Psychology is termed as an effective approach that ensure proper study of behaviour and mind that results in gaining conscious and unconscious experience among the individual. Therefore, to understand the behaviour psychologist is been hired for understanding the mental activities as well as social behaviour of individual. The present report focuses on understanding the different approaches to the psychology and determining the certain factors that would interest to the psychologist. Along with this, it would also gain the insight knowledge regarding their strength and weaknesses of the respective approaches. Lastly it would also engage in determining the research methods in psychology that mainly include understanding different experimental and non-experimental methods with assessing both the methods strength and weaknesses.
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1. Behaviorist approach to psychology and factors on the source material that would be of interest to a behaviorist and strengths and weaknesses of this approach
The foremost or key approach to the psychology include behaviourist approach it is consider as a systematic approach that mainly focuses on understanding the behaviour of human as well as animal. This approach to the psychology mainly reflect that with the certain stimuli within the external environment results in producing positive response of the behaviour among animal or human (McNamara, 2013). On the other hand, behaviourist approach also include engaging in the reinforcement activities so that individual may easily motivated in responding to the stimulus. Along with this, through considering the case scenario of Lewis he was impulsive and occasionally aggressive sometimes that may lead to engage in different behaviours. Therefore, the changing and impulsive behaviour among the Lewis is consider as the major factor that would be interested to the psychologist. Along with this, through considering the case scenario there were also some emotional terms that were associated with the Lewis that mainly include engaging in laughing when other were been upset at their work (Zuckerman, 2014). Along with this, considering this approach to the psychology there are other factor that would be interested to the behaviourist include stimulus-response among the individual.
With implementing the behaviourist approach to psychology into the case scenario, there are different advantages and disadvantages related with this approach it mainly include that the foremost strength of the approach is that it is scientific in nature, the theory is highly applicable as it focuses on understanding the behaviour of the individual with engaging proper therapy of conditioning and reinforcement. Another advantage of this approach is that is mainly emphasizes on the measurement of objectives. Along with this, behaviourist theory also engage in different experiment that often support the theories that support in understanding the behaviour of individual or humans (Svare, 2013). In addition to this, another strength of behaviourist approach to the psychology include that it assists on determining the comparisons among the behaviour of humans and animals through undertaking the experiment of Pavlov and Watson & Rayner. On the contrary to this, behaviourist approach to the psychology also have certain disadvantage or limitation that mainly ensure it ignores the process of medication. Along with this, another disadvantage of this psychology approach is that it ignores the biological aspects. In addition to this, behaviorist approach to psychology engage in assessing the behaviour of both humans and animals and the behaviour of can't be compare properly. Therefore, this approach to the psychology support in understanding the observable behaviour of humans.
2. Physiological approach to psychology and factors on the source material that would be of interest to a Physiological psychologist and strengths and weaknesses of this approach
Another approach within the psychology include physiological approach that is also termed as biological approach that mainly states that all the behaviour and response among the individual is to the physical cause. This approach to the psychology engage in assessing the function of nature over upbringing (Sprague and Epstein, 2013). For instance, change in the hormones within the human results in changing their behaviour too. Through considering the case scenario, Lewis 17 years lives with his mother, stepfather as well as young sisters. The stepfather of lewis is very kind in nature and even very caring. Step father of lewis has attempt to build an effective relationship with his son after since he married to his mother five year ago. Along with this, the biological father of lewis was in prison for last five months that directly impact the behaviour of lewis.
Through considering the case scenario caring nature of stepfather results in enabling positive behaviour among him as well as as he may also have positive feeling and thoughts. The key feature of this approach to psychology include that it mainly focuses on genetic with the change in genetics among the individual it might results in changing their behaviour. Along with this, it has been also assume that in order to adopt the behaviour of external environment the genes of human constantly gets evolved (Rieber, 2013). Therefore, the behaviour among the individual or humans will focuses on adaptive purpose. Another factor that need to be interested by the physiologist include they seeks to explain the mental processes of the individual so that they may easily enhance and experience their behaviour. In order successful understand the approach author Sigmund Freud has framed psycho dynamic approach that mainly focuses on understanding sociocultural factor that mainly impact the behaviour and mental processes of the human.
Along with this engaging in this approach of psychology there are certain strength and weaknesses of this approach. The foremost strength of this approach include that it knowledge base in nature that mainly focuses on terminology of biology. Along with this, another strength of this approach include it support the psychologist in developing and creating the comparative psychology. In addition to this, using this approach of the psychology also results in putting forward strong counter statement to the breeding side of the topic. On the contrary to this, with certain strength there are some limitation of the approach that it it focuses on the experiments that engage in the low ecological validity that results in assessing their wrong behaviour. Along with this another limitation of the approach is it engage in attaining the complexity that directly impact the level of interaction among the individual. In addition to this, another disadvantage of the approach include that it do not engage in acknowledging the cognitive process.
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3. Social approach to psychology and factors on the source material that would be of interest to a psychologist and strengths and weaknesses of this approach
Another psychological approach that is been selected include social approach that mainly engage in assessing the social aspects that impact the activities and behaviour of the humans. Along with this, social approach within the psychology also engage in using the different methods that explain the feelings, thoughts of the human that is affected by the actions and activities of the other individual (Smith, Mackie and Claypool, 2014). Through considering the case scenario, Lewis after leaving the school was unemployed that act as the social factor that influences the behaviour of them towards others and their family members. Along with this, case scenario also states that lewis also engage in the challenging behaviour that is consumption of alcohol and smoking that directly impact their health and well-being. In addition to this, wrong gathering he also engage in in taking the wrong and junk food that impact their health. While, he in takes the healthy fruits and vegetable rarely when he cooks the meal at home.
Although social psychologist under this approach mainly engage in the looking and reviewing the group behaviour of individual so that it may not impact the behaviour of lewis. As it has been describe that Lewis is impulsive and aggressive that will ultimately impact the activities and actions of others (McDougall, 2015). Along with this, it is required by psychologist to engage in understanding the perception and interaction of the human so the social psychologist may easily understand the social behaviour. The basic factor that need to be consider by the psychologist include emotional processes of the human as well as cultural factors and lifestyle of individual that impact the behaviour and activities of the other individual. In order to successfully engage in the social approach of the psychology it has been identified that there are certain strength and limitation to the approach it mainly include key emphasizes on the measurement of objectives and goals so that it may easily engage in changing their lifestyle and easting habit so that it may not impact health and well-being of the individual. Along with this with certain benefits there are some limitation that mainly include it totally dismiss the aspect of biological within the process (Bargh, 2013). Along with this, another limitation is that it do not figure out the differences among the individual. Whereas, another disadvantage of this approach to psychology include it only provide a snap of individual social processes it do not focuses on the behaviour.
4. Research question relates with the issues raised with the source
From the above source that the case study of Lewis the research question is been framed that is-
“What are the ways to overcome issues related to impulsive and occasionally aggressive behaviour (faced by Lewis)?”
In order to successfully answer the research question related with facing the behaviour issues there are different methods such as experimental and non-experimental method.
- Experimental Method- The key experimental method that will be used by the researcher for answering the framed research question include laboratory or controlled experiment method. It mainly focuses on conducting the experiment so that researcher may easily understand their behaviour related with the situation (Joffe, 2013). For instance, in the situation behaviour of Lewis is impulsive and occasionally aggressive therefore researcher would experiment their behaviour through using the past experiment conducted by the behaviourist psychologist. The strength of using experimental method include that it engage in the precise control over the self-directed variables. On the contrary to this, limitation of this method include sometime understanding the characteristics and behaviour of individual may results in attaining biasness.
- Non-experimental Method- Another method that will be used to answer the framed research question include involving in research with the help of observation, survey as well as using case history. Using this method assist the researcher will attaining proper solution to the problem and research question related with understanding the issues faced by Lewis. The strength of using non-experimental method include that it support the researcher in investigating the information regarding the past studies that assists in gaining the information regarding different behaviour that individual may have in the different situation (Argyle, 2013). On the other hand, with the certain advantage the limitation of this method is that with this method sometime engage in gathering wrong information and unethical data that might impact the activities of researcher in answering the questions.
Therefore, from both the method selected is experimental method under which researcher would not engage in manipulating the activities and behaviour of Lewis so that it might easily overcome their issues that is related with impulsiveness and aggression. Along with this through designing the research it might results in arising in certain ethical issues that might results in attaining risk of harm to the participation. In addition to this, another ethical issue that arises related with privacy of the research participants.
Through summing up the report it has been assessed that it is essential to understand the psychology of individual as all the individual have different perspective and belief that need to be deal by the individual. On the other hand, it also gained insight knowledge regarding different approaches to the psychology that is behavioural, Physiological as well as social psychology among the individual with measuring strength and weaknesses of all the approaches to the psychology. Lastly it also engage in determining the research methods in psychology that mainly include understanding different experimental and non-experimental methods with assessing both the methods strength and weaknesses. This support the researcher in selecting effective method for answering the research question based on the study.
- Argyle, M., 2013.Advances in the Psychology of Religion(Vol. 11). Elsevier.
- Bargh, J. A., 2013.Social psychology and the unconscious: The automaticity of higher mental processes. Psychology Press.
- Joffe, J. M., 2013.Prenatal Determinants of Behaviour: International Series of Monographs in Experimental Psychology(Vol. 7). Elsevier. McDougall, W., 2015.An introduction to social psychology. Psychology Press.
- McNamara, J. R., 2013.Behavioral approaches to medicine: Application and analysis. Springer.
- Rieber, R., 2013.Wilhelm Wundt and the making of a scientific psychology. Springer Science & Business Media.
- Smith, E. R., Mackie, D. M. and Claypool, H. M., 2014.Social psychology. Psychology Press.
- Sprague, J. M. and Epstein, A. N., 2013.Progress in psychobiology and physiological psychology. Academic Press.
- Svare, B. B., 2013.Hormones and aggressive behavior. Springer Science & Business Media.
- Zuckerman, M., 2014.Sensation Seeking (Psychology Revivals): Beyond the Optimal Level of Arousal. Psychology Press.