Understanding Styles of Management of Marriott International
For an organization, understanding own management potential is important to develop sound managerial skills. For this, it is necessary to understand a number of aspects with respect to management so that required behavior can be encouraged with a clear understanding of managerial roles and responsibilities as well career development (Adeniyi, 2007).
This report attempts to understand principles and practices of management behavior for a chain of hotels namely Marriott International. Company is an American diversified hospitality firm which is into wide hotels and related lodging facilities portfolio and is headquartered in Maryland, United States. It operates worldwide with over 200,000 employees around the world. Report explains ways in which firm can expand its chain within a new market namely Morocco in North Africa. It will show ways in which prospective manager for new market can review its own potential and managerial skills within a business and service context.
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A manager should have skills to lead and motivate a team for the purpose of achieving an agreed goal or objective. Managers at Marriott International possess leadership qualities which are capable of leading and motivating people in organization. For the new Moroccan market, the leaders can lead and motivate team in the following manner with skills and qualities for achieving agreed objectives:
Democratic Leadership – With the help of democratic leadership, a manager is able to run the business on the basis of decisions in majority. He will share the work with teams by delegating work tasks for the purpose of getting the work done by people. Staff may like such a leadership practice due to the feeling of being involved, provided to them by leaders. They would feel as a significant part of process and this leads to sound motivation in staff members which boosts their performance in both short and long run (Adeniyi, 2010). Leaders can connect this approach with McGregor’s theory X and Y for the purpose of motivating employees to carry out their jobs within the required standards.
McGregor’s Theory X and Y – Leaders at Marriott International’s new location in Morocco can offer employees with a hierarchical structure with narrow span of control while providing them enticing incentive so that they can show some ambition in work. Failing to provide sound and required incentive can lead to lazy staff that avoids responsibility and works with least efficiency. Thus, theory X managers can take care of this factor regarding employee’s motivation in organization (Adeniyi, 2007).
On the other hand, theory Y mangers can offer proper working conditions to employees in order to make them seek out as well as accept responsibility within organization. They are able to exercise self-control and self-direction with an aim to achieve goals and objectives of organization (Timmins, 2008).
Three managerial styles used at Marriott International are discussed as under:
Authoritative Style – Marriott International practices this style which is visionary while having a primary objective of offering long-term vision and direction for employees. The managers are capable of providing clear directions to employees with an aim to encourage harmony among them.. Managers then step back and encourage efforts from team to carry out jobs and achieve goals. Clear direction is given to staff working at all whether front desk, floor management, kitchen, room service, laundry or at any other department (Pinckley, 2007). Employees are often motivated with persuasion and feedback on performance of tasks.
Affiliative Style – The primary objective of this style is common to that of authoritative one in terms of creating harmony among employees. But one way in which it is contrasted against previous one is that this style is people instead of task based. The harmony is thus, created among staff members and between staff and managers. In this way, Marriott International manages to avoid conflict while emphasizing good personal employee relationships. Staff at new location can be kept happy using this approach and it can also be used with other styles effectively while sound platform for managing conflicts in organization (Schabracq, 2009).
Participative Style – Using this style of management, managers at Marriott International ensure that each and every staff member has his/her input in operations of hotels. Also employee decision making is encouraged by managers so that they can learn major aspects of taking decisions in organization successfully. This style is contrasted in a way with affiliative approach in terms of offering rewards which is absent in the previous style. It also stands common with authoritative approach in terms of having presence of developed and experienced employees in hotel so that jobs can be done with least errors (Pinckley, 2007).
There are a number of leadership characteristics that the leader at new market location should possess to boost performance and employees as well as achieve major goals and objectives of organization within Moroccan market. These characteristics are discussed as under:
Proactive – It is required that an exceptional leader should think always ahead with three steps and this is highly needed for a new market due of likelihood of a number of threats and complexities. This will help in anticipating uncertain events which can then be dealt effectively.
Flexibility – Leader should also be flexible so that any changes required can be approved and encouraged within organization. It is because the new market can present various issues in front of management and there can be a number of instances where flexibility is highly required. Thus, the manager should be flexible enough in order to make necessary changes happen within the organization.
Good Communication – As a leader, listening to others appropriately is highly essential because it is necessary to consider everyone’s view before coming at a definite point of decision in case of democratic leadership. Thus, leaders at Marriott International should learn to listen and thereby communicate effectively to deliver message in a way that receivers can understand message in the exact context (Cameron and Quinn, 2011).
Rewarding – Rewarding is often helpful for leaders for the purpose of encouraging efficient performance from employees. Rewards are also necessary in case when organization is looking to expand in new market. Morocco is a place where markets are still on the verge of development. And because of the presence of competitors like Taj Palace hotel and Four Seasons Hotels, it is essential for leaders to offer healthy incentives to employees for beating competition (Guenzi and Ruta, 2013).
Delegator – One of the most significant characteristics for managers in Marriott International should be delegating of authorities. It is because managers have to go with the flow of forces prevailing in new markets and for that, they have to train employees in a way to make them face challenges in the best manner possible (Guenzi and Ruta, 2013).
The communication process within Marriott International is followed on the basis of Berlo’s SMCR model of communication. The model is explained as under:
This model entails humans as a source of communication which should have skills, attitudes, knowledge etc. for the same. According to David Berlo, the ‘human’ element of source is the most significant part of communication flow in an organization. Author’s work clearly lacks in-depth explanation since the ‘source’ element of communication process also involves the medium through which a message can be sent to receiver. Thus, it is imperative to say that the flow must carefully consider all aspects through which initial message is being sent forward for interpretation and decoding (Sarngadharan and Rajitha, 2011).
Further, message within the hotel is normally encoded with the appropriate tool present for the same so that relevant meaning can be added to the message. Staff members are often given sound training of encoding message in a manner to achieve the required response for the same. The most used channels within organization are conferences, meetings, reports, instructions and bulletin (Ghuman, 2010). It is also ensured by management that receivers who receive the message are skilled enough to understand the meaning in the right context as conveyed.
Further, the entire communication flow is continued until the time when required feedback is received by the sender of actual message. In this way, Marriott International ensures that effective and competent communication flow is being practiced within the organization so as to attain organizational goals and objectives having everyone informed about major operations of business. This will also be helpful for entering into a new location because the efficient communication flow can only help in conveying major events to all members of organization that are contributing to the success and operations of business directly and indirectly (Ghuman, 2010).
According to Wang (2011), organizational culture is a set of shared assumptions which are often mental for guiding action and interpretation in company by having to define suitable behavior for a number of situations (Wang, 2011). This concept is advanced by Hannabuss (2003) by stating that, an organization often has distinct cultures and subcultures that represent the collective values, principles and beliefs of all members of company (Hannabuss, 2003). This statement of author can be justified by understanding the culture of Marriott International which is diverse and varied because of its global operations. Company follows hierarchy and market culture because of its immensity and global reach. The former one enables application of democratic and authoritative style of management which is required to motivate and lead employees while satisfying their individual needs in organization. In this way, employees are managed with the presence of a motivational factor which drives them to perform as required standards to achieve personal as well as company goals (Taylor, 2014).
Market culture allows organization to be customer oriented and this is where an outline of organizational structure is created which leads employees to get trained and become competent to provide customer satisfaction. Both hierarchical and market culture in Marriott International represents the corporate objective of organization and because of its global operations, there are a number of instances when company considers effective organizational change. This can be understood with the development of company’s new strategy that it considers to meet current requirements of operation within the location (Richmond, 2011).
Goals and objectives of Marriott International are to offer customer satisfaction in Moroccan markets and develop sound customers volume. This is to be achieved with change made within organizational employment policy. Management has made decisions regarding its proportion of core as well as peripheral staff members working in organization. There may be 3/4th number of peripheral employees out of total working during times when there is peak business season for hotels in Moroccan markets. This must be changed to 1/4th during low business times so that required level of operations can be catered or carried out with the presence of more number of core employees itself (Hutt, Gavieres and Chakraborty, 2007). The managerial decisions made regarding human resource operations in Marriott International can be competent even during crisis and recession when customer satisfaction is the major objective of organization.
Managers have made certain major decisions regarding its human resource management within Moroccan markets. It can be recommended that peripheral staff should only be acquired with a long-lasting agreement or contract. This should be further followed by offering sound training to these staff so that they can add a personal commitment to the contracts made with organization. Another recommendation should be with profitability to be kept in new market. It is because the training of employees will require additional expenditure and thus, company might need more funds to meet this function of human resource department (Bantock, 2012). This will lead to efficient operations in new market location of Marriott International.
My own management skills help me develop an attitude which is highly required to perform well in an organization. Most of the time, I can solve my own as well as others’ problems effectively without having to ask my seniors. I can delegate work to my colleagues and juniors appropriately in the required manner. I can follow up well with my team members so that team objectives can be properly achieved. Thus, all these skills help me develop a sound relationship with my own work and assigned job and this further helps me to keep up with the deadlines provided to me with individual tasks (Cecilie and Linda, 2014).
Moreover, I also possess skills required in a hospitality business in terms of etiquette and code of conduct to be practiced while dealing with clients or customers. This aids me earn a better position in an organization and provides me sound opportunities to learn and grow within industry. Time management is another skill acquired by me as I effectively manage my time for both simple and complex tasks required to be performed in company. I often meet deadlines with the help of others whenever required, so it can be said that interpersonal skills are also within me to some extent which helps me get assistance for time management (Fitzgerald, 2006). All these skills make me develop and carry out sound management performance in order to meet personal as well as organizational goals and objectives.
Objectives and targets can be set and prioritized to develop own potential as a manager of organization. Managing skills are essential for management and they are required to be developed before getting employment and thus, they must be developed in the first place. Next will be communication skills which can be learned by observing and gathering more knowledge from industry and other sources of information. Besides this, interpersonal skills are also very significant and they will help me get through difficult times and get my work done effectively. They have to be developed in line with communication skills (Burke and Bennetts, 2008).
Delegation of authority is a significant task of management and thus, it is required to be developed once the team is assigned to me in organization. Taking initiative is another skill to be acquired and this has to be shown in front of team members to motivate them and lead them to work with standards. Next is time management which should start right from the day of developing managing skills and go on continually (Zheng and Kleiner, 2001). All these skills and a number of more ones that I already posses should lead to development of leadership skills which is highly significant for organization.
Own managerial and personal skills can significantly support development of career. My personal skills will help me maintain strength and thereby develop a bunch of new skills that are required. I posses interpersonal skills to some extent and it has helped me get through a number of restrictions to my own learning and development. Time management skills have helped me prove my superiors that I can finish any work within given deadlines. My problem solving skills facilitate me remain as a significant member of team and also solve a number of team issues that can reduce productivity of team. Being flexible is also a managerial skill and is possessed by me and it assists me to fit any type of work environment and requirement of organization (Cardinal, 2013). I am also motivated and it assists in motivating others and gives me a feeling of being a leader that is inspirational and practices authoritative leadership in organization.
Moreover, I have acquired knowledge of a number of fields and this can help me to solve issues with any given industry leading to sound outcomes as required by organization. Also the qualification acquired by me can help in getting to a higher position in less time and get good promotion opportunities so that I can keep on learning new things and progress with every new skill acquired in company.
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This report has explained ways in which different management styles can be practiced in an organization along with their benefits to overall management. It has also discussed different characteristics of leadership which are required to be developed and practiced to obtain desired goals and objectives. Report has evaluated current communication process in Marriott International and ways in which it enables sound flow of information and knowledge to different levels of organization. Organizational culture as well as change also influences significant operations of company which can suit the prevailing condition in a country or new market or location (Pinckley, 2007). It has also explained ways in which the company leads its teams and takes major decisions within new market.
Further, report has analyzed personal as well as own managerial skills and competencies which are required for personal and career development in an organization. By conducting SWOT analysis, report has stated significant strengths which can be used to improve various weaknesses present. Identified opportunities can be grabbed effectively to lower down and avoid the impacts of various potential threats in industry. Report has also set a number of current and future objectives as well as targets which are required to develop own potential in an organization.
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