How useful is the concept of 'crisis' in explaining the current situation of imprisonment?
The prison crisis in UK is very high and thus people are suffering from very serious inhumane problems. Therefore, it is essential for government to formulate varied laws so that they can provide training and treatment to convicted prisoners and they shall be motivated in order to lead a better and useful life. However, the term crisis is very useful in order to explain to explain the imprisonment. Prison is a matter to recurrent crises and thus elements contributing to the reality or sense of crisis. Prisons are often termed as “the punishment”, “the default sanction” and thus there is huge crisis in the existence of the prisons in modern society (Amanda, 2014). In order to understand the prisons that exist in modern society. For instance, when a person commits a criminal act, people think that something is required to be done because they need to be reassured and currently they think about prisons which are the first thing people thing about. If someone has done wrong society uses imprisonment that is called as custody.
The prisons of current levels are in crisis because they are overcrowded as there is increase in the rate of crimes. However, with only 5% of the world's population US is experiencing 25% of the world's prison population. It has been rising over a time period and thus criminal justice system need to be improved like it need to evidence based and not fear based manner. Unemployment, homelessness, drug use and poverty are all associated with mental health and illness. Thus, all this crisis need to be solved and thus it increases the imprisonment. Crisis helps in explaining the current situation of imprisonment and thus it states that country is facing an increase in number of people who are sentenced to imprisonment because of certain disorders produced by decline in social protection, mass unemployment and unstable wage work etc (Berger, 2009). The prison crisis have been rising and thus the report shows that there has been rise in prison suicides, overcrowding, riots and prisoners going for two days without water and electricity. It is very hard for an outside person to know about the states of prisoners as it is very bad. However, crisis can be explained with a simple numerical fact as there are too many prisoners and for them too few staff. There are around 85,900 people in prison in England and Wales. Furthermore, in the past 20 years the prison population has been doubled and now the UK incarceration rate is the highest of the whole world (Bosworth and Kaufman, 2011).
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There is a crisis of prison overcrowding and thus it states that if there is a space of two people in the prison they are filled with three and thus not only one person is feeling overcrowding but all the three people are facing the same issue. This is immoral and thus they also basic human facilities which are the rights of individuals. However, overcrowding can be explained as it carries operational capacity that refers to the number of people can be physically squeezed into the prison estate. The services of the prison have their own measures and thus they decides that how many people should be accommodated into one prison (Carlen, 2013). For instance, it has been identified that the problem is even worse as if there is a prison cell designed for two people but it holds three, then it states that one person is not living in overcrowded conditions but all the three are because they need to adjust themselves in a small space. It is a crisis that prisons are overcrowded and thus the single cells are converted into doubles and thus doubles are transformed into triples. This is all happening because of increase in the crime rates, unemployment and various other things from which people are suffering. It is essential for government to formulate certain laws so that crime rate can be decreased in the country (Cho, 2009).
Further, through starting training programs by various motivational speakers and also the staff of prison need to be provided specific training so that they can helps the prisoners in order to improve their life and when they come out they can live a happy life. All this can be done through teaching prisoners and developing their skills and capabilities so that they can improve their mental status. The prisons are in crisis and thus it is experiencing the crisis of over crowdedness of cells, rise in prisoner suicides and for two days prisoners are not given water and electricity etc. all these are serious issues are faced by individuals. Therefore, there need to be proper measures adopted so that this current scenario can be undertaken and thus solve the issue and better life can be attained. Also, there has been more and more prisoners are crammed into out penal institutions and thus there are fewer and fewer staff to oversee them. Therefore, the government is required to get sufficient skilled staff so that prisons can be safeguarded (Crewe, 2007).
Both the crisis situations such as overcrowding and lack of skilled employees leads to varied problems. These are the main problems that are faced by prisoners and thus the situation arises where somebody is put into a cell with somebody who is suffering from mental health problems on non smokers are put together with heavy smokers. Thus, all these are the situations of crisis and thus imprisonment explains the current state of mind of individual which is not acceptable by others and thus such problem needs to be solved by jailers so that crisis can be overcome (D'Alisa and et. al., 2010). For instance, HM Lincoln prison is the place where it has the capacity to hold 400 people and thus it accommodates around 700 people. Therefore, it is the situation of crisis of overcrowding the cells and thus it leads to the situation where there is chances of less jobs and education places so that prisoners spend 23 hours in their cell.
However, overcrowding also contributes to sexual exploitation and thus it is a situation of crisis which is faced by young prisoners. From the age of 18 the people who are offenders and are supposed to be separated from adult prisoners but because of overcrowding these kids and the people who have just turned into 18 are thrown into an adult world where there is high violence and drugs. In the prisoners the young prisoners were sexually assaulted by the older prisoners. Thus, it rises the chance of prisoners facing situation of suicides such as they start cutting their wrists and hanging themselves. The crisis faced by imprisonment is also the absence of sufficient number of officers in order to manage the daily penal institution (Durlauf and Nagin, 2011). For instance, everything a prisoner does on a daily basis it requires staff. The initial screening, interview, issues like legal aid, illness and special needs are discusses such as the provision of things like clothing, toothbrushes and access to telephones, visit from family members and legal representatives thus all these needs of prisoners need to be fulfilled by prisoners.
All these types of crisis are experienced by the prisons and thus it need to be controlled through employing skilled and good number of staff so that it can help the prisoners and thus if lack of officers means that prisoners are supposed to spend their most of the time in the overcrowded cells. The staff needs to be skilled so that they can manage the daily needs of the prisoners and thus solve their issues. However, the current situation of prisons are in crisis and thus it need to be solved so that prisoners can live a happy life. Overcrowding, lack of staff staff, suicide and two days without water and electricity are the major crisis and thus it needs to be solved by government so that crisis have been experienced in imprisonment (KASTRATI, 2014).
Thus, through looking at the prisons problems over the past four decades it can be seen that there are various issues such as overcrowded and lack of staff etc. that have not been solved yet. For instance, in the past there were less prisoners and thus it is increasing day by day so that issues need to be solved so that prisoners can live a happy life. While, looking at the prison problems over the past four decades it has been identified that there are various current issues which have been faced by prisoners such as overcrowded, lack of staff etc. For instance, there are less development of infrastructure because of no availability of funds with government and thus it leads to carry the problem further (Maguire, Morgan and Reiner, 2012). There are various people who need to look to the problems of prison so that it can be noticed that crisis have not been solved yet and thus it experiences as lot of issues.
However, the problems related to prisons are not new in the society and thus it has been a part of the process since a long time. From the past 4 decades it has been observed that the increasing in the number of cases in the prison cells. From 1960 the rate of prisoners have increased and thus it is slowly increasing and leading towards the overcrowding of prison cells and thus it facilitates the prison justice. Also, it has been noticed that the rate of mis happenings have been increased from the past like criminals occurring suicides in the cells such as cases like cutting their wrist and hanging. Thus, there are some issues which are recurring and thus it remains unsolved from a long period of time. All these issues have now become the part of the prison culture and thus it leads towards unsolved issues. Injustice towards the prisoners is the recurring problem since last 4 decades. The ill treatment and insecurity of prisoners makes the issues unsolvable (Petersilia and Reitz, 2012). However, the prisons authority as per the legal jurisdiction is required to provide the social contract of well treatment ad protective environment in the cells where prisoners are bound to lead to freedom of life.
The actual conditions of prisoners is painful because continuously the prisoners are increasing and there is lack of staff to fulfil their necessity. The regime of the prisoners have been set so that it results in high level of inefficiency and frustration. The time of recreation activities have been reduced in order to manage the high population of prisoners. However, from long time the health and other policies of prisoners have not been met by the management of jails. Therefore, people are forced to live in such conditions and face serious issues and spend more than 23 hours in their cells only. Thus, all this leads to natural conditions of non acceptable and frustration (Toch, 2007).
Also, the safety and security of prisoners is a serious concern. There are various prisoners who break the laws and carry mutual wars that troubles the jail authority for a long period of time. The hygiene and health factors have decreased gradually over decades and thus the number of consistently increasing over the period of time. The health of prisoners are considered least and thus it is factor that needs to be taken proper care so that culture of jails can be improved. The young prisoners are forced to live into darkness and capture in the cells for months and also not given proper care. However, the experience of prisoners are terrible and thus it develops violence in the system. The daily activities such as exercise, library visits etc. which are considered as a basic part of human lives need to be included so that prisoners should not get affected (Van de Rakt, Murray and Nieuwbeerta, 2012). The visits of family and friends are cancelled because of security purpose also creates high range of issues.
The issues regarding the food and medical facilities are also adverse in these cells and thus prisoners are provided tasteless and unhygienic food for months that leads to health issues. The main impact and problem that has been faced by the prisoners and face various issues in order to lead a better life. The internal system of prison management is very that creates a bad impact on the behavioural change of the offenders. However, it does not help in solving the issues of prisoners and they are carrying the activities such as social unrest, drug smuggling and pick pocketing etc. There are various recurring that are related to prisons which have been observed from a long period but not has resolved yet. Therefore, increasing injustice towards the prisoners and inadequate means of leading life that has resulted n the same. No effective policies have been made that helps in resolving the current issues so that living conditions of prisoners can be improved (Wakefield and Wildeman, 2011).
The criminologists identified varied crisis of imprisonment of people and thus they are unknown for the society. There are varied reforms and policies which have been introduced in order to solve the issues. Criminologists are the people who are specialized in dealing with the prisoners so that they can understand their criminal tendencies. Also, they analyse the extent to which crimes can be controlled and thus prisoners can be rehabilitated so that they can live a better life. Since, 1960 criminologists have been contributed in order to understand the behaviour of criminal and provide them proper training so that they can learn something new and attain success. However, the main reason that contributes towards the crisis on imprisonment are believed that due to the existence of racism and discrimination in the society (Wildeman, 2009).
All these impacts leads to create a negative impact on the mind of criminal and social offender. Thus, it has a continuous influence of the people and face the worse situation and social insults in the society. It also creates a pressure on the jailers to reduce the wrong and unsocial acts in the society. The concept of victimization is another aspect of increasing crimes in the prisons and thus it leads to have collective forces of negative psychology that leads to increasing acts of crimes and violence in the social system. The criminologists need to ensure that social and cultural exposure of an individual need to have an effective impact on the act of crimes. However, the adverse conditions of living has lead to the similar situations. However, the older criminals have created a violent culture that results in victimizing the innocent and younger people (The Rationale for Imprisonment. 2015).
The prison disturbances reported in many outcomes of the crisis that leads to prison sentences. Criminologists concluded that poor physical and hygienic conditions along with the increasing pressure of internal disturbances leads to the same. Also, the high rate of legal injustice in the system that results to the lack of staff to take care of prisoners. Increase in the issues among the staff and prisoners leads to bad results and thus it also creates a high level of social unrest in the society. The poor infrastructure and also ineffective living conditions results in the poor living conditions of prisoners. The current statistics and experiences of the people has shown that the past decades experiences have not been improved so that it creates the same level where three prisoners are accommodating into the cell of two (Cho, 2009).
Therefore, it clearly states that poor cell management and increase in injustice of people leads towards dissatisfaction among prisoners. Additionally, the prisoners are also kept away from basic rights such as exercise, hygienic food, library visits and social meeting with family and friends. All these factors leads to high level of frustration and dissatisfaction among offenders. The high level of stress and violence is the main reason of crisis. This, has been continuously increasing from 1960 and thus it is required to take effective actions so that person living in prisoners can lead a healthy life (Carlen, 2013). There are various measures that need to be suggested so that improper conditions can be overcome. Through giving effective accommodations to the prisoners it helps in solving the crisis of overcrowded.
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Government has promised to provide efficient accommodations and thus it increasing crimes and leading to high rate of criminals in the society. Thus, it is essential for government to take effective steps so that possible actions need to be taken so that situation can be changed. Also, the local body are keeping high attention to criminals and thus reducing the attention on the residents of the society. Also, it is essential for management to separate the innocent and young prisoners from the old prisoners so that problem of exploitation can be solved. The criminologists is required to rehabilitate the prisoners and thus also provide them availability of accommodation. Thus, it can be stated that there has been no improvements from the past and thus rate of prisoners are increasing day by day from 1960 because of mass unemployment, violence and riots etc. Therefore, it is essential for imprisonment to provide basic facilities to prisoners so that they can live healthy life. Thus, criminologists helps in providing better rehabilitation to criminals so that they can live better life in future (Amanda, 2014). The management of jails should organize motivational speakers and training session so that they can change the life of prisoners.
From the above report it can be reflected that there is an increase in the impact of crisis of imprisonment in the society. Also, the growth of prisoners are rising from 1960 and thus increases the cost of infrastructure and accommodation for prisoners. Thus, management of jails need to segregate the young and old prisoners so that it creates low crisis. The prevailing system has deteriorated the justice so that unhealthy and violent environment for prisoners can be managed. Also, increasing the crime rates in the imprisonment and exploitation of prisoners leaders to high mental pressure that results in increase crime rate in the country.
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- Carlen, P., 2013. Women and Punishment. Willan.
- Cho, R. M., 2009. Impact of maternal imprisonment on children's probability of grade retention. Journal of Urban Economics.
- Durlauf, S. N. and Nagin, D. S., 2011. Imprisonment and crime. Criminology & Public Policy.
- Wakefield, S. and Wildeman, C., 2011. Mass imprisonment and racial disparities in childhood behavioral problems. Criminology and Public Policy.