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Database Design Concepts

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Sample on How Database Work and Its Design

8398 Downloads I Published: 14 Jun ,2017

Introduction To DBMS

In order to maintain the security as well as integrity of data it is much more essential to maintain the database system of the company. The present report mainly emphasize on the understanding of DBMS and its issues. There are various applications in which it can be used and helps in storing all the data. Mr. Craig, owner of the Computer Choice company and they provide different hardware solutions as well as computer accessories. They need to maintain the overall information of their sell products. He understands the need of customer relationship management and stock management as well. For this purpose they have developed a database that should assist him to run a successful business (Coronel and Morris, 2014). They need to store overall information of their customers so that they can go further with the direct marketing of the company. all the staff members of the company will be paid salary for their every sale, so it is essential to keep record of all their selling information. They have approached number of suppliers and they supply the same product at different price. With the help of database Mr. Craig can keep all this information and data. It is design using Microsoft Access 2007 application and creates a database named Computer Choice System.

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Understanding Database And Database Management System

Database management system is all about storing and retrieving user data and information with highest efficiency and security. Managing database of all the customers in any organization plays a very important in their success. It is very crucial part of any organization. it is easy to understand the concept of database with taking appropriate example of one of the leading software solution company (Singh, 2011). Access business group is one of the leading providers of software solutions in United Kingdom.  They serve integrated business management and spans solution for ERP, finance, HR, payroll, warehousing etc. They also deliver a cloud solution to all their customers. They have designed and developed a payroll management system as well as their ERP system. It is essential to meet all the requirements of the company by these systems. Company need to manage their database with their full efforts and effective database management system. They can further maintain their business integrity as well as confidentiality. Security is one of the major issues within the organizational environment (Ma, 2005). Access software solution need to maintain overall data and information of their consumers. They need to keep this information safely and most of the times secure data can be supervise by both database and security teams.

One of the major tasks of this organization is to manage the overall data of their consumers for a longer period of time. Company can further recruit technical people who can effectively manage this system (Dey and Seidmann, 2004). Further, technical people help in easy access of application security and data control Such as:

Database inconsistencies: It is the major issue which organizations are facing at the time of proper deployment of the database. If there is any database technology problem than system administrator of the company need to develop a consistent practice.

SQL Injections: Keeping secure all the information is the crucial part of any organization. If information is leaked than should be very harmful for the business. SQL injection is directly interacts with the database and send unexpected data to the server (Narang, 2011).

It is the most important part of any business is to keeping all their data secure. It is the key target for all the cybercrimes and any kind of financial information as well as customer’s personal information can be leaked. Several social and ethical issues are also there which is related to the accuracy and reliability of data sources, the freedom of information act and privacy of principles. There are various applications of the database i.e. banking, telecommunication, HR department, railways etc (Adamski and Pratt, 2011). These all are some of most common applications in which database management system plays an important role. In order to keep all the data secure various definitions include i.e.:

  • Integrity: Integrity in database refers to the overall accuracy, completeness and consistency of data. It is usually impose during the phase of database design through the use of rules and standard procedures.
  • Security: In order to secure of protect a database management software from nasty attacks and threats and illegitimate use, the collective measures are use which is known as database security.
  • Recovery: Database recovery is the process of restoration in full or in part of the data stored in damaged or deleted data files.  
  • Concurrency: The ability of database to permit multiple users to affect numerous transactions is known as concurrency.
  • Atomicity: Atomicity is another feature of database system that dictate where a transaction either fully happen or not at all.

Banking application uses database management system in order to keep all the data secure related to customer information, loans, account and other banking transactions. It provides the integrity of data in order to maintain consistency and accuracy of data. It only provides accurate information about data. In any banking industry it is one of the most important part in order to provide full security to customers of all the stored data. They also provide the facility of concurrency through which consumers can access information or data at the same time. It ensures that correct result will be generated. Whether, atomicity provides the full security as database modifications must follow on "all or nothing" rule. Each transactions said to be atomic and with failing of any one database the overall transaction fails. In banking industry it is much more essential to maintain the integrity, security, recovery, concurrency and atomicity of data.

Advantages And Features Of The Database Management System

There are various Advantages And Features Of The Database Management System and organization can easily maintain the business integrity of their business operations. These advantages are as follows:

Controlling redundancy: In any file system there is a different application and each application has its own private files which cannot be shared between multiple applications. It is not possible to eliminate all the redundancy of data but sometimes there is a technical reason for maintaining multiple choices of the same data. for example: in the database of any college there are various applications such as library, account office, hostel etc. and all of them are  maintaining different information into their own private file applications (Pratt and Adamski, 2012).

Library Account office Hostel
Enrolment Number Enrolment Number Enrolment Number
Name Name Name
Class Class Class
DOB DOB Guardian Name
No__of_books issued Address DOB
Address Phone_No Address
Phone_No Installments Phone_No

In the above file system there are some common data which has to be mentioned in each application such as Name, Enrollment Number, Class, DOB etc. It may cause the problem of redundancy which resultant in the wastage of storage space and difficult to maintain as well. But in case of centralized system data can be easily shared by number of applications and the data of whole college can be maintained by computerized system.

Integrity can be enforced: Some of the integrity constraints are enforced on the database in order to maintain the integrity of data. It only means that database is always accurate and incorrect information cannot be entered (Gillenson, 2008). In order to enter the consistent information integrity constraints must be applied to the class attribute of the student entity in any college database.

File consistency: The app of database management system in any organization benefits from using file formats that are standardized and consistent. it will make the easier manipulation and   maintenance of data.

Data accuracy, consistency and relevance: All of these three points are the part of the data integrity and companies can easily foster the integrity of their business records (Rahimi and Haug, 2007).

Database provides functionality of data with different entities and attributes. Entities represents as a unit of data that can be classified in other entities. Entity is a person, place or a thing about which data can be collected. Each entity is made up of different attributes such as: Entity= Customer Than all the information about the customers are its entities such as Customer ID, First Name, Last_Name, Address etc. These are all known as attributes. In these attributes user needs to select the primary and foreign key. Primary key not allow null values and duplicate values. Foreign keys allows these values and it refers to a primary key in another table. In addition to this different features and functionality of database management system can be consider as:

Data structuring: It is the major feature through which organizations can organize all their data into a clear hierarchal structure with records, tables or objects. It is the major feature as all the inserted information is arranged in a kind of catalogue.

  • Data description language and or command language is an advanced feature of the database and it allows administrator to create, delete and alter the database (Singh, 2011).  
  • Data manipulation language is another feature which includes the manipulation and processing of data.  
  • DBMS provides some level of security as well as access control to the data.

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Multi user access: All types of information stored in one and the same data store can be accessed by multiple users. There are several security features that prevent the users from modifying certain data types (Sudarshan, Korth and Sileberschatz, 2011).

Database Design Technique

Computer choice is a computer hardware store owned by Mr. Craig and he will run the business successfully with understanding the need to customer relationship management and stock management. Company can sell different hardware products at the right price then customer will come back to purchase again. It is much more essential for them to maintain the data and details of all their consumers (Data Modeling - Conceptual, Logical, And Physical Data Models, 2014). It is much more important as company will plan for doing direct marketing. Sale information of all their employees should include the staff details through which they can measure the performance of all their employees. In order to run a successful business a database should be maintained by the Mr. Craig. They need to follow the process of overall development methodology such as: SSADM (Structure System Analysis And Design Methods).

Determining the feasibility:  It is the most important stage which Mr. Craig need to taken into consideration. Further they can easily analyze that the proposed system can cost effectively and support all the identified business requirements as well. It is an essential part to check the problem associated with the current system. Computer Choice organization need to develop a new high level database management system. which manages all the information of their customers, staff member, suppliers etc. They need to identify its feasibility that the system is realistic or not? Data flow diagram and describes the overall system with its data stores and data flows (Conceptual Database Design - Entity Relationship(ER) Model, 2014).

Investigating the current environment: It includes that all the system requirements should be identified and the business environment is modeled by using DFD diagrams and logical data modeling. It is the phase of requirement analysis.

Defining requirements: functional and non functional requirements are indentified in detail and overall system data structures are defined.

Determining technical system options: there are several technical options for the development and implementation of the system. One of the most effective and suitable method need to be select (Silberschatz, Korth and Sudarshan, 2011).

Creating a logical design: It will include different user’s dialogue and database enquiry as well.

Creating a physical design: It will set according to the program specification.

In any database entity relationship diagram plays an important role and it is a graphical representation of entities and their relationships to each other. It is also called ER diagram and shows the relationship that how data is shared between entities. Design of any database mainly consist four major steps i.e. analysis, logical design, physical design and implementation. Mr. Craig can also design a new database system for their hardware components. They can further keep record of all their items as well as their sales with their staff members. Keeping record of all the consumers is much more essential part of the company and it further deals with the analysis, planning, requirement gathering and feasibility study (Jiao and Tseng, 2009). It deals with the identification of data requirement and the relationship among data. It is modeled as an entity relationship diagram and it is translated into a set of tables in the logical modeling. Both the modeling is combined since modeling tools automatically convert the E-R diagram into database schema. All the tables are normalized based on the user’s requirements.  Physical design gives overall description about how data will store and accessed in computer system. All the associated program and actual implementation come up with the implementation phase (Rhyno, 2002). The main objective of this modeling is to represent the entities and relationship between them.

Normalization is a process through which redundancy can be minimized and all the fields are organizing into tables of relational database. Managing a database with anomalies is not possible and it is essential to update, delete and insert anomalies. It is a method to remove all anomalies and bring database into a consistent state. It is mainly of three types:

1NF: In First normal form very basic rules are organized in a database and it eliminate duplicative columns from the same table (Gillenson, 2008). For each of the group it is essential to create separate tables and identify each row with unique columns.

2NF: in order to remove duplicative data it addresses the overall concept through which user can meet up with all the requirements of the first normal form. Subset of data applied to the multiple rows of a table and it is necessary to remove this. Now user needs to create relationship between all these new tables with the use of foreign keys.

3NF: It will meet all the requirements of the second normal form and remove columns That are not dependent upon the primary key (Ramakrishnan, 2007).

In order to create, design and document database for computer choice we have used Microsoft access 2007 application. It will help in managing all their system in an appropriate way and they can easily manage their employee information, staff information as well as their supplier’s information. They need to maintain the details of customers so that they will come back to them for repeat purchase and further they are planning for direct marketing so it is essential to manage all the contact details of their customers (Singh, 2011). In addition to this all the staff members will be paid salary as per their every sale they make. The sales information should include all the staff details. Rather than this information they need to maintain the records of all their suppliers as well as their price list. There are different price for different products. Different fields are provided by the company and user needs to create 3 database tables which are: staff table, supplier table and customer table (Rahimi and Haug, 2007).

Conclusion

From the above report it is concluded that database management system plays a crucial role in managing data of the overall organization. Various advantages and feature of the DBMS are the major concern of the study such as data confidentiality, data integrity etc. Computer Choice organization has developed their own database system in order to maintain all the records of their customers as well as suppliers and staff members. Company sells its different hardware accessories and computers and they need to manage all their sales information. The database is designed in the Microsoft Access 2007 application with using Table Design view. It mainly consist 3 tables i.e. employee, supplier and staff table and contain all their data. Further, Mr. Craig owner of the company easily manage all their products and their sales information. They can further go for the direct marketing with the information of all their customers.

References

  • Dey, D. and Seidmann, A., 2004. Benchmarking Decision Model for Database Management Systems. Information Systems Research.
  • Gillenson, L. M., 2008. Fundamentals of Database Management Systems. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Jain, K. V., 2002. Database Management Systems. Dreamtech Press,.
  • Jiao, J. and Tseng, M. M., 2009. A requirement management database system for product definition. Integrated Manufacturing Systems.
  • Li, Moselhi, O. and Alkass, S., 2006. Internet-based database management system for project control. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management.
  • Ma, Z., 2005. Engineering information modeling in databases: needs and constructions. Industrial Management & Data Systems.
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