele, Jacxsens and Van Boxstael, 2014).
- Salmonella- Due to domestic and wild animals such as poultry, pigs, cattle and pets, this kind of infection may be raised. In the given case concerned in hotel, eggs and drinking unpasteurized milk can be the reasons of food poisoning (Mortimore and Wallace, 2013).
- Shigella- The main causes behind occurring of this disease is the changing environment including tropical and temperate climate and due to this, bacterial infection is raised. In addition, fever, nausea, vomiting and stomach cramps are the major symptoms of this infection (Sevenich, Kleinstueck, Crews and Knorr, 2014).
Food borne infections agents, source and duration
- Bacillus cereus- Meats, milk, vegetables and fish are the major sources of bacillus cereus. Its major symptoms are vomiting after 6 hours of infection (Lo, 2015).
- Clostridium botulinum: In oil, plants, animals and fish, intestinal tracts are found. It mainly affects the nervous system of a human being and its symptoms arises in between 18 to 36 hours.
- Campylobacter Jejuni- In addition, due to sea foods and meats, this disease is raised and its symptoms are shown in 0.5 to 6 hours (Ryser and Marth, 2014).
Evaluating the ways through food-borne illnesses can be controlled in hotel
Hotel can control food borne illnesses in the workplace by using some strategies that can be described as follows:
Contaminated Ingredients: Due to presence of chemical, physical or microbiological sources, food borne contaminated can be prevented (Aung and Chang, 2014). Raw fish, raw meat (Steak Tar Tar) and eaten raw or undercooked foods are the main examples of contaminated ingredients.
Temperature: It is very important to keep foods, especially hazardous foods out of the Danger Zone of temperature. Some type of food temperature measuring device must be used to insure that foods are cooled, cooked, held at hot or cold temperatures that severely limit bacterial growth (Farber, Crichton and Snyder, 2014). The most commonly used is the dial face, metal stem, bimetallic thermometer.
Personal hygiene: By maintaining the personal hygiene one can be prevented from the food borne illness. Before eating or cooking, hands must be properly washed. They should always be washed after using the restroom, eating, before starting food preparation, after preparing a raw potentially hazardous food and preparing a food item that is eaten raw, picking up objects from the floor, handling a pet, taking out the trash/garbage, coughing, sneezing, touching any part of the body, clearing tables and handling dirty dishes (Kumar and Shariff, 2011).
Storage: even, if the food products are not stored in a clean and dry place then also the food borne illness can be encountered. Therefore, it is advised to keep all the storage places clean like refrigerators, cupboards, etc. And also, Food items in dry storage should be kept in airtight containers to prevent access by rodents and insects (Sevenich, R., Kleinstueck, Crew and Knorr, 2014).
Premises: Manager of hotel must be separated from cleaning compounded and insect control chemicals which are hazardous for the life of people. Hotel kitchen and food serving staff must maintain product cleanliness in order to prevent the food contamination. Manager of hotel can overcome food illness issue through proper packaging of foods and by applying distribution process effectively (Uyttendaele, Jacxsens and Van Boxstael, 2014).
Henceforth, on the basis of these ways, hotel would be able to assure that food offered to customers is fresh and of good quality as we as increases confidence of their guests towards brands. In addition to this, by maintaining food temperature and increasing product cleanliness, staff of hotel can reduce the chemical contamination and other food and safety related issues in an appropriate manner (Yiannas, 2015).
Techniques for food preservation
Smoking is the technique which is used to increase the life of the perishable food items. Smoking is accomplished by placing the food on burning plant material such as wood which is exposed to smoke (Sevenich, Kleinstueck, Crews and Knorr, 2014). Most commonly form of foods which go through this technique of food preservation includes meat and fish. And, also fruits like paprika, cheeses and spices go through smoking.
It is the technique which is used for applying heat to the food which are then sealed in the jar's. This is the process which helps in destroying micro-organisms. Through this canning, the spoilage of the food can be eliminated. Therefore, it involves cooking food, sealing it in sterile cans an then boiling the containers to kill the remaining bacteria's (Yiannas, 2015).
Dehydration is another technique which is used to preserve the food products from the affects of micro-organism and moisture. Dehydrated foods are helpful for backpacking, hiking and campaigning. Because their weight is low and does not require refrigeration (Ryser and Marth, 2014).
Drying is one of the oldest and the most common technique to preserve the food products. This drying process, helps in exposing the food products to such temperature which helps in removing the moisture. The proper air circulation helps in drying the food evenly (Mensah and Julien, 2011).
Food irradiation is the technique where the food is expose to ionizing radiations. This means that it is the energy which is transferred to the food without direct contact and is responsible for removing the electrons from food (Aung and Chang, 2014).
Increasing effectiveness of food preservation methods in cited enterprise
Smoking: It is a method of food preservation, which is effective for the cited organization in the way that it adds a delicious flavor into its fish and meat products. It helps to remove the harmful bacteria from the food products. The other effectiveness of smoking can be seen in the sense that it changes the color of the food which makes the food pleasing to the eyes. Even, sometimes overheating of food can lead to burning of food.
Canning: The effectiveness of the canned food products over the fresh foods is that they have longer period of shelf life. It increase the life span of the products for 1 to 5 yrs because, the food is protected in sealed cans and jars. This method is most effective for the cited organization as it does not require the refrigerators or electricity to store products. Even, such canned foods can be made available during the off season. On the contrary, it may be very time consuming process and very expensive method (Griffith, 2010).
Dehydration: The effectiveness of this method of food preservation can be observed at the times of emergency. Dehydrated foods are readily available at the times of hiking and backpacking. Dehydrated foods are the most healthiest which are mostly consumed by the buyers. The disadvantage of the dehydrated food to the organization is that such type of foods require large space for its storage (Griffith, 2010). And, also sometimes they does not taste fresh.
Drying: The other method of food preservation is drying, the effectiveness of this method is that the taste of dried food products is much better. And, even these food have high nutritional value.
Irradiation: the effectiveness of this method is that it helps to kills the various dangerous organisms which affects the food products. Even, tit helps the people to have the safe food to eat. But some of the industries shows negligence in adopting this technique because of the uncertainties regarding the consumer acceptance (Jenson,Vanderlinde, Langbridge and Sumner, 2014).
Explanation of food safety guide for legislation compliance
Food safety act, 1990: The act has come in to force by the parliament pf UK in order to meet the requirements of food producers as well as handling of the food safety. The only reason for adopting this act in the hotel is if any food products are found with improper quality or any sort of food damage or harmful for the consumption of human then the whole food is considered as unsafe to consume. The act helps in protecting the rights of the customers. Also, this act is applicable to the other companies who do not abide by its rules with regard to maintaining quality. With respect to hotel, this act is applied in the sense that hotel members must mention the ingredients which are used while preparing the food. If not providing the details then it leads to misguiding the customers. Hence, prohibiting the laws (Sevenich, Kleinstueck, Crews and Knorr, 2014).
Food labeling regulations, 1986: abiding by this law, all the hotels and the related companies, must put labels on the package of the food. The labelling includes the various things such as manufacturing dates and the expiry date of the products. Even, the label should make the instructions for using the products clear to the customers. If the hotel is not mentioning these things during the serving the food than it will be comes under the unethical process (Ryser and Marth, 2014). The reason of putting the labelling on the packed items is customer's know that what they are purchasing and it is good for their health or not.
By conducting this study, hotel would be able to gain understanding of the systems and processes required to produce safe food. Legislation and agencies can play a crucial role in terms of managing safety in food preparation and delivery. By following these guidelines, hotel would be able to prevent food contamination and food poisoning kind of incident in the workplace.
- Aung, M. M. and Chang, Y. S., 2014. Traceability in a food supply chain: Safety and quality perspectives.Food control.
- Burger, J., 2014. Food safety-a shared responsibility: processing.The Dairy Mail.
- Farber, J., Crichton, J. and Snyder, O. P., 2014. An Introduction to Retail Food Safety. In Retail Food Safety. Springer New York.
- Griffith, J. C., 2010. Do businesses get the food poisoning they deserve?: The importance of food safety culture. British Food Journal.
- Håstein, T., Hjeltnes, B., Lillehaug, A. and Berntssen, M., 2014. Food safety hazards that occur during the production stage: challenges for fish farming and the fishing industry.Revue scientifique et technique-Office international des epizooties.