CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Workplace conflict is considered as the issue raised within management and workers or between workers and workers. Thus, it is essential for organization to undertake effective causes that would impact upon business performance in international market. Therefore, businesses provides leaders or managers in order to mange the conflicts among diverse work groups so that they can tackle the situations of mistrust, lack of cooperation and stress because otherwise it would result into increase in employee attrition rate (Boddy, 2014). Also, organizations are required to bring innovation within workplace so that employees' ability could be enhanced. Workplace conflict is considered as the perceived incompatibility within parties of their views and desires that each other holds. Hence, this research outlines the causes of the conflicts within business as well as identify their solutions in order to manage it and attain success. There are various types of workplace conflict within top to lower management and thus it would affect the leadership strategy within firm. It is essential for each and every organization to cooperate with workers and overcome inefficiency so that sales and profitability could raised. However, if there will be internal conflicts arising then it would impact upon the performance of firm in market and also brand image of firm will be affected.
Further, conflicts are occurred among individuals because there are differences in personalities that sometimes affects emotion and perception. Therefore, it is essential for every worker to manage with each other and thus manage the conflict situation so that organization can attain success. There are various causes that creates workplace conflicts such as internal conflicts which are usually carried out by informal groups or conflicts such as rejection of work by supervisors or criticizing work done (Goldberg, 2015). Thus, all such behaviour affects the work of individual and creates conflicts among each other. Therefore, it is essential for management to overcome such conflicts by providing them better solutions and thus improve their performance so that improvement can be attained. However, there should be trust among workers when they are working together and thereforel it helps in developing better performance and create healthy working environment.
It is essential for management to handle workplace conflicts in a proper manner and provide them proper solutions so that they can manage their anger and carry out effective disciplinary actions in order to manage workplace actions. However, workplace conflict need to be managed within business and thus employees face several problems so that they can improve their cooperation within workplace (Saundry and et. al., 2014). Management needs to undertake effective practices so that it helps in releasing the stress of workers through involving them within different workplace activities, management games etc. so that stress could reduce and efficiency could be improved. Further, when any individual is dependent upon other workers then workplace conflict could be overcome.
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Main causes of conflicts in workplace
Each and every organisation is having some cause which can create a conflict in the work place regarding to the work. These are barriers in the growth of the companies so they have to work on them to remove them. It can be a many kind of like conflict in between the employees and conflict between the employees and employers (Crowley, 2014). So here are some points which are main cause of the conflict in the workplace in between the employees:
Poor communication: It is a main cause of conflict in between the employees, it creates a doubt situation in between the employees regarding to their wo4rk which creates a conflict in between them. It creates a difference in between the team members which makes a negative impact on the productivity and as well as on the team sprite. It can reduce the team balance so management have to take their focus on this to increase the communication level of them (Sonnentag, Unger and Nägel, 2013).
Difference in between the employees: All of the team members are having some types of differences which can be related with the work, performance, salaries and incentives. These are some cause which makes a difference in between the employees and creates a conflict in between them. Personal habits can also increase the conflict, some habits can irritate to others which can makes a negative impact on the work place environment which is can impact on the team performance (Lyons and Kuron, 2014).
Different values: Each and every person haves a different values which rules on their thinking level and thoughts. It creates a difference in between the members. Mostly generation gap in the employees makes a gap in the values and taking things positive and negative. Most of the old employees believes in the traditional values but younger generation does not believe on it. When employees fails to accept these types of differences in them so it creates a difference in between them (Gilin Oore, Leiter and LeBlanc, 2015).
Competition: Competition in between employees creates a demotivated environment in the workplace which harm the productivity as well as proficiency of the workers. Along with this they can not provide the qualitative services to the consumers as personal rivalry occurs among team. In this managers of the company play a important role in resolving the conflicts and by that they can provide best services to the consumers which helps in attaining the gaols and objectives (Schmidt and et. al., 2014).
Conflicts in between the employees and employers:
Salaries and Incentives: Most of the conflicts can be occurs for the salaries and incentive. It is a type of discrimination in the employees. So they have to make proper salary structure for the employees to which can provide them proper satisfaction regarding to their services which they are rendering for the employer. All of the employees have a tendency that their salaries have to be credited on the right time. One more thing which is annual appraisal, bonus and increments, these are some motivational factors which also may be a cause of conflict. So each and every organisations have to use moral ethics in the appraisals and increment to reduce the risk of conflicts towards the employees (Gerardi, 2015).
Work place benefits: Facilities which are given by the employers should be appropriate according to the needs and demands of the employees. Safety equipments have to bes provided by the employer to provide a security to the employees in the accidental situations. Facilities e.g. drinking water, wash rooms, coffee, rest rooms have to provided appropriately by the employers because it gives a motivation them and increase the loyalty of the employees towards to the employers (Goetsch and Davis, 2014).
1.2 Problem statement
It is essential for management to overcome conflicts in the workplace and thus obtain effective practices so that issues could be overcome. There are different issues being faced by workers during working in organization such as personality differences of individual workers, non-compliance of riles and regulations etc. Due to rise in conflicts within workplace it decreases the efficiency and productivity of workers (Van Evera, 2013). Therefore, such issues needs to be identified and overcome by implementing effective solutions so that best results can be attained. Thus, management needs to identify conflicts in workplace and provide better solutions so that individual could overcome the issues.
1.3 Research aim
The aim of the present dissertation is “To assess the causes of conflicts in workplace and identify solutions to overcome them- a case study on Marriott hotel.
- To assess the causes of conflict in workplace.
- To identify the ways through which conflict could be overcome within hotel.
- To identify the impact of conflict among employees towards attaining organizational goals.
- To recommend conflict management strategies and maintain harmony within workplace.
1.5 Research questions
- What are the causes of conflict in workplace?
- What are the ways through which conflict could be overcome within Marriott?
- How conflict among employees impacts upon attaining business goals?
- What are the conflict management strategies that helps in maintaining harmony within business?
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1.6 Significance of research
The present study is effective in regard to identify the main causes of conflicts within workplace and thus it impacts upon attaining business targets. Following are the main significance of research which are as follows-
- Present study would prove beneficial for PHD scholars and thus they could use the study to understand different concepts and knowledge regarding conflicts.
- Further, it also helps researcher to enhance their knowledge and imply the same concepts in practical situations.
- Also, such dissertation proves useful for individuals to carry out further research in similar area.
1.7 Structure of dissertation
Following is the structure of present dissertation such as-
- Chapter 1 Introduction- It is the first chapter in which dissertation topic has been discussed in detail in the form of background. Thus, it helps in assessing varied causes of conflicts in Marriott hotel.
- Chapter 2 Literature review- In the later chapter literature review has been done and discusses different objectives framed to accomplish the study. Thus, it carries out detailed analysis and understand in-depth analysis of the topic.
- Chapter 3 Research methodology- It involves different research tools and instruments in regard to conduct the study. However, research is being carried out by using both primary and secondary information and thus obtain results which are useful in the future.
- Chapter 4 Data analysis and findings- It is the crucial chapter that collects data through carrying out primary and secondary research. It also carries out scrutiny of information so that results can be obtained. Hence, it helps scholar to gain best results.
- Chapter 5 Conclusion and recommendation- It is the last chapter that carries out analysis upon obtaining the best possible outcomes from the conducted research. Further, recommendation has also been provided in regard to solve the issues found while carrying out the study.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
After completing introduction chapter, another important part of dissertation is literature review. Here, it involves views and opinions of different authors in regard to carry out the research. Through evaluating different studies it helps in obtaining some information regarding the subject which proves useful to enhance knowledge. Here, secondary sources are used in regard to collect information from different websites, articles and journals. Thus, using them as a base it helps in conducting the current research and thus obtain significant outcomes (Betts, 2015). Literature review chapter helps in identifying the gap that has been identified within the past researches. The identified gap needs to be reduced within the current research and thus draw conclusion for the same. Thus, it helps in developing proper analysis so that evaluation could be made on the subject matter. It also helps in developing effective theoretical framework and thus identify the main causes of conflict within workplace.
2.2 Causes of conflict in workplace
Conflict is considered as the issue that arises among the workers or management due to lack of interaction and stress among them. However, it assesses that conflict vary so much because attitudes toward conflict vary widely and thus it creates conflict. As per the view of Mapolisa and Tshabalala (2016), anger, disagreement, anxiety and tension creates conflicts among workplace and therefore, all these are considered as the main causes of conflict. Therefore, management needs to identify the main causes of occurring conflicts and assess that main reason is due to lack of trust among individual and poor communication which results into creating conflict. Following are the different causes of conflict in workplace such as-
- Poor communication- Baechler (2013), statedthat it is one of the main causes of conflict in workplace among workers. Thus, it results in differences in the communication style or failure to communicate. Therefore, it is also essential for management to identify the needs of workers and then provide them suitable workplace environment so that conflict situation could be overcome. Within each and every organization, there are several workers employed of different culture and thus their language also differs. Thus, it is essential for management to help them in communicating properly because otherwise it would impact and create conflict. However, poor communication within workplace not only causes conflict but also decreases productivity and employee morale.
- Differences in personalities- As per the opinionof Dimelu, Salifu and Igbokwe (2016), differences in personalities among workers are considered as another cause of workplace conflict. However, employees come from different backgrounds and experiences and thus play a significant role in regard to share their personalities so that they can deal effectively with customers. Further, when employees fail to understand or accept the differences in each other's personalities then problem might arise in workplace. For instance, it is essential for employee to possess a straightforward personality and thus results into identifying the workplace culture and then delegate the task to others.
- Different values- Afful-Broni and Tah (2015), statedthat similar to personalities, values of employees may also differ within workplace and thus identify various differences in values of workers. However, values may differ within young and old workers and therefore, it is essential for management to identify their workplace values so that conflict could be managed. While, failure to accept the differences it would result in creating conflict and thus until the right solution is offered which helps in improving business performance.
- Competition- Furthermore, another causes of conflict in workplace is unhealthy competition among workers and thus it creates conflict. Therefore, management of firm needs to identify the needs and wants of employees otherwise it would discourages teamwork and thus promotes individualism so that conflict can be created (Temirkulov, 2014).
White (2015), stated that sometimes personal problems among individuals may also affect the attitude of individuals within workplace and thus it needs to be solved through encouraging them in regard to improve employee performance in market. For instance, it is essential for employees to overcome their personal clashes and does not result in affecting other workers because of that. Therefore, they need to be calm and identify the situation so that issues could be overcome effectively. However, (Van Evera, 2013), argued that identifying causes of conflicts in workplace results into decreasing the morale of workers and also reduces productivity. Therefore, it is essential for business to assess the main issues found among workers and therefore, it needs to overcome the same so that desired results could be attained.
Furthermore, there are several other causes of workplace conflict such as poor leadership, lack of honesty and stress among workers. Thus, such issues needs to be identified by management and needs to be overcome effectively so that good relations could be developed among workers. Conflict is unavoidable in workplace but if it is harnessed for good than it helps in increasing overall team performance and motivate employees so that various problem could be overcome. Olaleye and Arogundade (2013), stated that it is essential for management to handle conflicts effectively and provide opportunity to each and every employee in regard to overcome difficulty situation and thus attain desired results in terms of enhancing satisfaction among workers.
Moreover, sometimes conflict can result in creating amazing ideas and thus overcomes dissatisfaction among workers. Through identifying their needs and thus overcome their issues it would result into benefiting workers and thus helps in benefiting business so that success can be attained. Management need to organize several programs and workshops that helps in creating harmony among workers and they are able to understand each other's opinion so that conflict within workplace could be handled effectively and efficiently (Folarin, 2015). Also, conflict could be arise within workplace because if needs of individuals are not being met. Therefore, it helps in resolving conflict situation and thus find appropriate solutions so that productivity within workplace could be created.
2.3 Ways through which conflict could be overcome
There are different types of conflict which are faced within business among employees such as poor communication, differences in personalities, differences in values and competition. Thus, all such causes of conflicts are created among employees and thus management needs to find proper solution in regard to overcome the conflicts as per (Boddy,2014). It is essential for management of firm to identify different ways through which conflict could be overcome and employees could be satisfied effectively and efficiently. Therefore, it is essential for firm to handle conflicts in the workplace through interacting with each other, listen them carefully, focus upon behaviour of personalities and identify their differences so that conflict areas could be overcome. Employees should follow proper action plan and thus build upon their success so that bets results can be attained. However, (Crowley, 2014) argued that identify the points upon which employees disagrees and thus develop appropriate plan to work upon each conflict so that careful results could be attained. They should prioritize the areas of conflict that has been identified within organization and thus adopt appropriate ways through which it could be overcome and thus develop positive environment within workplace. Hence, it is essential for organization to improve the workplace conflicts and thus improve their efficiency so that it could be managed in an effective way.
Further, there are different ways of overcoming the conflict situation and thus improve business performance. Following are the different ways through which conflict situation could be improved such as-
- Exercising patience- Employees need to empower themselves and thus remain patience so that they can achieve a sense of accomplishment. However, it is essential for employees to practice effective patience and thus enhance their working abilities so that best results could be attained.
- Accepting other person's response- As per the view of (Gerardi, 2015) employees need to accept the responses given by other individual so that they need could be fulfilled. Also, it is essential for firm to develop appropriate harmony among workers so that they can accept each others skills and abilities so that they could attain desired results.
- Avoiding negative language- (Goetsch and Davis, 2014) stated that negative language within workplace should be avoided. However, management need to avoid negative language from workplace and thus it could be done through empowering workers and thus influencing them to attain desired results. Also, management should stop negative language within workplace through encouraging workforce and thus retaining them within workplace.
- Something that distract from conflict- As per theview of (Afful-Broni and Tah, 2015) it is essential for workers to identify that particular thing which distracts them from work. Therefore, it is essential for management of business to identify the conflict situation and thus overcome the main issue that distracts individual from assigned ta However, (Folarin, 2015) argued that it is essential for business to overcome the problems that distracts individual to carry out their assigned work within business.
However, through developing team within workplace it helps them to handle the conflicts among team and thus carry out effective leadership skills so that at the end goals could be effectively attained. There are various ways through which conflicts could be overcome and thus through using effective situational leadership and thus obtain excellent way so that conflicts could be avoided as per (White, 2015). Further, getting back on track assists that conflicts could be overcome through which excellent satisfaction could be attained among workers. Thus, it is crucial for management to identify the needs of workers and then provide them appropriate ways so that conflicts could be avoided within workplace. Moreover, conflicts from business could be overcome through developing interaction among workers and thus look together at deep concerns so that self motivation could derive workforce to a next level. Hence, encouraging workers helps in overcoming the conflict situation and thus finding several positive reasons that motivates employees to attain desired objectives.
As per the opinion of (Altuntas and Baykal, 2010) identifying the alternative ways through which conflict could be overcome. Thus, it is significant for business to improve their performance and thus encourage workforce so that they can enhance their level of satisfaction. Through such way it also helps in motivating other workers so that they can employ effective strategies and thus gain satisfaction among workers. Thus, it helps in improving business performance so that issues found by employees could be overcome. Through carrying out effective analysis it would help in performing the desired outcomes so that success can be attained in an effective way.
2.4 Impact of conflict among employees towards attaining organizational goals
As per the view of (Kurland, Peretz and Hertz-Lazarowitz, 2010) conflicts among employees affects their mental stability and thus they are not able to concentrate on their work in regard to obtain desired business goals. However, it is essential for such type of causes, effects and types needs to be managed so that better opportunities could be attained. Management of firm needs to carry out effective conflict management solutions so that employees are able to maintain their satisfaction level and thus attain desired business goals. Within every organization there are various ways of causing conflict and thus it influences the individual so that organizational goals could be attained. Different types of conflict that influences workers such as task conflict, interpersonal conflict and procedural conflict which influences employees towards achieving business goals. However, (Lee, Park and Lee, 2013) argued that conflicts should not impact upon the work empathy and thus do not demoralizes the workers so that their efficiency should not be decreased. Also, it is significant for business to undertake effective practices so that conflict could not created negative environment within workplace and does not impact upon other workforce as it would influence their work.
Further, businesses are focused towards attaining desired goals and thus they aim to meet with challenges so that it must overcome the conflict situation and thus best results could be attained. As per the view of (Goetsch and Davis, 2014) it helps in improving the conflict situation it would impact upon business goals so that negative environment could be overcome. Main impact of conflict upon employees is that it causes mental health concerns and thus business needs to become frustrated so that there is no solution and thus it impacts upon workplace. Further, another impact of conflict assesses that it decreases in productivity of workers and thus decreases the brand image of firm in market. It also influences workers in the form that they leave the organization and thus become frustrated so that conflict situation needs to be avoided and thus attain business goals.
In today's turbulent environment, organisations have to take various measures to survive and grow in the market place. Employees are the most valuable assets of an organisation and success of a business primarily depends on the efforts and performance of employees. But there are certain situations which create conflicts among employees at the workplace that can adversely impact the attainment of organisational objectives. In the opinion of Fehr and Gelfand, 2012, conflict can be determined as disagreement regarding interests and ideas. Organisation conflict is defined as the discord when the interests, values and goals of individual are contradictory or incompatible with other individual or team as they focus in achieving their own goals. On the other hand, Altuntas and Baykal, 2010 stated that conflict is omni present in human relations. It would be always present as long as employees compete with each other to get recognition, security, resources and power. In order to avoid conflicts, organisation are changing their approaches so as to address and solve the concerns of employees.
According to Pache and Santos, 2010, the greatest challenge faced by management is to deal and solve conflicts among employees. The main cause of conflicts is interaction and competition for obtaining scarce resources. Usually, employees are divided into teams in order to achieve common organisational goals, this increases the chances of conflicts among employees. These conflicts may sometimes have an adverse impact on the image of the organisation. Whereas, Kurland, Peretz and Hertz-Lazarowitz, 2010 opined that for the growth and survival of business and enhancement of performance, it is imperative that the conflicts are resolved by the management. But it is not an easy task as various personal and emotional aspects may be involved in it. The conflicts may be either within group i.e. intra – group conflict or among groups i.e. inter-group conflicts.
Lee, Park and Lee, 2013 stated that there are several reasons that give rise to conflicts but individual conflicts generally arises when he is unable to understand the task as the supervisor is unable to clear define what he is expected to do. Moreover, the probability of conflict increases when the management fails to properly define the tasks of individual working as a team. Conflicts arises when individual goals are not specifically stated within a group and also due to role related pressures. On the other hand, according to Rahim, 2010, the other major reasons of conflicts are resource sharing like use of manpower, equipments, money and space which is required by various departments of an organisation.
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